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executed by Schadow in Berlin. B. died, nary time of mating, when the male blueafter a short illness, at his estate of Krib- bird is observed to be extremely devoted lowitz, in Silesia, Sept. 12, 1819, aged to the female, and shows the ardor of his almost 77 years. June 18, 1826, a statue attachment by. every attention in his powof bronze was erected to him, in Berlin, er, by the rapturous animation of his song, 12 feet in height, modelled by Rauch, and the angry jealousy with which he reand cast by Le Quine and Reisinger.- pels the approaches of a rival. The nest B. was not so eminent for military sci- of the former year is then repaired, and. ence as for ability in action. He himself the female begins to lay her eggs, usually often acknowledged this, when he was five, sometimes six, of a pale-blue color, praising the merits of Gneisenau, to whose Two or three broods are raised in a seaassistance he was greatly indebted. In son, the youngest of which are taken care battle, however, he had the eye of a fal- of by the male, while the mother is still con. His simplicity, good-nature and attending to the nest. The principal food bravery endeared him to his soldiers, of this species is insects, especially large who loved him like a father. His ad- beetles, and other hard-wing or coleoptedresses and proclamations are distin- rous bugs, to be found about dead or rotguished for their brevity, precision and ting trees: berries, persimmon, and the simplicity, forming a striking contrast to seeds of various plants, are also discovered the high-sounding French proclamations in their stomachs. Large and numerous of the time. (See Bluecher's Lebensbe- tape-worms infest their bowels, and they schreibung (Blücher's Life), by Varnhagen are also exceedingly annoyed by vermin von Ense, Berlin, 1827.)

externally. Wilson says, that, in this reBLUE. (See Color.)

spect, they are more plagued than any Blue, Prussian ; a coloring matter, of a other bird, except the woodcock. The pure dark-blue color, a dull fracture, ino- spring and summer song of the bluebird dorousand insipid, insoluble in water, is a soft and often-repeated warble : in spirits of wine or ether; it is soluble only the month of October, his song changes by the action of corrosive alkalies. The to a single plaintive note. About the discovery of this color was accidentally middle of November, the bluebirds disapmade, in 1704, by Diesbach, a manufac- pear, though, occasionally, one or two turer of colors, who, with the intention of may be seen during the winter, in mild precipitating the coloring matter from weather. The manners of this species cochineal, with which alum and vitriol of are so gentle, and they render so much iron were dissolved, procured some alkali service by the destruction of insects, that, from the laboratory of Dippel. This al- they are always regarded with favor by kali, which Dippel had been heating with the farmer. The male bluebird is six some animal matter, produced a beautiful inches, and three quarters long, with very blue precipitate. Dippel, discovering that full and broad wings. All the upper the alkali had acquired this power of parts are of a rich sky-blue, with purple forming a blue precipitate of iron on ac- reflections: the bill and legs are black. count of its mixture with animal oil, soon The fernale is easily known by the duller learned to prepare it in a more simple cast of the plumage on the back, and by way, since all animal substances, and the red on the breast not descending so even all vegetables, which contain much low as in the male, and being much azote, will give the same result. It is, fainter. The bluebird inhabits the whole however, necessary, that all the materials of the U. States, also Mexico, Brazil, Guishould be perfectly pure, since the purifi- ana and the Bahama islands.--Wilson cation would be too expensive. The ad- states that “nothing is more common, in dition of alum gives to this blue more Pennsylvania, than to see large flocks of body and a brighter color. This blue these birds, in the spring and fall, passing substance is a prussiate of iron (52 parts at considerable heights in the air, from red oxyde of iron, and 48 of prussic acid), the south in the former, and from the The alumine added amounts to from 20 to north in the latter season. I have seen, 80 per cent. ; but the greater the quantity, in the month of October, about an hour the poorer is the quality of the blue. after sunrise, 10 or 15 of them descend

BLUEBIRD (sylvia-sialis, Wils. ; saxico- from a great height, and settle on the top la sialis, Bonaparte). This beautiful little of a tall, detached tree, appearing, from bird is one of the earliest messengers of their silence and sedateness, to be stranspring, and is occasionally seen as early gers and fatigued. After a pause of a few as the month of February, in mild sea- minutes, they began to dress and arrange sons. The middle of March is the ordi- their plumage, and continued so employ

