points of this singular commerce, which ly near the coast from the Danube to the embraces all Europe, and extends even to Crimea, that it is scarcely navigable, even America. Large numbers of these clocks by the most experienced sailors. The are sent to Spain and Portugal, from chief current runs from the shallow sea whence they go to South America. From of Azoph, from north to south, to the the north of Germany, and from Havre, Thracian Bosphorus and the Hellespont. they are exported to the U. States. Of The Black sea contains no islands; there late, the clocks have been much improved, is one, however, in the Cimmerian Bos

made of different woods, in order to Azoph and the Black sea are not unimcounteract the influence of the weather, is portant, various kinds of valuable fish, surprising.-Two passes of the Black both large and small, being taken; among Forest became particularly noted in the others, several species of sturgeon. Seines time of the French revolution-the Knie- are used, in which 60,000 fishes are somebis and the Hölle passes. The former, at times caught within six hours; but there the foot of the Murg, was taken in 1796 are never many large ones among them. and 1797; the latter is famous for Mo- Caviare (q. v.) is also made on the coast, reau's skilful retreat through it in 1796. as well as fish-glue, fish-oil, and, from the

BLACKFRIARS' BRIDGE; one of the six spawn of the sea mullet, botargo; the fine bridges of London, over the Thames, latter, however, only in small quantity. built between 1760 and 1768, after a de- The salt and smoked mackerel form an sign of Mr. Robert Mylne, at an expense important article of the commerce of the of £152,840. There are 9 arches, the Crimea. Raoul-Rochette has published, centre one being 100 feet wide. The in Paris, 1822, a work on the remarkable whole length is 995 feet. Over each pier Grecian antiquities on the northern shore

The bridge is situated at about an equal and completed by the Russian counsellor distance from those of Southwark and Peter von Köppen, Vienna, 1823. Quite Waterloo. It commands a very fine recently, Mr. von Blaramberg, director of view of St. Paul's cathedral, as well as of the museum established at Odessa and at both sides of the river, including the tow- Kertch, has discovered many interesting er, the monument, Somerset house, West- remains in this quarter. (See Crimea.), mihster abbey, and about 30 churches. BLACKGUARD. This name was originThe constant bustle on this and the Lon- ally given to the scullions and coal-carridon bridge is enormous, and beyond any ers in great houses and palaces, who, in thing of the kind to be met with in other the journeys of the families to which they cities.

belonged, usually rode in the carts with BLACK LEAD. (See Plumbago.) the pots and kettles. BĻACK Rock. (See Buffalo.)

BLACKLOCK, Thomas, a poet, remarkaBLACK SEA; with the ancients, known ble for his literary attainments under the by the name of Pontus Euxinus (q. v.); a misfortune of a deprivation of sight, was sea which is situated between Europe born at Annan, in the county of Dumand Asia, bounded on the west by Roma- fries, in 1721. His parents, who were nia and Bulgaria, on the north by the natives of Cumberland, although poor Russian dominions, on the east by Min- were industrious and well-informed. At grelia and Guriel, on the south by Nato- the age of six months, he lost his sight by lia, being connected with the Mediter- the small-pox; and, as he grew up, his ranean by the Bosphorus, and, by the father, with exemplary industry and afCimmerian Bosphorus, with the sea of fection, endeavored to lessen his calamity Azoph (q. v.), which is, in fact, only a bay by reading to him such books as instructof the Black sea. The area of the Black ed or entertained him, when he always sea and the sea of Azoph amounts to appeared to be particularly pleased with about 297,000 square miles. The water the works of Spenser, Milton, Prior, Pope is not so clear as that of the Mediterrane- and Addison. Such was the kindness an, and, on account of the many large his peculiar situation and gentle temper rivers which fall into it, the Danube, excited, that he was seldom without some Dniester, Dnieper, Don and Cuban,-being companion, who aided in his singular less salt, freezes more readily. The tem- course of education, until he had even pests on this sea are tremendous, as the acquired some knowledge of the Latin land, which confines its agitated waters, tongue. At the age of 12, he began to

