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BAVARIA.

inains only of the 30,000 Bavarians re- west side of the Rhine, embraces the turned in the spring of 1813. Maximil- greater part of that portion of the circle ian Joseph, notwithstanding this sacrifice, of Upper Rhine included in the late placed fresh troops under the command French department of Mont Tonnerre. of Napoleon as the protector of the con- Exclusive of the part west of the Rhine, federation of the Rhine, when the new it is bounded N. by Hesse-Darmstadt, campaign was opened, near the close of Hesse-Cassel, and the Saxon principalities April. This army also suffered great of Meiningen, Hildburghausen, Coburg losses, but distinguished itself with its and Reuss, and the kingdom of Saxony; wonted bravery, under the command of E. and S. by Austria, and W. by Würmarshal Oudinot. It suffered particularly temberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt. in the battles of Luckau and Grossbeeren The kingdom of Bavaria is divided into the (1813). At this time, the whole political 8 following circles :-Iser, Upper Maine, system of Bavaria was suddenly changed. Lower Maine, Rezat, Regen, Upper DanWhilst the French army of observation ube, Lower Danube, Rhine. The last is was formed at Würzburg, under Au- on the west side of the river Rhine.gereau, a Bavarian corps of observation This kingdom contains 32,000 square was placed on the Inn, over against a miles and 3,800,000 inhabitants. Its ardivision of the Austrian army. For a my is 53,900 strong, of whom 35,800 long time, both corps remained inactive. form the seventh corps d'armée of the, The departure of the corps of Augereau, German confederacy. Its public debt by which Bavaria was exposed in its most amounted, in Sept., 1824, to 103,157,859 vulnerable point, accelerated the resolu- florins; the income was, at the same time, tion of its king. The Bavarian general 29,132,260 florins. The present kings Wrede concluded an armistice with the Louis, endeavors, with much zeal, to inAustrian general Frimont, October 8, at troduce economy into the expenses of Ried, which was followed by a proclama- the government: he has diminished the tion, October 15, by which the king of standing army, and discharged many offiBavaria abandoned the confederation of cers from the civil government. The the Rhine, and turned his forces against various inhabitants of this country differ France. In this convention, his present very much in their character, the Bavaterritories, with full sovereignty, were rian, from the highlands near Tyrol, and assured to the king, and a sufficient the Franconian, in the north part of the indemnification for those lands which kingdom, being as unlike as any two Gershould be made over to Austria. At the mans probably can be ; and the different same time, Wrede, as commander-in- parts of this young kingdom have been so chief, united the Austrian corps with his recently united, that it is not possible to own, and turned the Bavarian arms speak of any character as common to its against the French, in the battle of Ha- inhabitants. The native of Upper Bavanau. In 1815, at the breaking out of the ria is hardy, laborious, short in stature. new war, the present king, then crown- Many portions of the population are disprince, took the command of the national tinguished by mechanical talent. The army. Meanwhile, the congress of Vic excellence of Frauenhofer's telescopes enna, and, more particularly, the prepara- and Bader's rail-road is generally known. tion of the statutes of the German diet Munich and Nuremberg have, in recent (as well as the different interests originat- times, produced more philosophical instruing from the new European, and espe- ments than any other two cities of Gercially the new German system of states), many. (See Munich.) The manufactures had given sufficient opportunity to the of Bavaria include linen, woollen and cotBavarian government for the develope- ton cloths, iron, fire-arms, and other artiment of its system of diplomacy. Bava- cles, designed chiefly for the supply of ria has jealously maintained its station as domestic wants. Glass, paper, clocks and an independent sovereign state. Since hard ware are also made in several of the 1825, Bavaria has been under the govern- principal towns. The common language ment of Louis I, the most liberal of the of Bavaria, of course, is German; but the German princes. He has hitherto acted dialects vary much, from the strong Franwith much energy.-Bavaria was erected conian spoken in Würzburg to the broad into a kingdom in 1805, and is now one Swiss dialect in Lindau. At the head of of the most considerable of the secondary each of the circles, into which the kingdom states of Europe. It is composed of the is divided, stands a general commissioner greater part of the circles of Bavaria and (General Kreiscommissair), with great powFranconia, part of Suabia, and, on the er, chiefly of an executive character. All