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ed for 10 or 15 minutes more ; then, on a BLUMENBACH, John Frederic, doctor. few warning notes being given, perhaps This profound naturalist is, at present, by the leader of the party, the whole re- one of the first ornaments of the univermounted to a vast height, steering in a sity at Göttingen, where he has lectured, direct line for the south-west."

for 50 years, with unabated industry, on BLUE RIDGE; one of the ranges of the natural history, physiology, osteology, Alleghany or Appalachian mountains, comparative anatomy, pathology, and the which extends from the river Hudson to history of medical literature, to very nuGeorgia, and intersects the state of Vir- merous audiences. He has written on ginia from N. E. to S. W., dividing it into almost all these sciences with acuteness, two parts, nearly equal. The great lime- method and precision. His works bear stone valley extends along the N. W. the stamp of his peculiar genius, and, side of this range. The most elevated some of them have been several times summits of the Blue Ridge are the published. His masterly, but, at present, peaks of Otter, in Bedford county, Vir- somewhat antiquated Handbuch der Naginia.

turgeschichte (Compendium of Natural BLUE-STOCKING; a pedantic female ; History) was published, in 1825, for the one who sacrifices the characteristic ex- 11th time. Of his Handbuch der Physiocellences of her sex to learning. The logie (Compendium of Physiology) there origin of this name, in England, is thus is an English translation, the second edigiven by Boswell, in his Life of Johnson: tion of which (1818) is also remarkable 5 About this time (1780), it was much the for being the first book ever printed by fashion for several ladies to have evening mechanical power.-B. was born at Go. assemblies, where the fair sex might par- tha, May 11, 1752 ; studied in Jena and ticipate in conversation with literary and Göttingen, where he received his degree ingenious men, animated with a desire to of doctor of medicine, Sept. 19, 1775. In please. These societies were denomi- 1776, he was appointed director of the nated blue-stocking clubs, the origin of cabinet of natural curiosities belonging to which name was as follows:-One of the the university, and professor extraordinamost eminent members of these societies ry of medicine, and, in 1778, ordinary was Mr. Stillingfleet, who always wore professor of the same. In 1783, he un

of his conversation, that his absence was and, at a later period, one to England, felt as a great loss, and it used to be said, where the attentions of the celebrated sir • We can do nothing without the blue Joseph Banks were particularly serviceastockings; and thus, by degrees, the title ble to him. He possesses an excellent was established.”-In Germany, blue- collection of books and engravings illusstocking (blau-strumpfe) signifies a traitor, trating natural history, and numerous spe a slanderer, an infamous lover, &c., and cimens of natural curiosities. The collecthe term, in that country, is said to be de- tion of skulls is not, perhaps, equalled in rived from the blue stockings formerly the world. On this collection is founded worn by procurers.

his Collectio Craniorum divers. gent. ilBLUMAUER, Aloysius, a poet, and famous lustr., with engravings, of which six parodist, born at Steyr, in Austria, above the numbers (Göttingen, 1790–1820) have Ens, in 1755, studied in his native city, en- appeared.' Schnader called a newly-distered (1772) into the order of the Jesuits in covered species of plants after his name, Vienna, lived there privately, after the abo- Blumenbachia insignis. The 50th annilition of his order, till he was appointed versary of his professorship in the univercensor, which place he resigned in 1793, sity of Göttingen was celebrated Feb. 26, and took the establishment of the booksel1826. ler Graeffer, in which he had been concern- Bon; the name of a genus of reptiles ed since 1786. He died in 1798. By his belonging to Cuvier's tribe of serpents Æneid travestied, he distinguished himself proper; having the tympanic bone or as a burlesque poet. It is a poetical farce, pedicle of the lower jaw movable, which rich in burlesque wit and droll contrasts. is itself almost always suspended to anThese qualities are also to be found in other bone analogous to the mastoid, atseveral others of his numerous poems. tached to the skull by muscles and ligaSome of them are full of animation, and ments, which contribute to its mobility. are written in a pure, manly style. At The branches of this jaw are not united, times, his wit is vulgar, his language in- and those of the upper jaw are attached correct and prosaic. A collection of his to the intermaxillary bong only by ligaworks appeared at Leipsic, 180143,8 vols. ments, so that these animals can dilate

