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ship, only over works of less than 20 It consisted of a block-house and several sheets, and journals, is at present the law cabins, enclosed with palisades. In 177, in the states of the German confederation. he sustained two sieges in Boonesborough See Press, Liberty of the.)

from the Indians, but repulsed them. In BOONE, Daniel, one of the first adven- the following year, however, Feb. 7, B. turers who penetrated into the wilds of was taken prisoner by the savages, while Kentucky, was born in Virginia. He hunting, with a number of his men. In was, almost from his infancy, addicted to May, they were conducted to Detroit, hunting in the woods. He emigrated where they experienced great kindness early to North Carolina, then recently from governor Hamilton, the British comsettled. Having determined to cross the mander of that post. He even offered the wilderness bordering on the Cumberland Indians £100 for their prisoner, in order mountains, in quest of the region of Ken- that he might liberate him on parole, but tucky, then little known, he set out on they would not part with him, having conhis expedition, with five companions, May ceived for him sentiments of great affec1, 1769. June 7, they arrived at Red tion and respect. On his return, he was river, north of the Kentucky. A short adopted by one of the principal chiefs at time afterwards, B. and one of his com- Chilicothe, and might have been happy panions, John Stewart, were captured by in this situation, had not the thoughts of a party of savages. They soon escaped, his wife and children continually kept but could discover no traces of their alive the desire of escape. This he effriends, who had returned home. B. and fected one morning, having risen at the Stewart would have been constrained to usual hunting hour, and departed, appafollow them, had not Squire B., the rently for the woods, but in reality for brother of Daniel, pursued their track Boonesborough. He arrived there on the from North Carolina, and relieved them 20th of June, after a journey of 160 miles, with a few necessaries. Shortly after- which he performed in 4 days, having wards, Stewart was killed by the Indians, eaten, it is said, but one meal during that and the two Boones were left the only time. On the 8th of August, a body of white men in the wilderness. They savages, to the number of 450, commandpassed the winter in a cabin. In May, ed by Canadian Frenchmen and some of 1770, B.'s brother returned home. In their own chiefs, invested the fort, with July of the same year, however, he came British colors flying. B. was summoned back, according to agreement. They then to surrender, but announced his detertraversed the country to the Cumberland mination, and that of the garrison, who river, and, the following year, returned to amounted to but 50 men, “to defend the their families, with a determination of re- fort as long as a man of them was alive." moving with them to Kentucky. In The enemy then resolved to obtain it by September, 1773, B. commenced his re- stratagem, and requested that nine of the moval to Kentucky, with his own, and principal persons of the garrison would five other families, and was joined by 40 come out and treat with them, promising men, who placed themselves under his terms so favorable, that the invitation was guidance. Being attacked by the Indians, accepted. After the articles of the treaty 6 of his men were slain, and the cattle had been signed, B. and his companions belonging to the party dispersed. The were told that it was customary, upon survivors returned, in consequence, to such occasions, among the Indians, for the settlements on Clinch river, about 40 two of them to shake each white man by miles from the scene of action. A com- the hand, in order to evince the sincerity pany of North Carolina, having formed a of their friendship. This was also agreed plan of purchasing the lands on the south to; and, accordingly, two Indians apside of the Kentucky river from the proached each of the nine, and, taking his southern Indians, employed B. to buy a hand, grappled him, with the intent of tract of country, the limits of which were making him prisoner. Their object being described to him. He performed the ser- then immediately perceived, B. and his vice, and, soon after, made a road from party extricated themselves, and retreated the settlements on the Holston to the into the fort, amid a heavy fire from the Kentucky river, notwithstanding the in- savages. An attack was then quickly cessant attacks of the Indians, in which 4 commenced, and continued until the 20th of his men were killed and 5 wounded. of August, when the enemy abandoned In Apr., 1775, he built a fort ata salt-spring, the siege. This was the last attempt of on the southern bank of the Kentucky, the Indians to possess themselves of where Boonesborough is now situated. Boonesborough. In October, as B. was