BAVARIA.

the lower courts, municipal magistrates, crown-prince, was a liberal patron of the village officers, &c., are under his control. fine arts, and still affords them much The judiciary consists of a high court of encouragement. As Bavaria is entirely appeal (Ober Appellations Gericht) at Mu- an inland country, and has no great river nich; also a court of appeal for each crossing it, its commercial resources could circle, and the inferior courts. The Codex be fully developed only in case of a perjuris Bavarici has been in force since fectly free intercourse between all the Jan. 1, 1811. The penal code is now German states; to obtain which, efforts under revision. A complete code is also have several times been made, but, unin preparation. (See Feuerbach.) The happily, in vain. A great canal, near executive consists of a privy council, Nuremberg, lias been sometimes spoken called Geheime Rath, composed of 4 min- of, to unite, by means of small rivers, the isters of state, the 4 crown-officers, and Rhine and Danube, a work begun by from 12 to 16 other members, who delib- Charlemagne: the traces of his work, stiil erate in 3 sections on the affairs of the remaining, are called fossa Carolina : kingdom. The affairs of the Catholics but the expense would be great for so in the kingdom are regulated by the con- small a kingdom, and it is very doubtful cordat concluded with Pius VII, Jan. 5, whether the commerce carried on in this 1817, which, in 1821, was promulgated way would be considerable, depending, as the law of the land. Those of the as it would, upon so many governments, Protestants are under the direction of a from the Turkish to that of the Nethergeneral consistory. The two sects live lands. According to Rudhart, Bavaria without contention. The circumstance contains 1384 noble families. Agriculture that the queen of the late king was a is the chief branch of industry. Bavarian Protestant (as is also the present queen, beer is excellent. if we are not greatly mistaken) had a Bavaria, constitution of. Like most of most beneficial influence. In the smaller the states of the middle ages, Bavaria had council of the German diet, Bavaria has its constitution. No other state of Gerthe third place, and in the plenum has many has so complete a collection of four votes. (See German Confederacy.) works relating to its ancient form of govEducation made much progress under ernment. The estates consisted, as usual, the government of the late Maximilian of the three classes-the prelates, among Joseph, and it is to be expected that the whom the university had the first rank ; present king, who has manifested liberal the nobility, and the burgesses. Their views, on many occasions, more openly privileges were great, but early lost by than any prince of the continent now dissension among themselves. The last living, will continue to give it the aid of diet was holden in 1669. A committee the government. Many seminaries for of the estates arrogated the privileges bethe training of instructers have been longing to the whole body; the secularierected, and the academy of sciences at zation of the ecclesiastical establishments, Munich, with the three universities at in 1803, made the old constitution still Munich, Würzburg and Erlangen, pro- more inefficient, and, in 1808, the sysduce the best results. (See Munich, tem of the estates was abolished; but Würzburg and Erlangen.) The first of an order was issued, May 1 of the same these universities contains nearly 2000 year, instituting a new constitution. The students, whilst the medical department king of Bavaria was the first among the of Würzburg is considered one of the sovereigns of Germany to fulfil the promfirst in Europe. Agriculture and indus- ise contained in the thirteenth article of try in general have received, since the the ordinances of the German confederareign of Maximilian, much attention. tion, which assures the people that they Several institutions for promoting them shall receive constitutional forms of govhave been established, including agricul- ernment. The king promulgated the tural seminaries, in which those young new representative constitution May 26, men who prepare themselves for village 1818. The system of the two chambers school-masters learn gardening, &c. A has been adopted. The chamber of festival was instituted by Maximilian, peers, or, as they are called in Bavaria, generally called the October festival, at Reichs Räthe (counsellors of the realm), which prizes are assigned, by order of consists of the princes, the crown-officers, the king, for the best specimens of agri- 2 archbishops, the 16 seniors of the fami. cultural produce, the best cattle, &c, lies which were formerly members of the There are also races connected with this German empire, 1 bishop, appointed by celebration. The present king, when the king, the president of the Protestant

