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8vo.; a Treatise on Algebra, 2 vols. 8vo.; den, afterwards with Gray at Cambridge and various articles in the early part of then at Paris, and travelled in Italy. In the last edition of doctor Rees's Cyclopæ- 1775, he became a member of the supreme dia. He died at Woolwich, May 15, 1821, council at Berne, and, in 1787, landvoigt
BONPLAND, Aimé, educated at the in Nyon. Here Matthisson, Salis and medical school and the botanical garden Frederica Brun lived with him ; here in Paris, accompanied Alexander von John Müller wrote on the history of his Humboldt to America in 1799, and dis- native country. By his endeavors to imcovered above 6000 new species of plants. prove education, and other useful efforts, After his return, he was made, in 1804, su- he promoted the welfare of his native perintendent of the garden at Malmaison, country. During the revolutionary times, which he has described (Paris, 1813- he lived with his friend Frederica Brun, 1817, 11 numbers, folio, with copper- in Copenhagen. On his return, in 1802, plates). He was also co-editor of the he chose Geneva for his residence. The Travels and Voyages in the Equinoctial results of a journey to Italy, in which he Regions of the New Continent, from had made interesting investigations on 1799 to 1804, by Alex. Humboldt and A. the depopulation of the campagna at Bonpland ; published in French in Paris, Rone by the malaria, appeared under and in German, by Cotta, in Tübingen the title Voyage sur la scène du dernier (1818). In 1818, he went, as professor of Livre de l'Entide, suivi de quelques Obsernatural history, to Buenos Ayres. There, vations sur le Latium Moderne (Geneva, Oct. 1, 1820, he undertook a journey 1813). In 1807, appeared his Recherches along the Parana, to explore the interior sur la Nature et les Lois de l'Imagination, of Paraguay. At Santa Ana, however, 2 vols. He afterwards published Pensées on the eastern bank of the Parana, where Diverses sur divers Objets du Bien Public he had laid out plantations of tea, and (Geneva, 1815); Etudes ou Recherches sur had founded a colony of Indians, he was les Facultés de Sentir et de Penser (1821, surprised, on the territory of Buenos 2 vols.); and L'Homme du Midi et du Nord Ayres, by 800 soldiers of doctor Francia, (Geneva, 1824). These works indicate a dictator of Paraguay, who destroyed his philosophical spirit of observation. plantations, and carried him off prisoner, BONZANIGA, Giuseppe; royal sculptor together with most of the Indians. Fran- at Turin. By a persevering application cia sent him, as physician, to the garrison of 40 years, he raised the art of carving in of a fort, and employed him in laying out wood and ivory to a high degree of pera commercial road. B. lived till within a fection, and founded an establishment, few years in Santa Maria. There is no from which numerous works of art have other reason for his captivity, than his suc- been produced, that are much sought for cess in planting the Paraguay tea. Alex. in all Italy, and valued by connoisseurs. Humboldt wrote to doctor Francia to He died Dec. 18, 1820. persuade him to liberate his friend, and BONZES ; the name given by Europehe was supported in his request by the ans to the priests of the religion of Fo, in English minister Canning, and the British Eastern Asia, particularly in China, Birconsul in Buenos Ayres, Mr. Parish, but mah, Tonquin, Cochin-China and Japan. without success. A late French mission As these priests live together in monasto South America has in view his libera- teries, unmarried, they have much resemtion. From the manuscripts of B., Kunth blance to the monks of the Christian arranged the large work, Nova Genera et church: the system of their hierarchy Species Plantarum, which B. and Alex. and of their worship also agrees, in many Humboldt had collected and described respects, with that of the Catholics. They on their travels in the tropical countries do penance, and pray for the sins of the of the new world. (Paris, 1815-1825,7 laity, who secure them from want by envols., fol., with copperplates, in 35 num- dowments and alms. The female bonzes bers, 1240 francs.)
may be compared to the Christian nuns ; BONSTETTEN, Charles von ; born at as the religion of Fo suffers no priestBerne, 1745, of an ancient and noble esses, but admits the social union of pious family, in the canton of Zürich. His virgins and widows, under monastic vows, father, Charles Emanuel, was treasurer for the performance of religious exerof Berne. He was educated, till his 19th cises. The bonzes are commonly acyear, at Yverdun, then in Geneva, where quainted only with the external forms of he improved himself in the society of worship and the idols, without underBonnet, Stanhope, Voltaire, Saussure and standing the meaning of their religious other learned men. He studied at Ley- symbols. They endeavor to keep up the
superstition by which they are support- printers, and carried the printed copies ed.