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returning from the Blue Licks, with his purchase from noblemen lands or villages, brother, the latter was slain, and B. pur- with the vassals belonging to them. The sued by a party of Indians for three miles, mine boor's are unalienably attached to by the aid of a dog; but, having killed the particular mines, and may be transferred animal, he escaped. In 1782, the depre- with them to different masters. The third dations of the savages increasing to an sort, or private boors, are those belonging intolerable extent, B., with other militia to the nobles. Their condition depends officers, collected 176 men, and went in on the character of their masters: it is

ursuit of a large body, who had march- sometimes very comfortable, but often ed beyond the Blue Licks to a bend of most wretched. In the richest provinces, the main fork of the Licking river, 40 according to the testimony of doctor miles from Lexington. They overtook Clarke, you may find them dying of hunthem August 19, but, being much inferi- 'ger, or pining from bad food. Pastures, or in numbers, were obliged to retreat. covered with cattle, yield no milk for General Clark, then at the falls of the them. The harvest supplies no bread for Ohio, immediately assembled a consider- their children. The lord claims all the able number of men, and commenced the produce. Some attempts were made by pursuit of the savages, accompanied by Alexander (q. v.) to alleviate their condi. B. From that time until 1798, B. resided tion, but private interests interfered with alternately in Kentucky and in Virginia, the benevolent intentions of the governIn that year, he removed to Upper Louis- ment. jana, where he received a grant from the BOOTAN; an extensive region of North Spanish authorities of 2000 acres of land. ern Hindostan, lying between Bengal His children, friends and followers were and Thibet. It is about 250 miles from also presented with 800 acres each. He east to west, and 90 from north to south; settled with them on the Missouri river, but its eastern boundaries are imperfectly at Charette, some distance beyond the known. It forms a portion of the decliyinhabited parts of the country, where he ity of that stupendous Alpine chain, of followed his usual course of life--hunting, which Thibet occupies the table land. and trapping for bears-until Sept., 1822, Notwithstanding it is mountainous, and, when he died, at the residence of his son, in many parts, extremely cold, the counmajor A. Boone, in Montgomery county, try is productive, and highly cultivated, in the 85th year of his age. He had been the slope of the mountains being cut gradually declining for some years previ- into terraces for this purpose. As it ous to his decease. It is related, that, is situated without the tropics, it is free some time before that event, he had two from periodical rains; and the climate is, coffins made out of a favorite cherry-tree, in general, moderate, calculated to bring the first of which, not fitting, he gave to a forth both European and Asiatic fruits son-in-law; in the second he was buried, and vegetables. Thus we find the trees having bestowed on it a fine polish by a and shrubs of Northern Europe, in sight course of rubbing for several years. His of the large forests, and a rank vegetation sons and daughters still reside in Mis-' of plants strictly tropical. The Deb Rajah, souri.

who resides at Tassisudon, is the prince Boors. The peasants of Russia are of the country, but is tributary to the divided into two classes-free boors and grand lama of Thibet. The inhabitants vassal boors. The former cannot be alien- are robust, active and ferocious. They ated or sold. The latter are mere slaves, have the Tártar features. They are of not being capable of possessing property, the Boodh religion, and leave most of the but, with their families, being at the dis- labor to the women. Their houses are, posal of their lords. They are of three in general, of only one story, but the palsorts--the crown boor's, the mine boors and ace of the rajah is a lofty pile. From the the private boors. The crown boors are," précipitous nature of the country, they some of them, considered as absolute prop-' are obliged to use numerous bridges, erty; others are attached to the mines or many of which are constructed with ropes soil, while many are only obliged to per- and iron chains. B. produces a hardy form a certain quantity of labor, or to pay breed of horses, about 13 hands high, a certain proportion of the produce of it. called tangans. A caravan is sent annuTheir condition is superior to that of the ally by the prince Deb Rajah, who is the other two classes, as they usually pay an only merchant in the dominions, to Rungannual abrock, or rent, of about five rubles "pore, in Bengal. The goods which are cach, and enjoy the rest of their earnings carried by the tangans are coarse woollen undisturbed. They are allowed also to cloths, cow-tails from Thibet, bees-wax,