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the mouth sufficiently to swallow bodies capable of vast extension; and, by a suclarger than themselves. Their palatic cession of wonderful muscular contracarches partake of this mobility. In the tions, the rest of the body is gradually species of this tribe not possessed of ven- drawn in, with a steady and regular om, the branches of the upper and lower motion. As the mass advances in the jaw, throughout their entire length, as gullet, the parts through which it has well as the palate bones, are armed with passed resume their former dimensions, pointed, recurved, solid and permanent though its immediate situation is always teeth, forming four nearly equal rows betrayed by external protuberance.--As above, and two below. The genus bou already mentioned, the species of boa are comprises all those serpents which, in ad- peculiar to the hot parts of South Ameridition to the preceding characters, have ca, though nothing is more common than the scuta on the under part of the tail sin- the error of confounding the great sergle; a hook on each side of the vent; the pents of India, Africa, &C., with the tail prehensile ; the body compressed and proper bod. According to the researches largest in the middle, and with small of Cuvier, all the boce, at present well descales, at least on the posterior part of the termined, are natives of the new contihead. The species properly belonging nent. The great serpents of the old conto this genus are among the largest of tinent belong to the genus python (Daud.), the serpent tribe, some of them, when and will be treated of under that title. It full grown, being 30 and even 40 feet is nevertheless true, that Pliny has spoken long. Though destitute of fangs and ven- of the huge serpents of India, and afterom, nature has endowed them with a de- wards of large serpents of Italy, which gree of muscular power which renders were called box, thus named from the cirthem terrible. Happily, they are not com- cumstance of their being at first fed with mon in situations much frequented by cow's milk.-Among the most celebrated mankind, but are chiefly found in the species is the boa constrictor (L.), distinvast marshy regions of Guiana, and other guished by a large chain, formed alterhot parts of the American continent. Al nately of large, blackish, irregular hexagthough sufficiently active when fasting onal spots, with pale, oval spots, notchor hungry, they become very sluggish ed at their two extremities, along the and inert after having gorged their prey, back. This is the largest species, and is at which time they are most easily de- usually confounded, by casual observers, stroyed. In order to obtain their food, the with the python Tigris of the old world. boæ of largest size attach themselves to The B. cenchris (L.), and the B. scytale, ei the trunk or branches of a tree, in a situa- musina (L.), attain to nearly an equal size tion likely to be visited by quadrupeds with the constrictor (from 20 to 30 feet for the sake of pasture or water. There long), and are all natives of the torrid and the serpent swings about in the air, as if marshy regions of America. The otherspea branch or pendent of the tree, until cies are of smaller size, and some do not some luckless animal approaches; then, much exceed that of the largest common suddenly relinquishing its position, swift snakes. We cannot reflect upon the natural as lightning he seizes the victim, and coils history of these great reptiles, without behis body spirally round its throat and chest, ing struck with their peculiar adaptation to until, after a few ineffectual cries and strug- the situations in which they are commongles, the animal is suffocated, and expires. ly most abundant. In regions bordering In producing this effect, the serpent does on great rivers, which, like the Orinoco, not merely wreathe itself around its prey, &c., annually inundate vast tracts of counbut places fold over fold, as if desirous of try, these serpents live securely among adding as much weight as possible to the the trees with which the soil is covered, muscular effort: these folds are then and are capable of enduring very progradually tightened with enormous force, tracted hunger without much apparent and speedily induce death. The animals suffering or diminution of vigor. Nox thus destroyed by the larger boæ are deer, ious as such districts are to human life, dogs, and even bullocks. The prey is they teem with a gigantic and luxuriant then prepared for being swallowed, which vegetation, and are the favorite haunts of the creature accomplishes by pushing the numerous animals, preyed upon, and, to a limbs into the most convenient position, certain degree, restricted in their increase, and then covering the surface with a glu- by the box. . As their prey come within tinous saliva. The reptile commences their reach, they require no deadly appathe act of deglutition by taking the muzratus of poison to produce their destruc zle of the prey into its mouth, which is tion, since nature has endowed them with VOL. II.