into the monasteries for sale. Towards BOOK-KEEPING is a mercantile term, the end of the 15th century, there were used to denote the method of keeping such book traders in Ulm, Nordlingen and commercial accounts, of all kinds, in such Augsburg. The first bookseller who pura manner, that a man may thereby know, chased manuscripts from the authors, and at any time, the true state of his affairs, had them printed by others, without poswith clearness and expedition. Book- sessing a press of his own, was John keeping rests, like commerce in general, Otto, in Nuremburg (1516). In Leipsic, on the notions of debtor and creditor, or there were, for the first time, in 1545, two on the notions of that which we possess booksellers of this kind-Steiger and Bosor are to receive, and that which we are kopf. The books were carried to Frankto pay, and is divided into single, and fort on the Maine to the fair. The bookdouble or Italian book-keeping. In the fair at Leipsic did not become important first, the posts of debtor and creditor are until a later period: in 1667, it was atseparated from each other, and entered tended by 19 foreign booksellers. The in such a way, that each one appears Leipsic catalogue of books appeared as singly; while, in the latter, creditor and early as 1600. The booksellers of the debtor are in continual mutual connex- present day may be divided into printers ion, to which end all the posts are entered who sell their own publications (they doubly, once on the debtor and once on have become rare), booksellers who sell the creditor side, by which every error the books which have been printed at or mistake is prevented. This mode of their expense by others, and those who double book-keeping sprung up in Italy, keep for sale the publications of others. in the 15th century; yet it had been prac- The last have, usually, at the same time, tised already in Spain in the 14th century, publications of their own, which they sell according to a legal ordinance. The or exchange with others. This trade ig principle of this system is, that all money promoted, in Germany, chiefly by the and articles received become debtors to book-fairs at Leipsic, of which the Easter him from whom they are received, and, fair is frequented by all the booksellers on the other hand, all those who receive of Germany, and by those of some of money or goods from us become debtors the neighboring countries, as of France, to cash or to the goods. The books Switzerland, Denmark, Livonia, in order which the merchant wants are principally to settle their mutual accounts, and to a waste-book, in which all his dealings form new connexions. The German are recorded without particular order; a publisher sends his publications to the journal, in which the contents of the keeper of assortments, à condition, that is, waste-book are separated every inonth, on commission for a certain time, after and entered on the debtor and creditor which the latter pays for what have been sides; and a leger, in which the posts sold, and can return what have not been entered in the journal are placed under sold. This is not so favorable for the particular accounts, and from which, every publisher as the custom in the French year, the balance is drawn.
book-trade, where the keeper of assortBOOK-TRADE, BOOKSELLERS. Before ments takes the quantity he wants at a the invention of typography, those who fixed rate. In the German book-trade, it copied books carried on the trade in is the practice for almost every house, them. In Greece, in Alexandria, and in either in the country or abroad, which Rome, there were booksellers who kept publishes or sells German books, to have a number of transcribers. In the middle its agent at Leipsic, who receives and ages, there were booksellers, called sta- distributes its publications. A., in Riga, tionarii, at the universities of Bologna and who publishes a book calculated for the Paris, who loaned single manuscripts at German trade, has his agent, B., in Leiphigh prices. In Paris, after 1342, no one sic, to whom he sends, free of expense, a could deal in books without the permis- number of copies of his publication, that sion of the university, who had particular he may distribute the new work to all the officers to examine the manuscripts and booksellers with whom he is connected, fix the price. After the invention of from Vienna to Hamburg, and from printing, the printers were also the book- Strasburg to Königsberg, each of whom sellers. Faustus, the first bookseller, car- has his agent in Leipsic. Instructions are ried his printed Bibles for sale to France. also given as to the number of copies to Those who had formerly been employed be sent to each. B. delivers those copies in copying now acted as agents of the in Leipsic to the agents, who send them
BOOK-TRADE-CATALOGUES OF BOOKS.
