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sword, confessed to his squire, consoled' which were delivered in this famous conhis servants and his friends, bade farewell troversy has been published. It was to his king and his country, and died, almost universally conceded that he was April 30, 1524, surrounded by friends and the ablest advocate of the system or orenemies, who all shed tears of admiration ganization which was destroyed. He and grief. His body, which remained in continued in the house of representatives the hands of his enemies, was embalmed after the change of administration, always by them, given to the French, and interred conspicuous for his sound principles, conin a church of the Minorites, near Greno- stant acuteness,extensive knowledge, and ble. His monument consists of a simple manly, copious eloquence. Elected to the bust, with a Latin inscription. (See Hist. senate of the U. States by the legislature

sans Peur et sans Reproche, by Gayard years, in that assembly, the same talents de Berville, new edition, Paris, 1824). and patriotism. In 1812, he strenuously

BAYARD, James A., an eminent Ameri- opposed the declaration of war with Great can lawyer and politician, was born in Britain. President Madison selected him Philadelphia, in 1767. His classical edu- as one of the commissioners to treat for cation was completed at Princeton col- peace under the proffered inediation of lege. In the year 1784, he engaged in the the emperor Alexander of Russia. He study of the law, and, on his admission embarked on this important mission, to the bar, settled in the state of Delaware, which had not been sought nor expected where he soon acquired considerable prac- by himself or his friends for him, from tice and reputation. A few years after the port of Philadelphia, May 8, 1813, he reached his majority, he was elected a and arrived at St. Petersburg in July of representative of Delaware in corgress. that year. The absence of the emperor The first occasion, on which he particu- prevented the transaction of any business, larly distinguished himself, was the im- and, when all hope of advancing the main peachment of William Blount, a senator object seemed idle, Mr. B. proceeded of the U. States. Mr. B. was chairman of (January, 1814) by land to Holland. the committee of eleven, who were se- There he learned the willingness of the lected, by the house of representatives, to British court to treat directly with the conduct that impeachment. He took the American envoys. Previously to the arrichief and a very brilliant part in the dis- val of his colleagues, who, in consequence cussion of the constitutional questions of this annunciation, were despatched by which arose out of the successful plea of the American govornment, he visited the accused to the jurisdiction ofthe senate. England. At the proper period, he reAt an early period of his political career, paired to Ghent, which was ultimately president Adams offered him the post of chosen as the scene of the negotiations envoy to the French republic, which pru- which terminated in the treaty that bears dential reasons induced him to decline. the name of that place. His share in the Mr. B. was one of the leaders of the fed- oral discussions and the written correeral party in congress at the epoch of the spondence with the British plenipotentiaelection of Mr. Jefferson to the office of ries was such as might have been expectpresident. In the memorable contest in ed from his peculiar fitness for the task The house of representatives, which was of negotiation. On the conclusion of this produced by the equality of votes for Mr. business, he made a journey to Paris, Jefferson and colonel Burr, he finally where he remained until he heard of the

adopt the mode of proceeding which ena- pointment as envoy to the court of St. bled the friends of Mr. Jefferson to tri- Petersburg. This he promptly declined. umph. Hostile as he was to that states. It was his intention, however, to go to man, and much as he had reason to England, in order to co-operate in the expect of personal advantage from a dif- formation of a commercial treaty with the ferent issue, he sacrificed party feeling British cabinet, as he was included in the and ambitious hope, when he perceived commission sent for that purpose; but an that the peace of the country and the alarming illness put an end to every stability of the constitution might be en- plan, except that of reaching his home as dangered by continuing the struggle. In early as possible. He embarked at Havre no debate of the house did Mr. B. display in May, 1815, in a state of the most painhis genius more than in that which pre- ful debility, suffered unfortunate delays ceded the repeal, in March, 1802, of the in the voyage, and arrived in the U. States judiciary bill. A volume of the speeches only to die in the arms of his family.

VOL. II.