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ivory, musk, gold dust, silver ingots, with ental, and, in particular, with the Indian silks, tea, paper and knives from China, language and literature. While studywith which B. has a close intercourse. ing these, he did not neglect Arabian and The current coin is the Narainy rupee of Persian, and found in Elmina von Chezy Couch Behar, worth about 20 cents. The and Sylvestre de Sacy, as well as in Aucustoms of the inhabitants resemble those gustus William yon Schlegel, friends who of the Birmans or inhabitants of Aya, willingly assisted him in his investigamore than they do those of their nearer tions. With a small pension from the neighbors of Thibet or Assam.

king of Bavaria, he lived five years in BOÖTES; a northern constellation, called, Paris, afterwards in London, then in Gőtalso, by the Greeks, Arctophylax, and, by: tingen, devoted to his favorite studies with the English, Charles's Wain. Arcturus was the greatest perseverance. He was now placed, by the ancients, on his breast; by made professor of the Oriental languages the moderns, on the skirt of his coat. in Berlin. He wrote on the system of Fable relates that Philomelus, son of conjugation in the Sanscrit language, Ceres and Jasion, having been robbed by compared with that of the Greek, Latin, his brother Plutus, invented the plough, Persian and German tongues, and accomyoked two bulls to it, and thus supported panied his remarks with translations of himself by cultivating the ground. Ceres, extracts from Indian poems (Frankfort to reward his ingenuity, transferred him, on the Maine, 1816). He also published with his.cattle, under the name of Boötes, works with the following titles: Srimato the heavens.

hübharate Nalopakhajanam. Nalus, carmen Booth, Barton, an actor of great celeb- Sanscritum,e Mahabharato,, edidit, Latine rity in the reigns of queen Anne and vertit et adnot. illust., Fr. Bopp, London, George I, was born in 1681, and placed, Paris and Berlin ; Complete Systein of the under doctor Busby, at Westminster Sanscrit Language; Indralokagamanan, school. An early attachment for the dra- Voyage of Ardschura to the Sky of Inma was fostered by the applause he met dra; together with other Episodes of with while performing a part in one of Masabsarah, published for the first Time Terence's plays, at the annual exhibition in the original Language, and translated in in that seminary. He eloped from school Metre, with a Commentary. . at the age of 17, and joined Ashbury's BORA, Catharine von, wife of Luther,

company of strolling players, with whom was born in 1499. Her birth-place is not he went to Dublin. After performing known, and of her parents we only know three years in the Irish capital with great that her mother, Anna, was descended applause, he returned, in 1701, to Lon- from one of the most ancient families of don, and, engaging with Betterton, met Germany, that of Hugewitz (Haugewitz). with siınilar success. On the death of The daughter took the veil, very early, in that manager, he joined the Drury lane. the nunnery of Nimptschen, near Grimcompany, and, on the production of Cato, ma. Notwithstanding her devout dispoin 1712, raised his reputation as a trage- sition, she soon felt very unhappy in her dian to the highest pitch, by his perform- situation, and, as her relations would not ance of the principal character. It was listen to her, applied, with eight other on this occasion that lord Bolingbroke nuns, to Luther, whose fame had reached presented him from the stage-box with 50 them. : Luther gained over a citizen of guineas an example which was imme- Torgau, by the name of Leonard Koppe, diately followed by that nobleman's polit- who, in union with some other citizens, ical opponents. Declamation, rather than, undertook to deliver the nine nuns from passion, appears to have been his forte, their convent. This was done the night though Cibber speaks of his Othello as after Good Friday, April 4, 1523. He his finest character. He became a pat- brought them to Torgau, and from thence entee and manager of the theatre in 1713, to. Wittenberg, where Luther provided in conjunction with Wilks, Cibber and them a decent abode. At the same time, Doggett, and died May, 1733. He was to anticipate the charges of his enemies, buried in Westminster abbey, where there he published a letter to Koppe, in which is a monument to his memory. He was he frankly confessed that he was the authe author of Dido and Æneas, a mask, thor of this enterprise, and had persuaded various songs, &C., and the translator of Koppe to its execution; that he had done several odes of Horace.