In the winter, it is so boisterous, particular- became the subject of discourse in his 124


neighborhood. At the age of 20, he lost his attention to physic. In 1697, he had his father, on which he was invited by risen to so much eminence in his profesdoctor Stephenson, a physician in Edin- sion, as to be appointed physician to kilig burgh, to visit that metropolis, in order to William, who knighted him. The prepursue his studies at the university. He ceding year, he had made himself known, soon became a proficient in Latin, as also as a poet, by the publication of his heroic in French, which he chiefly acquired by poem of Prince Arthur, which was soon conversation with a French lady, the followed by King Arthur; and, in 1700, wife of provost Alexander. He also, in he published a paraphrase of the book he course of nearly 10 years' study at of Job, in folio; as also a poem entitled a the university, made a considerable prog- Satire on Wit, being an attempt to retort ress in the sciences. In 1754, he publish- on the wits by whom he had been very ed a second edition of his poems, which successfully assailed. By the strictness gained him the patronage of Mr. Spence, of his whiggish principles, he had incurwho published an account of his life, red the resentment of the tory junto, character and productions, which brought composed of Swift, Pope, Arbuthnot and him into general notice; and a quarto edi- others; while something solemn in the tion of his poems being soon afterwards complexion of his religion and morality, published by subscription, a considerable added to the real absurdity of starting sum was thereby raised for his benefit. epic after epic in quick succession, inHe now devoted himself to the study of sured the raillery of all those to whom theology, and, having passed through the his gravity, perseverance and mediocrity usual course, was licensed, in 1759, by afforded so much subject for ridicule. the presbytery of Dumfries. In 1762, he This worthy man and middling poet bemarried the daughter of Mr. Johnson, sur- came the common butt of his day, and geon, of Dumfries; a connexion which for almost two generations, for Pope took proved to him a source of comfort and up the quarrel which Dryden began. felicity for the remainder of his life. He The work which produced him the was soon after appointed minister of greatest reputation was the Creation, a Kirkcudbright, on the presentation of the poem in seven books, which went through earl of Selkirk; but, being opposed by his several editions, and was greatly applaudparishioners, after two years' contention, ed, but is, generally speaking, very tamely he resigned his living, upon a moderate elaborate. In 1721, B. published a New annuity, and retired to Edinburgh, where Version of the Psalms of David, which, he adopted the plan of receiving a few although recommended by authority, has students of the university as boarders, never been adopted. He died, at an adand of assisting them in their studies vanced age, in 1729, leaving behind him when desirable. In 1766, he was created the character of a pious, well-meaning D.D.; and, having now taken a respecta- and respectable man, of limited genius ble station among the literati of Scotland, and little taste. Besides the epics already he maintained it by various publications, mentioned, he wrote Eliza, in 10 books; until his death, July, 1791, at the age of the Redeemer, in 6 books; King Alfred, 70. His private character, according to in 12 books, &c. He also composed a the testimony of Hume and others, was History of the Conspiracy against King singularly amiable. Letters and conver- William III, and several medical and sation were his solace, to which he joined theological treatises, especially against the the practice of music. His poetry is easy, Arians, all of which have quietly reached polished and harmonious; and he com- oblivion. As a physician, he was a strenposed with considerable rapidity. The uous opposer of the new system of inocunumber of his images from visual objects lation for the small-pox. will surprise those who are not aware of BLACKSTONE, sir William, knight and the uniform strain of imitation in com- LL. D., a celebrated English lawyer, and mon-place poetry. B. wrote, besides his the most popular writer on the laws and poems, several prose works.

constitution of his country, was born in BLACKMORE, sir Richard, a physician London, in 1723. He was the third son and poet of notoriety, if not of eminence, of Mr. Charles Blackstone, a silk-mercer, was the son of an attorney in the county but, being left an orphan, was brought up of Wilts. In 1668, he entered the uni- by his maternal uncle, Mr. Thomas Bigg, versity of Oxford. There he remained surgeon, from whose kindness he re13 years, and, for some time afterwards, ceived an education, which the narrow appears to have followed the profession circumstances of his father could scarcely of a schoolmaster. At length he turned have supplied. He was educated on the