every week, or more or less frequently, Cobres (Augsburg, 1782, 2 vols.); for by the post, or by carriers, at the expense Hungarian history, that of count Szécheny of the receiver. C., in Strasburg, who (Sopronii, 1799 et seq.); for classical litfinds that he has not received copies erature, those of count Rewiczky (Berlin, enough, writes for an additional number 1794), and of Askew (London, 1775), with of copies to his agent, D., in Leipsic. D. some others; for French literature, the gives this order to B., who delivers the second part of the catalogue of Vallière ; number wanted to D., to be transmitted for Italian literature, the catalogues of to C. This arrangement is advantageous Capponi (Rome, 1747, 4 vols.), Floncel to the German book-trade as well as to (Paris, 1774,2 vols.), and Ginguené Paris, Leipsic. The dealer receives every thing 1817); for the German language, that free to Leipsic, and, as a great number of of Adelung (Dresden, 1807). Catalogues packets, with books from all parts of Ger- acquire their true value and utility by many, arrive there for him every week, judicious arrangement and accuracy of he can have them packed together and detail. For this purpose, besides perfect sent at once. The freight is thus much exactness in the material statements less than if the packets were sent to him which must prevail throughout, and esseparately from the different places, and pecially with regard to uncommon works, the whole business is simplified. The a notice of the printer, number of pages, booksellers are also enabled to agree with signatures, catchwords, &c., and, in engreater ease on a certain discount per gravings, an account of the number and cent. In other European countries, for quality of the impressions, and the artist's instance, in England and France, no such name, are necessary. Above all, a clear connexion of the booksellers has yet been arrangement of the books is requisite, that formed. Paris is the central place of the they may be easily consulted. In this French book-trade. In Great Britain, department, the French took the lead. Edinburgh rivals London. In the Neth- Gabriel Naudé opened the way by the erlands, the most important repositories Catalogus Bibliothecæ Cordesianæ (Paris, of books are at Amsterdam, Utrecht, Ley- 1643, 4 vols.) : he was followed by Ishden and Haerlem. In Brussels and Liege, mael Bullialdus and Jos. Quesnel, in the many French works are reprinted. In Ger- Cat. Bib. Thuanæ (Paris, 1679). Gamany, several houses rarely unite for the briel Martin, a bookseller at Paris, dispublication of great works, as is done in tinguished himself, in the 18th century, by France and England. In 1802, the book- a further attention to the method of arsellers of the U. States established a fair rangement, and, at the same time, by at New York, and rules for its regulation. bibliographical accuracy, (Catalogues of In Spain and Portugal, the price of every Bulteau, 1711, du Fay, 1725, Brochard, book is regulated by the government. L 1729, count Hoym, 1738). On the foun
Books, CATALOGUES OF. Catalogues of dation laid by Martin, Debure built, in the hooks are interesting if the libraries they catalogue of Gaignat, 1769; and, in the describe contain a great number of works preparation of the first part of Vallière's (Bibliotheca Thottiana, Copenhagen, 1789 catalogue, as well as in the arrangement --95,7 parts, in 12 vols.; Bibliotheca Fire of the second part, the bookseller Nyon miana, Milan, 1783, 6 vols. ; Catalogue du followed him with success. About this Duc de la Vallière, Paris, 1783-88, 9 time, Jac. Morelli, in Venice, published a vols.), or are distinguished by well-select- catalogue of the excellent library of Mafed, by rare and costly works (Cat. Bibl. feo Pinelli (Venice, 1787, 6 vols.), distinHarleiance, by Michael Maittaire, London, guished by similar merits. All these cat1743-45, 5 vols.), or by scarce books alogues, however, were prepared only to merely (Catalogue of Sam. Engel, Bern, facilitate the sale of the books enumerated, 1743, and Dan. Salthen, Königsberg, and aspired to nothing higher. The ear1751), by old editions (J. F. Dibdin, lier catalogues of the Bodleian (Oxford, Biblioth. Spenceriana, London, 1814, 4 1738, 2 vols. fol.) and Parisian libraries vols.; Ferd. Fossii, Cat. Codd. Sec. 15 Im- (1739, 5 vols. fol.) are very defective. pressor. Bibl. Magliabecchiano, Florence, John Michael Francke, in his catalogue of 1793, 3 vols. fol.), by beautiful copies, the library of Bunau (Leipsic, 1750, 7 vols. particularly on parchment (Cat. de lá 4to.), and Audiffredi, in the alphabetical Bibl. de McCarthy, Paris, 1815, 2 vols.), catalogue of the library of Casanati (Rome, or by being very rich in some particular 1761, 4 vols. fol.), have distinguished department. For natural history, the most themselves as scientific bibliothecarians. important catalogues are those of sir Jos. Both works, though incomplete, are exBanks (London, 1796, 5 vols.), and of cellent models. Catalogus Biblioth. ca
CATALOGUES OF BOOKS-CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS.