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Mr. B. was a logician of the first order, full of learning, in which he discussed possessed a rich and ready elocution, and various subjects of metaphysics, morals, commanded attention as well by his fine theology, history, and politics. It was countenance and manly person as his followed by his Critique générale de l'Hiscogent reasoning and comprehensive toire du Calvinisme de Maimbourg. This views. He acquired a reputation, both as work, received with equal approbation by a lawyer and political orator, scarcely the Catholics and Protestants, and esinferior to that of any one of his American teemed by Maimbourg himself, excited contemporaries.

the jealousy of his colleague, the theolo· BAYLE, Pierre, born at Carlat, in the gian Jurieu, whose Refutation du P. county of Foix (Languedoc), in 1647, Maimbourg had not succeeded, and inreceived his first instruction from his volved B. in many disputes. He afterfather, a Calvinistic preacher. He gave ward undertook a periodical work, Nouearly proofs of an astonishing memory, velles de la République des Lettres, in 1684. and of a singular vivacity of mind. At A letter from Rome, published in this the age of 19 years, he entered the college work, excited the displeasure of the queer of Puy-Laurens, to finish his studies. Christina of Sweden, who caused two viThe ardor with which he devoted him- olent letters to be sent to him. B. apoloself to them weakened his constitution, gized, and his excuses so perfectly satisfied All books were eagerly devoured by him; the queen, that from that time she kept his taste for logic led him particularly to up a literary correspondence with him. study religious controversies, but Amyot's The death of his father and of his two Plutarch and Montaigne were his favorite brothers, together with the religious perworks. The latter encouraged, without secutions in France, induced him to undoubt, his inclination to scepticism ; per- dertake his Cominentaire philosophique sur haps both contributed to give to his style ces Paroles de l'Evangile; Contrains-les that vivacity, that boldness of expression d'entrer; which, in regard to style and and antique coloring, so observable in it. tone, is not worthy of him. B. himself In Toulouse, he studied philosophy with was unwilling to acknowledge it ; but the Jesuits. The arguments of his pro- Jurieu, who probably recognised its aufessor, and, still more, his friendly discus- thor by the zeal with which toleration is sions with a Catholic priest, who dwelt defended in this work, attacked it with near him, confirmed his doubts of the violence. His hatred only waited for a orthodoxy of Protestantism, so that he re- pretence to break out against B.; he solved to change his religion. His con- found it in the Avis aux Refugiés, a work version was a triumph to the Catholics. in which the Protestants are treated with His fainily, however, tried all means to little ceremony. Jurieu not only accused regain him, and, after 17 months, he re- B. of being the author of this work (which turned to his old faith. In order to certainly is not his), but also of being the escape from the punishment of perpetual soul of a party devoted to France, in opexcommunication, which the Catholic position to the Protestants and allied church then pronounced against apostates, powers. B. repelled these charges in two he went to Geneva, and thence to Copet, publications; but the calumny prevailed. where count Dohna intrusted him with In 1693, the magistrates of Rotterdam Ine education of his sons, and where removed him from his office, and forbade ne studied the philosophy of Des Cartes. him to give private instruction. He now But, after some years, he returned to devoted all his attention to the composiFrance, and settled in Rouen, where he tion of his Dictionnaire historique et criwas employed in teaching. From thence tique, which he first published in 1696, he went to Paris, where the society of in 2 vols. fol. This was the first work learned men indemnified him for the fa- which appeared under his name. Jurieu tigues of an occupation to which he was opposed him anew, and caused the conobliged to submit for a third time. In sistory, in which he had the greatest in1675, he obtained the philosophical chair fluence, to make a severe attack upon at Sedan, where he taught with distinc- him. B. promised to remove every thing tion until the suppression of this acade- which the consistory deemed offensive; my in 1681. He was afterwards invited but, finding the public had other views, to discharge the same duties at Rotter- and preferring rather the satisfaction of his dam. The appearance of a comet, in readers than that of his judges, he left the 1680, which occasioned an almost univer- work, with the exception of a few trifles, sul alarm, induced him to publish, in 1682, unaltered. He found two new enemies his Pensées diverses sur la Comète, a work in Jacquelot and Le Clerc, who both at