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foundation of the charter-house, whence, About this time, he also married, and, in 1738, he was removed to Pembroke thereby losing his fellowship, was apcollege, Oxford. He was much distin- pointed principal of New Inn hall; which guished, both at school and at the univer- office, with the Vinerian professorship, he sity, and at an early age compiled a work resigned the next year. In 1765, he also for his own use, entitled the Elements published the first volume of his Comof Architecture, which has been much mentaries on the Laws of England; a praised. Having chosen the profession work of greater merit than any which of the law, he was in due time entered at had yet appeared on the subject. In this the Middle Temple, and on this occasion celebrated production, the author does published the admired verses, called the not confine himself to the humble duty Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse, which of an expositor, but aspires to the higher appeared in Dodsley's Miscellany. In character of a philosophical writer on 1743, he was elected fellow of All Souls' jurisprudence; and, having been preceded college, Oxon., and, in 1746, was called to by no authors in the same line, his manthe bar, and commenced the practice of ner of accomplishing his task is entitled law. Being deficient in elocution, and to great praise. It must not, however, be not possessed of the popular talents of an regarded as a philosophical investigation advocate, his progress was slow. Having into the grounds and merits of the Engattended the courts of law at Westminster lish laws and constitution, so much as an for seven years, without success, he de- elegant exposition and defence of an extermined to quit the practice of his pro- isting system. Whatever he found institession, and retire to his fellowship at tuted, it was his purpose to support and Oxford. The system of education in the eulogise; and consequently we are rather English universities supplying no provis- made acquainted with the “legal reasons" ion for teaching the laws and constitution of what is established, than instructed in of the country, B. undertook to remedy the general principles of national legislathis defect, by a course of lectures on that tion. This mode of treating the subject important subject ; and the manner in may be, in some degree, useful, by conwhich he executed the task has conferred veying a due notion of the grounds on a lasting distinction on Oxford. His first which government and usage have procourse was delivered in 1753, and was ceeded, but, of course, will do little to adrepeated for a series of years with in- vance the mind of a nation, and often creasing effect and reputation. These a great deal to nurture prejudices and lectures doubtless suggested to Mr. Viner impede amelioration. Notwithstanding the idea of founding, by his will, a liberal some passages against standing armies, establishment in the university of Oxford and in exposition of the progress of the for the study of the common law; and B. influence of the crown, B. is uniformly was, with great propriety, chosen the first the advocate of prerogative, and very Vinerian professor. His engagements at confined in his notions of toleration. On Oxford did not prevent his occasional the latter ground, he was involved, on the practice as a provincial barrister, and, in publication of his Commentaries, in a con1754, being engaged as counsel in a con- Troversy with Priestley; and, some years tested election for the county of Oxford, afterwards, his political principles were he was led into considerations on the assailed, with much acuteness, in a pubelective franchise, which produced his lication entitled a Fragment on Governwork entitled Considerations on Copy- ment, now known to be the work of Mr. holds. In this treatise he denied the Jeremy Bentham. In the debates which right of copyholders to vote as freehold- took place on the Middlesex election, in ers; which led to a declaratory act of relation to the re-eligibility of an expelled parliament in establishment of that nar- member, he was led to language in parrow doctrine. In 1759, he published a liament, against the tenor of which Mr. new edition of the Great Charter and James Grenville, with great adroitness, Charter of the Forest, with a historical quoted his own book, and he was also preface; and, during the same year, the warmly attacked for the same inconsisreputation which he had obtained by his tency by Junius. The real merit and lectures induced him to resume his at talents of B., backed by political tendentendance at Westminster hall, when busi- cies, which are generally favorable to adness and the honors of his profession soon vancement, now made him an object of crowded in upon him. In 1761, he was ministerial favor, and he was offered the elected M. P. for Hindon, made king's post of solicitor-general, in 1770, and, de counsel and solicitor-general to the queen. clining it, was made one of the justices of 126


common pleas, which station he held credit of Macpherson's Ossian was zealuntil his death, in February, 1780, in his ously supported by Blair, in a dissertation 57th year. The private character of B. which gained him much reputation. His was exceedingly mild, benevolent and sermons were considered as models of amiable; and he was a most active and English pulpit eloquence. Careful and intelligent man of business, in which, in- scrupulous as he was in writing them, he deed, he all his life delighted. He left in only published the best. They are disMS. two volumes of reports, which have tinguished by a polished style, and a been published since his death, and are clear, easy and methodical exposition. deemed inadequate to his reputation. The first volume of his sermons was not