demice Theresiance, by Joseph de Sartori index was issued. Works of an estab(Vienna, 1801, 13 vols. 4to.), is full of er- lished character, which could not well be rors and defects, and is by no means to prohibited, it was determined to expurwe compared to the former of the above- gate. The duke of Alva caused such an mentioned works. There are, lastly, crit- Index expurgatorius to be prepared in the ical catalogues (cat. raisonnés) which Netherlands; another was drawn up at contain more minute information and Rome, in 1607, which, however, with the opinions, descriptions of uncommon and exception of some fragments, has reremarkable books, and sometimes ac- mained secret. This censorship was soon counts of their prices. Besides the few afterwards adopted by the secular authorgenerally interesting works of this nature ity, and, in some respects, extended still by John Fabricius (Wolfenb., 1717,6 vols. further. In Germany, the politico-theo4to.), Jac. Fred. Reimmann (Hildesh., logical controversies gave the first occa1731, 2 vols.), Gotlieb Stolle (Jena, 1733, sion for the introduction of this institution, 18 vols. 4to.), and others, the catalogues as they were carried on with the greatest of Crevenna (Amsterdam, 1778, 6 vols. violence on both sides. The decree of 4to.), Serna Santander (Brussels, 1803, 5 the German diet, in 1524, prohibited vols.), and lord Spencer (see above), and them. By the diet of 1530, a more severe Denis's Memorabilia of the Library of Ga- superintendence of the press was estabrelli (Vienna, 1780, 4to.) are very valuable. lished; and this was confirmed by later
Books, CENSORSHIP OF. Unless we laws of the empire, in 1541, 1548, 1567, consider the burning of condemned books and 1577, &c. It was also provided, at under the Roman emperors as a censor- the peace of Westphalia, 1648 (Osnabr. ship, the establishment of this institution Instr., chapter v, $ 50), that the states must be attributed to the popes; but it should not suffer attacks on religious parcannot be denied, that it would have ties: From that time, the emperors have sprung up in a thousand other places, promised, in their elective capitulations, even if it had not existed in their domin- to watch strictly over the fulfilment of ions. Soon after the invention of print- this article. In the capitulations of the ing, the popes perceived the influence emperor Leopold II, 1790, and of the which this art exerted over the diffusion emperor Francis II, it was further added of knowledge. It was, besides, doubly (art. vi, § 8), “that no work should be dangerous at a time when the authority of printed, which could not be reconciled the church had been assailed, and was with the symboliral books of both Cathshaking under the load of its abuses. olics and Protestants, and with good morThey endeavored, therefore, to prohibit als, or which might produce the ruin of first the reading, and secondly the print- the existing constitution, or the disturbing, of certain literary works. They en- ance of public peace. It was, however, forced the ancient decrees of the church not difficult, in most Protestant countries, against the reading of heretical books, for individual authors or literary journals and introduced an ecclesiastical superin- to obtain an exemption from the censortendency of the press in 1479 and 1496 ship; and many institutions, academies, which was more completely establisheu universities, &c., were privileged in this by a bull of Leo X, in 1515. In this, the way, as far as concerned their regular bishops and inquisitors were required to professors. The governments sometimes examine all works before they were print- protected their subjects with great enered, and thus to prevent the publication of gy; as, for instance, that of Hanover, in heretical opinions. They went still fur- the case of Putter and Schloezer. In ther: as this papal decree could not be France, the censorship belonged to the carried into execution in all countries, on department of the chancellor, and was account of the reformation, they prepared administered by royal censors. It was an index of books which nobody was al- first abolished in England. It was lowed to read under penalty of the cen- formerly exercised by the well-known sure of the church. This index was star-chamber, and, after the abolition of commenced by the council of Trent, in this court, in 1641, by the parliament. In the fourth session of which (1546), the 1662, it was regulated by a particular decree of the censorship was renewed; statute, but only for a certain number of but it was not executed, and was finally years. This statute was renewed in 1679, left to the popes (25th session of 1563), by and again, in 1692, for two years more. whom several such Indices Librorum pro- In 1694, the right of the crown to render hibitorum have been published. Even in the printing of writings, journals, &c. derecent times, in 1758, such an augmented pendent on its permission, that is, the
CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS.