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tacked his religion : others persecuted Lockman and others, was published, him as the enemy of his sect and his new 1734–41, 10 vols. fol. country. These contests increased his BAYLEN, capitulation of general Dupont bodily infirmities. His lungs became in- at; an event which, in July, 1808, raised flamed; but he was unwilling to use any the courage of Spain, and hastened a medical applications against a disorder general insurrection. Joseph Bonaparte which he considered as hereditary and had entered Madrid as king; the provincurable. He died, so to speak, with the inces Leon, Valencia, Valladolid, Zamopen in his hand, in 1706, at the age of 59 ra and Salamanca had been subdued years. “ Bayle," says Voltaire, “is the and disarmed. In the south alone, on the first of logicians and sceptics. His great- Guadalquivir, in the naturally fortified est enemies must confess that there is not Andalusia, in Cordova, Grenada, Jaen, a line in his works which contains an the spirit of insurrection still prevailed, open aspersion of Christianity ; but his and was excited as much as possible by warmest apologists must acknowledge, the junta of Seville. Thither general that there is not a page in his controver- Dupont directed his march, at the end of sial writings which does not lead the May, with three divisions. Cordova and reader to doubt, and often to scepticism." Jaen were taken by assault, after the He compares himself to Homer's cloud- most terrible resistance. The monks compelling Jupiter. “My talent," he says, promised the joys of heaven, without s consists in raising doubts; but they are purgatory, to every one who should kill only doubts." The confidence of most three Frenchmen. The corps of Castatheologians induced him to undertake to ños soon increased to 30,000 men. The prove that several points are not so certain able manœuvres of this general, together and so evident as they imagined. But he with famine and sickness in the French gradually passed these limits: his pene- army, augmented by the total want of tration caused him to doubt even the hospitals, prepared the way for the overmost universally acknowledged facts. Yet throw of general Dupont. 3000 Spanhe never attacked the great principles of iards had possession of the Sierra Morena, morality. Though an admirable logician, in the rear of his army. In order to rehe was so little acquainted with physics, establish his communication with the that even the discoveries of Newton were capital, he occupied the cities of B. and unknown to him. His style is natural Carolina with detachments, while he and clear, but often prolix, careless and himself took a position near Andujar, on incorrect. He himself calls his Diction- the Guadalquivir. But, on the 14th of naire « une compilation informe des pas- July, 18,000 men, with some pieces of sages cousus à la queue les uns des autres.” heavy artillery, marched against the front Without assenting implicitly to this mod- of the French position near Andujar ; est judgment, we must confess that the while 3000 men came through the defiles articles, in themselves, are of little of the Sierra Morena upon the rear, and value, and that they serve only as a pre- 6000 men attacked Dupont's left wing. text for the notes, in which the author He defended himself, for three days, with displays, at the same time, his learning, skill and courage; but the 18th of July and the power of his logic. The charac- decided the contest. The Spanish genter of B. was gentle, amiable, disinterest- erals Reding and Compigny attacked B. ed, highly modest and peaceable: he de Peñas and Jones overawed the main body, voted himself entirely to literature. The under Dupont. He was compelled to most esteemed edition of his Dictionnaire evacuate Andujar, after B. had been taken historique is that of 1740, in 4 vols. fol. by the Spaniards. The action continued (an edition was also printed at Bâle, nine hours, when Dupont requested a the same year). At the Hague appeared suspension of arms, but was told that he the Euvres diverses de P. Bayle (also 4 must surrender at discretion. Meanwhile vols. fol.) An edition of his Dict. histor., the division of Vedel, not acquainted with in 16 vols., printed with great typograph- the proceedings of Dupont, had attacked ical beauty, was published, in 1820, by the Spaniards anew, and taken the regi. Desoer, in Paris: it contains notes, and ment of Cordova prisoners, together with the life of the author. In the Disc. pre- two pieces of artillery, but were finally limin., the editor, Beuchot, reviews the 11 overpowered by superior numbers. On former editions. Gottsched has translated the 23d of July, the whole French army, the Dict. into German (Leipsic, 1741–44, 17,000 men strong, being surrounded, 4 vols. fol.) An English translation, with was obliged to capitulate, having lost considerable additions, by Th. Birch, 3000 men on the field of battle. The di