BLACKSTONE CANAL leads from Provi- published until his 60th year (1777); the dence, in the state of Rhode Island, to 10th edition was called for in the followWorcester, in Massachusetts. It is 45 ing year. He subsequently published miles in length, and follows, in the great- another collection, which was also often est part of its course, the valley of the reprinted. B. gave weight to his docBlackstone or Pawtucket river, from trines by his own example. He laboreu which it is supplied with water. The for the welfare of his church, and was fall from the summit, at Worcester, to always ready to give counsel and assisttide-water at Providence, is 451-60 feet. ance. He was a kind father, an affecThere are 48 locks, which are built of tionate friend and husband, and, by his hammered stone, laid in water lime, each tranquil and contented temper, as well as 80 feet long and 10 feet wide. The canal by his simple and regular manner of livis 34 feet wide at the surface of the water, ing, enjoyed the highest degree of human 18 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. It happiness to a great age. He died in was built by an incorporated company, 1800. under charters from the legislatures of BLAIR, John; an eminent chronologist Rhode Island and Massachusetts, at a cost and geographer, a native of Scotland, of about $600,000. It was finished in which country he quitted for London the autumn of 1828.

about the middle of the last century. BLADENSBURG; a post-town in Prince Though he had received a good classical George's county, Maryland, on the east- education at Edinburgh, he thought himern branch of the Potomac, 6 miles N. E. self fortunate in obtaining the situation of Washington ; lon. 76° 57' W.; lat. 38° usher in a school in Hedge lane, London. 56 N. It contains about 100 houses. A In 1754, the publication of a work in folio, battle was fought here, Aug. 24, 1814, entitled the Chronology and History of between the English and Americans, in the World, from the Creation to A. D. which the latter were defeated. This 1753, gained him great reputation. In success of the British led the way to the the composition of this book, he is said to conquest and burning of Washington. have been materially assisted by his rela

BLAIR, Hugh, a pulpit orator and au- tion, doctor Hugh Blair. In it, he illusthor, a grandson of Robert B., who, under trates his subject by 56 tables, 4 of which Charles I, boldly defended the rights of are introductory, containing the centuries the Presbyterian church, was born at Ed- which precede the first Olympiad. He inburgh, in 1718, and prepared himself dedicated his work to the lord chancellor for the ministry in the university of that Hardwicke, and, in 1757, was appointed city. His teachers, struck by an essay on chaplain to the princess dowager of Wales, the Beautiful, encouraged his inclination and mathematical tutor to the duke of for belles-lettres. He was made preacher York, whom he accompanied, in 1763, on of the high church of Edinburgh in 1758. a tour to the continent, having already The office was regarded as the highest received several ecclesiastical preferments. dignity of the Presbyterian church of On his return to England, he published, Scotland. About the same time, his lit- in 1768, a new edition of his Chronologierary reputation also commenced. In cal Tables, with 14 maps of ancient and 1759, he began a course of public lectures modern geography annexed. He died on composition, which he delivered with June 24, 1782, of an attack of influenza. so much reputation, that, in 1762, the After his death were published his Course king founded a professorship of rhetoric of Lectures on the Canon of the Old Tesand belles-lettres, which was committed tament, and a duodecimo volume, entitled to his charge. We know his theory of the History of Geography. rhetoric from his Lectures on Rhetoric Blair, Robert; a Scottish clergyman and Belles-Letters (1783, 4,2 vols.), which and poet, born at Edinburgh, in 1699. have been translated into German The He is the author of the Grave, first BLAIR-BLAKE.