censorship, ceased entirely. In Holland, ernment must be obtained, and bonds and even in the Austrian Netherlands, a must be given by the editors. What great liberty, if not an entire freedom of changes will yet be made in France rethe press, prevailed. All that was not mains to be seen. The introduction of permitted to be printed in France ap- the censorship is demanded by one side, peared in the Netherlands or in Switzer- even in respect to books already publand, at Lausanne and Geneva, to the lished. In the kingdom of the Nethergreat advantage of the Dutch and Swiss lands, the censorship is abolished by a book-trade. In Sweden, by an edict of fundamental statute of Aug. 24, 1815, art. 1766, and accordingly under the aristo- 226. Even in the kingdom of Poland, cratical constitution, the abolition of the this was formerly the case (constitution censorship was ordered; yet Gustavus of Nov. 27, 1815, art. 16), but it has been III, personally a friend to the liberty of restored by a decree of June 16, 1819.
sorship, and even to execute it with se- press was much restrained till 1806, the verity, during the aristocratical machina- state-attorney having till then had control tions which disturbed his reign, and which over it. After 1814, several states abolwere but imperfectly counteracted in the ished the censorship-Nassau (decree of revolution of 1771. Gustavus IV issued May 4, 1814), Weimar (in the constituan edict soon after he ascended the tion, May 5, 1816), Würtemberg (decree throne, by which the censorship was re- of Jan. 30, 1817), Bavaria (May 26, 1818), tained only in matters of religion, and grand-duchy of Hesse (constitution of was administered by the consistories. Dec. 17, 1820, $ 35), though with very This, however, was not permanent: at different provisions as to the responsibilifirst, penalties were enacted, and, in 1802, ty of authors, printers and booksellers. the censorship was entirely reëstablished, (See Press, Laws of the.) In accordance committed to the chancellor of the court, with the unhappy decrees of Carlsbad, and executed with severity. French and 1819, and the resolutions of the German German books were prohibited. King diet of Sept. 20, 1819, the censorship in Charles XIII, immediately after his as- all the states of the German confederation cension to the throne, abolished it entirely has become one of the conditions of by a provisional order of April 12, 1809, union, but only with regard to books of which was confirmed, as an article of the less than 20 sheets, and journals. These constitution ($ 86), June 6, 1809. In Den- measures were, at first, adopted only for mark, by a royal rescript of Sept. 14, five years, but are, at present, continued 1770 (under the minister Struensee), the indefinitely. In Russia and Austria, there censorship was wholly abolished; neither is naturally a despotic censorship. In the has it been restored, though the laws by U. States, a censorship has never existed. which the liberty of the press has been Besides the different degrees of severity regulated have been changing, and have with which the censorship is exercised in sometimes been very oppressive. In different countries, it may be divided into France, the censorship, like so many different kinds, according to the field other institutions, was annihilated by the which it embraces. 1. A general censorrevolution. All the constitutions, from ship of the book-trade and of the press, 1791 to the Charte Constitutionelle of 1814, under which even foreign books cannot declare the liberty of the press one of the be sold without the consent of the cenfundamental laws. During the republic, sors, exists in Russia, Austria, Spain, &c. there was no censorship, but the revolu- (Austria has, in the censorship of foreign tionary tribunals took its place. Napo- books, four formulas: A. admittitur, enleon restored it, in another form, by the tirely free; B, transeat, free, but without decree of Feb. 5, 1810 (Direction de l’Im- public advertisements for sale ; c. erga. primerie). Since the restoration, it has schedam, to be sold only to public officers also undergone various changes. Books and literary men, on the delivery of a of more than 20 sheets have always re- receipt; D. damnatur, entirely forbidden.) mained free, but the censorship has been 2. A general censorship of the press, exexercised over pamphlets and journals at tending only to books printed in the different periods; for the last time, Aug. country, exists in Prussia (edict of Sept. 15, 1824, just before the death of Louis 19, 1788; order of the cabinet of Dec. 28, XVIII: it was, however, abolished again 1824), where, however, a case once took by the present king, Sept. 29 of the same place, in which the publications of a foryear. For the establishment of new po- eign bookseller, Brockhaus of Leipsic, litical journals, the permission of the gov- were prohibited. 3. A limited censor