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visions of Dupont and Vedel were made when a more rigia police prevailed, to prisoners of war: the latter was to be free the city from nuisances, .no more

fort : the same terms were afterwards In 1797, he published his work On Yelpromised to the division of Dupont, but low Fever, wherein he proved the malady not fulfilled. General Dupont returned, to be of local origin. So strong was his with his staff, to France, and was arrested belief on this point, and so clear his perat Toulon, and subjected to trial. But, ception of the cause of the fever, that he before a decision, he was delivered by predicted the very spot where it afterthe capture of Paris, March 30, 1814. wards appeared, in the year 1799. In the He was afterwards appointed, by Louis year 1795 or 6, he was appointed health XVIII, minister of war; but was super- physician for the port of New York, and, seded by Soult, in December, 1814. in 1798, published Letters from the

BAYLEY, Richard, M. D., was born at Health Office, submitted to the New Fairfield, Connecticut, in the year 1745. York Common Council, being a series of Having completed his medical studies, he letters in the years '96-7-8. One letter, went to London, to attend the lectures dated Dec: 4, 1798, assigns the reasons and hospitals. After little more than a why the fever in '98 was more extenyear's residence in that city, he returned sively prevalent than in '95, 6 or 7, which to New York, and commenced practice he considers to be the rains flooding large there in 1772. At this period, his atten- portions of the city, its low levels, newtion was first drawn to the then prevalent made ground, and a hot sun.--In 1798, a and fatal croup, which had been treated correspondence took place between the as the putrid sore throat. Observing how cities of New York and Philadelphia, in fatal was the use of stimulants and anti- the course of which a proposition was septics, he examined the nature of the made by the committee of the latter to that disease, and became convinced that it was of the former, soliciting their co-operation of an inflammatory character. He ac- in a memorial to the general government cordingly treated it as such, with decided for a quarantine law. This gave doctor success, and, soon after the publication of B., who was on the New York commithis View of the Croup, his opinions and tee, an opportunity of impressing upon treatment of it were universally adopted. the general government the propriety of In the autumn of 1775, B. revisited Lon- establishing a lazaretto, below and at a don, where he spent a winter, and, in the distance from the city or port of entry. following spring, returned to New York, He was the person to whom the state of in the capacity of surgeon in the English New York is, in fact, chiefly indebted for army under Howe. He resigned this its quarantine laws, although they have post in 1777, and, during the rest of his since been altered and amended. In Aulife, continued the practice of his pro- gust, 1801, doctor B., in the discharge of fession in the same city. In 1787, he his duty as health physician, enjoined the lectured on surgery. In 1788, he lost his passengers and crew of an Irish emigrant valuable collection in morbid anatomy, ship, afflicted with the ship fever, to go on and some delicate preparations, by the shore to the rooms and tents appointed violence of the famous "doctors' mob,” for them, leaving their luggage behind. who broke into his house, and carried off The next morning, on going to the hospiand burned his cabinet. In the spring tal, he found that both crew and passenof 1792, he was appointed professor of gers, well, sick and dying, were huddled anatomy in Columbia college, and, in together in one apartment, where they 1793, became professor of surgery, which had passed the night. He inconsiderately was his favorite subject. His lectures entered into this room before it had been were clear, precise and practical. As an properly ventilated, but remained scarceoptician, he acquired great celebrity, and ly a moment, being obliged to retire by a also as an experienced and successful li- most deadly sickness at the stomach, and thotomist. When the yellow fever deso- violent pain in the head, with which he lated New York, soon after the revolu- was suddenly seized. He returned home, tion, doctor B. devoted himself to personal and retired to his bed, from which he attention to the sick, and became practi- never rose. In the afternoon of the cally familiar with the disease, and its seventh day following, he expired. inost successful remedies. He likewise BAYONET. This is the name of the investigated its cause, and declared that iron blade, formed like a dagger, and it was the filth which polluted the docks placed upon the muzzle of the musket, and some of the streets, affirming, “that which is thus transforined into a thrusting

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BAYONET-BEAR.