127 printed at London, in 1743. He died in wind; hut, after every possible exertion, 1746.

was obliged to retreat into the Thames, BLAKE, Robert, a celebrated British on which van Tromp was so much elatadmiral, was the eldest son of a merchant ed, that he sailed through the channel in the Spanish trade, settled at Bridge- with a broom at his mast head, to signify water, where B. was born, in 1599. Af- that he had swept the sea of British ships. ter attending the grammar-school of his In the February following, B., having native place, he was sent to Wadham with great diligence repaired his fleet, put college, Oxford, where he took the de- to sea with 60 sail, and soon after met the gree of B. A. in 1617. On his return to Dutch admiral, who had 70 sail, and 300 Bridgewater, he lived for some time, in a merchantmen under convoy. During private manner, on the fortune left him three days, a furious running fight up the by his father, and was led by the gravity channel was maintained with obstinate of his own disposition, and by his family valor on both sides; the result of which connexions, to embrace the principles of was, the loss of 11 men-of-war and 30 the Puritans, by whose interest he was merchant-ships by the Dutch, while that elected member for Bridgewater, in the of the English was only one man-of-war. parliament of 1640. This being soon It was in April, this year, that Cromwell dissolved, he lost his election for the next, assumed the sovereignty, on which occaand immediately sought to advance the sion, B. and his brother admirals issued cause, in a military capacity, in the war a declaration, that, notwithstanding this which then broke out between the king change, they resolved to persist in faithand parliament. He soon distinguished fully performing their duty to the nation. himself by his activity. In 1649, in the “ It is not for us (said B. to his officers) manner of those times, when military to mind state affairs, but to keep the men often served on shipboard, he was foreigners from fooling us." June 3, he sent to command the fleet, in conjunction again engaged van Tromp with dubious with colonels Deane and Popham, and success; but, renewing the action the. thus commenced the naval career which next day, he forced the Dutch to retire, has given him so distinguished a place in with a considerable loss in ships and men, British history. He immediately sailed into their own harbors. On his return, to Kinsale in quest of prince Rupert, he was received by Cromwell with great whom he attempted to block up in that respect, and returned member in the new port. The prince, contriving to get his parliament for Bridgewater. Aware of fleet out, escaped to Lisbon, where B. his affection for a republican government, followed him; and, being refused per- the protector was not displeased at havmission to attack him in the Tagus, by ing occasion to send him, with a strong the king of Portugal, he took several rich fleet, to enforce a due respect to the Engprizes from the Portuguese (against whom lish flag in the Mediterranean. He sailed the parliament declared war), and followed first to Algiers, which submitted, and Rupert to Malaga, where, without asking then demolished the castles of Goletta permission of Spain, he attacked him, and Porto Ferino, at Tunis, because the and nearly destroyed the whole of his dey refused to deliver up the English fleet. On his return to England, he was captives. A squadron of his ships also made warden of the Cinque Ports, and blocked up Cadiz, and intercepted a soon after reduced the islands of Scilly Spanish plate fleet. Being now very sick, and Guernsey. In 1659, on the prospect he resolved to do one more service to his of a Dutch war, he was made sole admiral, country before his death, and sailed, with and, on the 19th of May, was attacked in 24 ships, to Santa Cruz, in Teneriffe ; and, the Downs by van Tromp, with a fleet of notwithstanding the strength of the place, 45 sail, the force of B. amounting only to burnt the ships of another Spanish plate 23. He, however, fought so bravely, that fleet, which had taken shelter there, and, van Tromp was obliged to retreat. He by a fortunate change of wind, came out then continued his cruise, took a number without loss. His brother having failed of Dutch merchantmen, and, after several in some part of duty during this service, partial actions, drove the enemy into their he immediately removed him from his harbor, and returned to the Downs. May command. Finding his disorder making 29, he was again attacked by van Tromp, rapid progress, he then sailed for Engwhose fleet was now increased to 80 sail. land, and, amidst his frequent inquiries B., who could not bear the thought of a for the sight of the English coast, expired retreat, engaged this vast force with a while the fleet was entering Plymouth very inferior number, and an unfavorable sound, August 27, 1657. His body was

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