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consistory, besides 15 hereditary peers, offences are, most generally, the subjects and 12 who hold their stations for life, of positive statutes. In some parts of chosen by the king. The lower cham- Europe, such houses are licensed, and ber consists of 14 representatives of under the care of the medical police. the lower nobility, 1 representative of BAXTER, Andrew; an ingenious philoseach of the three universities of the king- opher and metaphysician. He was a nadom, 9 representatives of the Catholic, and tive of Aberdeen, and was educated at 5 of the Protestant clergy, 2 of Munich, King's college in that city; after which 1 of Augsburg, 1 of Nuremberg, 24 of all he was employed as a private tutor. the other cities and market-places, and About 1730, he published an Enquiry into 56 of the land-owners (not noblemen). the Nature of the Human Soul ; wherein The elections in the cities are badly con- the Immateriality of the Soul is evinced ducted, as they are in the hands of the from the Principles of Reason and Phicity councils, the mayors, &c. Another losophy. This work was applauded by great fault is, that the amount of property Warburton, and obtained for the author a l'equired in a representative is so great, high reputation ; though his arguments, that whole districts are excluded from which are founded on the vis inertive of representation. The rights which the matter, have since been controverted by representatives have are not altogether Hume and Colin Maclaurin. In 1741, he insignificant; yet there are many other went abroad with one of his pupils, and things wanted, as, a perfectly free press, remained for some years at Utrecht, where and many real guarantees of freedom, be- he contracted an acquaintance with some fore we can speak of it as actually existing of the Dutch literati. He returned to in Bavaria. The ministers are responsi- Scotland in 1747, and resided at Whitble, and yet their power is unconstitution- tingham, in East Lothian, where he died ally great. It would not be very difficult in 1750, aged 63. He was the author of for the Bavarian government to do any a Latin treatise, entitled Matho sive Costhing they pleased, without encountering motheoria puerilis Dialogus, which he afmany constitutional obstacles. The first terwards translated into English, and pubmeeting of the representatives was held lished in 2 vols. 12mo. Feb. 4, 1819. There is 1 representative BAXTER, Richard, the most eminent for about 35,000 souls. The constitu- of the English nonconforming divines tion is a granted one, viz., given by the of the 17th century, was born in the vilking, not a compact between two parties, lage of Rowton in 1615. The example the people and the ruler. It promises of his father, who was accused of Puri. liberty and equal rights to all religions, tanism, gave him a serious turn very early and also freedom of the press, which, in life. After receiving his education, he however, no American or Englishman was sent to London, under the patronage would call truly free. Bond-service is of sir Henry Herbert, master of the revels; abolished. The king appoints the presi- but he soon returned into the country dent of the representatives.

with a view to study divinity, and, in 1638, Bavius, Marcus, and MÆVIUS; still no- received ordination in the church of Engtorious as two miserable poets and pre- land. The imposition of the oath of unisumptuous critics, satirized by Virgil.. versal approbation of the doctrine and

BAWDY-HOUSE; a house of ill fame, to discipline of the church of England, usuwhich persons of both sexes resort for ally termed the et cætera oath, detached sexual intercourse. Such houses, under him and many others from the establishthe name of brothels or stews, are licensed ment. When the civil war broke out, he by the laws of some countries. They sided with the parliament, and, after the were formerly licensed in England, from battle of Naseby, accepted the appointment the reign of Henry II to the last year of of chaplain to colonel Whalley's regiment. Henry VIII, when they were suppressed He is said to have been, the whole of this by sound of trumpet, with as great cere- time, a friend to the establishment, accordmony as the religious houses. The laws ing to his own notions, and to have reof most civilized countries prohibit the pressed sectaries as much as he was able, keeping of bawdy-houses, as tending not In 1647, he retired, in consequence of illonly to the corruption of morals and health, from his military chaplainship, and, manners, but also to a breach of the peace, when he recovered, opposed the measures oy bringing together disorderly and vi- of those in power, and preached urgently cious people. The keeping of such a against the covenant. He even endeavnouse is indictable at the common law, ored to persuade the soldiery not to enand so is the frequenting of it; but these counter the Scottish troops who came