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weapon. It was probably invented, about transferred their rights to the Spanish, 1640, in Bayonne, and was used in the territories, in Europe and India, to the Netherlands, in 1647, but was not univer- French emperor. Napoleon convened a sally introduced until after the pike was Spanish general junta at B., June 15th, to wholly laid aside, in the beginning of the draw up a constitution. This constitution 18th century. Since the general war in Eu- was published July 6, and Joseph departrope, some officers have adopted the idea ed, on the 9th, from B. for Madrid. The of former military writers (for instance, convention of B., between the Poles and Guibert), of increasing the efficiency of France, was signed on the 10th May, the bayonet by a more regular exercise of 1808. (See Scholl's Traités de Paix, vol. the infantry in its use. A Saxon captain, 9, page 28.) The transactions at B. are von Selmnitz, has the merit of having some of the most important in Napoleon's first developed this idea in a systematic life, and disclose the wretched character treatise. (See The Art of Fighting with the of the royal family of Spain. Bayonet, by E. von Selmnitz, Dresden, BAZAR, BAZAAR, or BASAR; a market1825, with copperplates.) As cavalry are place in the East. The word is Arabic, often counted by horses, infantry are and originally denotes sale or exchange. sometimes counted by bayonets.

Some are open, some covered with lofty BAYONNE; a well-built, rich, commer- ceilings, or domes. At the bazars, or in cial city, the largest in the French de- the neighborhood of them, are the coffeepartment of the Lower Pyrenees, formerly houses, so much frequented in Turkey, capital of the district Labour, in Gascony Persia, &c.; and, as the Orientals live al(lon. 1° 24' W.; lat. 43° 29' N.), at the most entirely out of doors, the bazars of confluence of the Nive and the Adour, populous cities, besides their mercantile about two miles from the bay of Biscay. importance, are of consequence as places It has 13,600 inhabitants, 6000 of whom of social intercourse. The bazar of Ispalive in the suburbs. The Nive and the han is one of the finest places in Persia. Adour (the former of which is navigable That of Tauris is the largest known. At about 30, and the latter 70 miles) form a Constantinople are two bazars--the old harbor capable of admitting men of war and new one. In the Oriental tales,-from 40 to 50 guns, but it has a difficult for instance, in the Arabian Nights, the access. These two rivers serve to convey bazars occupy a very conspicuous place. timber, tar and iron from the Pyrenees to Since the system of credit is almost enB. A citadel, built by Vauban, on the tirely unknown in Eastern trade, and all summit of an eminence in the suburb, commercial transactions take place in commands the harbor and the city. The merchandise and money, the places bishop of B. is under the archbishop of where this merchandise is brought and Toulouse, and exercises spiritual jurisdic- changed from one owner to another are, tion over three departments. The cathe- of course, very much frequented.—The dral is a beautiful ancient building. B. word bazar has been used, in recent times, has considerable commerce with Spain; also, in Europe. Thus there is the wellFrench and foreign goods being ex- known bazar in Soho square, in London. changed for iron, fruit, gold and silver. BEACON. (See Signals, and Lighthouse.) B. is much engaged in the cod and whale BEAGLE ; a species of the genus dog, fishery, in which, before the revolution, kept entirely for hunting hares. They 30–40 vessels of 250 tons burthen were are small, and much inferior to the hare employed. Masts and other timber for in swiftness, but have a very delicate ship-building, from the Pyrenees, are ex- scent, and seldom fail of running her ported to Brest and other ports of France. down. The hams of B. are famous. Its wine B ear (Ursus, L.); a genus of carniv and chocolate are shipped to the north of orous, or, more accurately, frugi-carnivEurope. Among the lower class, the an- orous, mammiferous quadrupeds, beingcient Biscayan or Basque language is ing to the family plantigrada, which trocina spoken. Catharine of Medicis had an on the entire soles of the [lind] fecre important interview with the duke of Al- The genus is characterized by a heavy ba in B., June 1565. The meeting of Na- body, covered with a thick, woolly coat, poleon with the king of Spain, Charles a large head, terminating in a prolonged IV, and the prince of the Asturias, also snout, with very extensible lips. The took place here in May, 1808, in conse- ears are of moderate size, and rather quence of which the two last signed (5th pointed, and the tongue smooth. The and 10th May) an agreement, by which limbs are large and heavy, and all the they, and all the children of the king, feet are five-toed, and furnished with

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