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muscularstrength surpassing that of almost from the shore to ships in the roads.-A every other creature, in proportion to their felucca is a large passage-boat, used in size. Once fairly involved in the crushing the Mediterranean, with from 10 to 16 folds of the constrictor, the strength of the banks of cars.--Scow is an American strongest man would not prove of the word, signifying a large, flat-bottomed, slightest avail ; indeed, from the ease with heavy boat, about 30 feet long, and 12 which larger and more powerful crea- wide. In some parts of the U. States, it tures are put to death by these serpents, is called a gondola. (See Canoe, Galley, it is evident that any number of unarmed &c.) men would act very unwisely to provoke Boccaccio, Giovanni, whose name a combat with enemies endowed with alone, as Mazzuchelli justly says, is equivpowers of such dreadful energy.

alent to a thousand encomiums, was the BOADICEA ; queen of the Iceni, in Brit- son of a Florentine merchant. His family ain, during the reign of Nero. Having came, originally, from Certaldo, a village been treated in the most ignominious in Tuscany; whence he gives himself manner by the Romans, she headed a the appellation da Certaldo. He was the general insurrection of the Britons, at- offspring of an illicit connexion which his tacked the Roman settlements, reduced father formed, while on a visit of busiLondon to ashes, and put to the sword all ness, at Paris, and was born in that city, strangers, to the number of 70,000. Sue- 1313. He early removed to Florence, tonius, the Roman general, defeated her where he began his studies, and, even in in a decisive battle, and B., rather than childhood, discovered a decided fondness fall into the hands of her enemies, put an for poetry. In his 10th year, his father end to her own life by poison.

put him under the care of a merchant, to BOAT; properly, a vessel propelled by be educated in his business. With him oars. In a more extensive sense, the word he returned to Paris, and remained there is applied to other small vessels, which six years, without acquiring any fondness differ in construction and name, according for his profession. His residence of eight to the services in which they are em- years at Naples was equally ineffectual ployed. Thus they are light or strong, to this purpose. Instead of attending to sharp or flat bottomed, open or decked, trade, he formed the closest intimacy with &c., according as they are intended for several learned men of Florence and swiftness or burden, deep or shallow wa- Naples, who had been drawn thither by ter, &c.—The barge is a long, light, nar- that patron of the arts, king Robert. There row boat, employed in harbors, but unfit is nothing to prove that he shared in the for sea.--The long-boat is the largest boat favor of the prince; but he enjoyed the belonging to a ship, generally furnished particular affection of a natural daughter with sails, and is employed for cruising of his, for whom he composed many pieces short distances, bringing heavy articles on in prose and verse, and to whom he often board, &c.-The launch is more flat-bot- pays homage under the name of Fiamtomed than the long-boat, which it has metta. Placed in fortunate circumstances, generally superseded. The pinnace re- with a lively and cheerful disposition, of sembles a barge, but is smaller. The a soft and pleasing address, the favored cutters of a ship are broader and deeper lover of a king's daughter, he regarded than the barge or pinnace, and are em- with more aversion than ever the staployed in carrying light articles, passen- tion for which he had been intended. gers, &c. on board.--Yawls are used for The fondness of the princess for poetry; similar purposes, and are smaller than his own intimacy with scientific and litecutters.-A gig is a long, narrow boat, rary men; the tomb of Virgil, near Naples, used for expedition, and rowed with six which he used to visit in his walks; the or eight oars.--The jolly-boat is smaller presence of Petrarch, who was received than a yawl, and is used for going on with the highest distinction at the court shore.-Amerchant-ship seldom has more of Naples, and who went from that city than two boats, a long-boat and a yawl.- to Rome, to be crowned with the poetic A wherry is a light, sharp boat, used in a laurel; the intimacy which had arisen beriver or harbor, for transporting passen- tween the two poets ;-all operated powergers.--A punt is a flat-bottomed boat, fully on B., to strengthen and fix his chiefly used for one person to go on shore natural inclination for poetry and literafrom small vessels.-A skiff is a small ture. After living two years at Florence boat, like a yawl, used for passing rivers. with his father, he returned to Naples, --A Moses is a flat-bottomed boat, used in where he was very graciously received the West Indies for carrying hogsheads by the queen Joanna. It is thought that