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into the kingdom with Charles II, and little plays. They are under the care of hesitated not to express an open dislike matrons, who are experienced in all female to the usurpation of Cromwell, whom he arts, and particularıy in that of pleasing. told, in a conference very characteristic These select from the lowest classes of of both parties, that the people of England the people the most beautiful girls, of deemed the ancient monarchy a blessing. seven or eight years of age, secure tlien, The fact is, that B., with many more by inoculation, from the disfiguring consezealous religious partisans, held civil lib- quences of the small-pox, and instruct erty to be of secondary consequence to them in all the arts of their profession, what he esteemed true religion, and ap- the object of which is to amuse the rich, pears, from the tenor of a sermon which and minister to their passions. Their he preached before Cromwell, to have presence is considered necessary, even at deemed the toleration of separatists and the smallest entertainments. If any of the sectaries the grand evil of his government. spectators desires to become better acAfter the restoration, he was made one quainted with the talents of a bayadeer, of the king's chaplains, and a commis- only a hint is needed. For a girl of the sioner of the Savoy conference, to draw greatest attractions, the matron to whom up the reformed liturgy. The active she belongs receives a hundred rupees for persecution of the Nonconformists soon an evening, and as much for a night, followed; and, upon the passing of the besides a present for the girl. After their act against conventicles, he retired, and 17th year, when their first charms have preached more or less openly, as the act faded, they retire to a pagoda (the temple was more or less rigidly enforced. After of their idols), under the protection of the the accession of James II, in 1685, he Bramins, but not, like public girls in Euwas arrested for some passages in his rope, to become devotees. They continue Commentary on the New Testament, sup- to exercise their profession in the temple, posed hostile to Episcopacy, and was and what they gain belongs to the Bratried for sedition. The violence of Jef- mins, who give them food and shelter. feries, who would neither hear the ac- Their profession is not thought infamous cused nor his counsel, produced a verdict in India. of guilty on the most frivolous grounds. BAYAMO, or ST. SALVADOR; a town of He was sentenced to two years imprison- Cuba, on a river which forms a port on ment and a heavy penalty, which, after the S. E. coast; 520 miles E. S. E. Haa short confinement, the king remitted, vannah; lon. 76° 55' W.; lat. 20° 46 N., probably with some degree of compunc- population estimated at 12,000. The tion for the manner of its infliction. town is about 20 miles distant from the Henceforward, B. lived in a retired port. It gives name to a channel situated manner till his death, in 1691. His wife between the main land of Cuba and the cheerfully shared all his sufferings on the islands called the Queen's Gardens. score of conscience, both in and out of BAYARD, Pierre du Terrail, chevalier prison. The character of B. was formed de, called the knight without fear and withby his age; his failing was subtle and out reproach, born in 1476, in the castle of controversial theology; his excellence, Bayard, near Grenoble, was one of the practical piety. In divinity, he sought to most spotless characters of the middle estabish a resting-place between strict ages. He was simple and modest; a true Calvinism and high-church Arminianism, friend and tender lover; pious, humane by the admission of election, and the re- and magnanimous. The family of Terjection of reprobation. Christ died for rail, to which he belonged, was one of the some especially, and for all generally; most ancient in Dauphiné, and was celethat is to say, all possess the means of brated for nobility and valor. Young B., salvation. A body called Baxterians long educated under the eyes of his uncle acknowledged these distinctions, and the George of Terrail, bishop of Grenoble, nonconformist clergy, after the revolu- early imbibed, in the school of this wortion, were divided between this body, the thy prelate, the virtues which distinguishpure Calvinists, and the high-church pas- ed him afterwards. At the age of 13, he sive-obedient Arminians. B. was a vo- was received among the pages of the luminous writer: his Saints' Everlasting duke of Savoy, the ally of France. Rest, and the Call to the Unconverted, Charles VIII, who saw him at Lyons, in have been extraordinarily popular. the suite of this prince, was struck with

BAYADEER, in the East Indies; young the dexterity with which the youth mangirls, from 10 to 17 years of age, who are aged his horse: he begged him of the instructed in dancing, singing, and acting duke, and committed him to the care of