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it was no less to gratify the young queen, painful as the disease itself. Upon his than his Fiammetta, that he wrote his recovery, he was charged with a difficult, Decameron, which has raised him to the but very flattering trust. Dante had alrank of the first Italian prose-writer. On ways been the object of his highest adthe death of his father, becoming master miration. The Florentines, who had of his own inclinations, he settled at once persecuted and banished that illusFlorence, where his first work was a de- trious poet, but now did justice to his scription of the plague, which forms the merits, had resolved, by way of atoneopening of the Decameron. He after- ment to his memory, to establish a public wards wrote the life of Dante. He was professorship for the illustration of his chosen to inform Petrarch, at Padua, of poems, which were every day becoming his recall from exile, and the restoration more obscure, as the distance of the time of the property belonging to his father, when they were written became greater. who had died during his absence. The This new professorship was conferred friendship of these two men of genius upon B., who devoted himself to it with continued for life. When B., some years so much ardor, that his health could never after, had exhausted his fortune in the be firmly reëstablished. This received a purchase of costly books, and in expen- further shock from the death of his insive pleasures, he found in Petrarch the structer and dearest friend Petrarch. He most generous assistance: the wise coun- survived him not much more than a year, sels of his friend were now as beneficial and died at Certaldo, Dec. 21, 1375. On to his morals as they had been to his his tomb was placed this inscription, comwritings; in fact, to him he was indebted posed by himself: for the change which took place in his, Hac sub mole jacent cineres ac ossa Joannis, character. A dying Carthusian had per Mens sedet ante Deum meritis ornata laborum, suaded him to renounce all the pleas

Mortalis vitæ. Genitor Bocchaccius illi, ures of the world: Petrarch softened his

Patria Certaldum, studium fuit alma poesis. determination, and brought him back to —B. appears, in all his works, to be a poet that proper medium which marks the of the richest invention, the most lively truly wise man. New troubles in Flor- imagination, and the tenderest and warmence induced him to retire to Certaldo, est feeling. In prose, he is a perfect where he owned a small estate. There master of composition. His Decameron, he prosecuted his labors in tranquillity. which contains a collection of a hundred He now composed several historical tales, partly borrowed from the Provençal works in Latin. Among these is the poets, is the work on which his fame first modern work which contains, in a chiefly rests. In this he painted, as it collected form, the mythological notices, were, on one vast canvas, men of all which are scattered in the writings of the ranks, characters and ages, and incidents ancients. He was well versed in Greek, of every kind, the most extravagant and and had, at his own expense, brought comical, as well as the most touching and Leontius Pilatus of Thessalonica from tragic; and improved the Italian lanVenice to Florence, and maintained him guage to a degree of excellence never three years at his house, in order to learn before attained. Of his other works, we Greek of him, and to have his assistance will mention only the following: La Tein explaining the poems of Homer, and seide, the first attempt towards an Italian translating them into Latin. He was the epic, and written in ottava rima, of which first who procured copies of the Iliad B. is considered the inventor; Amorosa and Odyssey from Greece, at his own Visione, a long poem in terza rima (the expense, and spared neither cost nor initial letters of which form two sonnets trouble to obtain good Greek and Latin and a canzonet, in praise of the princess manuscripts. At the same time, he used Maria, his mistress, whom he here verall his influence to excite his contem- tures to address by her proper name); Il poraries to learn the Greek language, Filostrato, a romantic poem in ottava rima; and substitute the study of the ancients Nimfule Fiesolano, in the same measure; for that of the scholastic philosophy. Rime; (most of his sonnets, canzonets, The reputation which he had gained and other amatory poems, he consigned twice procured for him important mis- to the flames, after reading the Italian sions to pope Urban V. Having fulfilled poems of Petrarch; those which remain these, he returned to Certaldo, and re- appear to have been preserved against his sumed his studies. Here he was attacked will); Il Filocopo, ovvero amorosa Fatica, a by a severe and lingering disorder, which hunting romance; L'amorosa Fiammetfinally left him in a state of debility as ta, a charming tale; L'Urbano (thought

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