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Paul of Luxemburg, count de Ligny. Picardy in 1513, and besieged Terouane The tournaments were his first field of The French army disgracefully took to glory. At the age of 18, he accompanied flight. B., with his accustomed intrepidCharles VIII to Italy, and distinguished ity, made an ineffectual resistance to the

where he took a standard. At the begin- bers, his troop was on the point of laying ning of the reign of Louis XII, in a battle down their arms, when B., perceiving an near Milan, he pursued the fugitives with English officer at some distance from such eagerness, that he entered the city him, immediately galloped towards him, with them, and was taken prisoner. Lu- presented his sword to his breast, and dovico Sforza returned him his arms and cried, "Yield, or die!" The Englishman his horse, and dismissed him without ran- surrendered his sword: B. immediately som. Whilst the French were in Apu- gave him his own, saying, “ I am Bayard, lia, B. defeated a Spanish corps, and and your captive, as you are mine." The made their leader, don Alonzo de Soto- boldness and ingenuity of this action mayor, prisoner. He treated him with pleased the emperor and the king of Enggenerosity. Sotomayor, however, not only land, who decided that B. needed no ranviolated his parole by flight, but calum- som, and that both captives were released niated B., who, according to the custom from their parole. When Francis I asof that time, challenged him, and killed cended the throne, he sent B. into Dauhim. Afterwards, like Horatius Cocles, phiné, to open for his army a passage over he defended a bridge over the Garigliano the Alps, and through Piedmont. Pros. singly against the Spaniards, and saved per Colonna lay in wait for him on his the French army by checking the advance march, expecting to surprise him, but B. of the victorious enemy. For this exploit, made him prisoner. This brilliant exploit he received as a coat of arms a porcupine, was the prelude to the battle of Marignawith the motto Vires agminis unus habet. no, in which B., at the side of the king, He distinguished himself equally against performed wonders of bravery, and decithe Genoese and the Venetians. When ded the victory. After this glorious day, Julius II declared himself against France, Francis was knighted with the sword of B. B. went to the assistance of the duke of When Charles V invaded Champagne, Ferrara. He did not succeed in his plan with a large army, and threatened to peneof taking the pope prisoner; but he re- trate into the heart oi France, B. defended

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betray him. Being severely wounded at against every assault, until the dissensions the assault of Brescia, he was carried into of the hostile leaders compelled them to the house of a nobleman, who had fled, retreat. B. was saluted in Paris as the savand left his wife and two daughters ex- ior of his country: the king bestowed on posed to the insolence of the soldiers. B. him the order of St. Michael, and a compaprotected the family, refused the reward ny of 100 men, which he was to command of 2500 ducats, which they offered to him, in his own name—an honor which, till and returned, as soon as he was cured, then, had only been conferred on princes into the camp of Gaston de Foix, before of the blood. Soon afterwards, Genoa Ravenna. In an engagement, which revolted from France: B's presence reshortly after ensued, he took two stand- duced it to obedience. But, after the surards from the Spaniards, and pursued the render of Lodi, fortune changed, and the fugitives. Gaston, the hope of France, French troops were expelled from their perished through his neglect of the advice conquests. Bonnivet was obliged to reof B. In the retreat from Pavia, B. was treat through the valley of Aosta; his rear again wounded. He was carried to Gre- was beaten, and himself severely wounded, noble; his life was in danger. “I grieve when the safety of the army was comnot for death,” he said, " but to die on my mitted to B. It was necessary to pass the bed, like a woman.” In the war com- Sesia in the presence of a superior enemy, menced by Ferdinand the Catholic, he and B., always the last in retreat, vigordisplayed beyond the Pyrenees the same ously attacked the Spaniards, when a talents, the same heroism, which had dis- stone, from a blunderbuss, struck his right tinguished him beyond the Alps. The side, and shattered his back-bone. The fatal reverses which imbittered the last hero fell, exclaiming, “Jesus, my God, I years of Louis XII only added a brighter am a dead man!” They hastened towards splendor to the personal glory of B. him. “Place me under yon tree,” he said, Henry VIII of England, in alliance with “ that I may see the enemy." For want Ferdinand and Maximilian, threatened of a crucifix, he kissed the cross of his

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