so in the confident hope that Jesus Christ, Bopp, Francis, born in 1791, at Mentz, .. who had restored his gospel, and destroywent to Paris, in the autumn of 1812, in ed the kingdom of Antichrist, would be order to become acquainted with the Ori- . their protector, though it might cost them



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even life. He also exhorted the parents liberty, and is deposited in crystals on the and relations of the nine virgins to admit cooling of the liquid: these, when washthem again into their houses. Some of ed with cold water and dried, are perthem were received by citizens of Wit- fectly pure. In this state, it presents tenberg; others, who were not yet too the form of brilliant, white, hexagonal old, Luther advised to marry. Among scales, soft and greasy to the touch, and the latter was Catharine, whom Philip having a specific gravity of 1.479. Its Reichenbach, at that time mayor of the taste, when first taken into the mouth, is city, had taken into his house. Luther sourish ; afterwards it becomes bitter, and proposed to her (by his friend Nicholas finally leaves a sweetish impression upon von Amsdorf, minister in Wittenberg) the tongue. It is slightly soluble in wadoctor Kaspar Glaz and others in mar- ter, and much more so in alcohol, to riage. She declined these proposals, but which, when burning, it communicates a declared her willingness to bestow her green color. It contains 43 per cent. of band on Nicholas von Amsdorf, or on water, which it parts with, on being heatLuther himself. Luther, who, in 1524, ed to redness, when it melts into a transhad laid aside the cowl, was not averse to parent glass, and is called calcined boracic matrimony, yet appears to have been led acid.-Boracic acid was discovered by sir to the resolution of marrying by reason H. Davy to be a compound of a peculiar rather than by passion. Besides, he was base, which he called boron, and oxygen, not then favorably inclined towards Catha- in the proportion of 8 parts of the former rine, because he suspected her of worldly to 16 of the latter. Its principles are sepvanity. He says, however, that he found arated both by means of galvanism and in her a pious and faithful wife. There by the action of potassium. Boron is a could be no want of disadvantageous ru- tasteless and inodorous substance, in the mors on this occasion, some of them as form of a greenish-brown powder. It is shameful as they were unfounded. The insoluble in water, ether, alcohol and oils; domestic peace of the pair was also drawn nor does it fuse when subjected to the into question, and Catharine, in particular, strongest heats. By exposure to common was accused of being peevish and domi- air, it gradually becomes oxygenated, neering, so that her husband was often and, when heated in oxygen gas, burns obliged to correct her. Although this vividly, and is converted into boracic acid.

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ther seems not to have been fully satisfied the analysis of minerals, and for soldering with her; for he speaks with great sincer- metals in the arts; and, since its discovery ity of the sufferings, as well as of the hap- in such abundance in the Italian springs piness, of his marriage. When, after Lu- and lakes, it has also been used in the ther's death, in 1547, Charles V entered manufacture of borax, being united with Wittenberg in triumph, Catharine saw soda.---The inost important combination herself obliged to leave this place, and to formed by boracic acid is that with soda, remove to Leipsic, where she was com- commonly called borax. It is brought pelled to take boarders for her support. into Europe, in an impure state, from the She afterwards returned to Wittenberg, East Indies, under the name of tincal, and and lived there till 1552 in want. When is understood to occur principally in certhe plague broke out in this place, and tain lakes, from whence it is obtained by the university was removed to Torgau,' evaporation. It is also reported to be dug she went thither also, arrived there sick, from the earth in Thibet, and to exist in

the church of Torgau her tomb-stone is South America. A knowledge of its still to be seen, on which is her image, of manufacture was, for a long time, confinthe natural size.

e d to the Venetians and Hollanders. This BORACIC ACID, uncombined, exists in is now known to consist in boiling carseveral small lakes in Tuscany, at Volca- bonate of soda with the calcined tincal, in no, one of the Lipari islands, and in the order to saturate its excess of acid: 12 hot springs near Sasso, in the Florentine pounds of carbonate of soda are requisite territory, from whose waters it is deposit- for every 100 pounds of washed tincal, in ed by natural evaporation. It is easily the water: the lie is left to cool gradually obtained also from borax, a native salt, and crystallize. The French nation mancomposed of this acid and soda, by dis- ufacture their borax (of which they consolving it in boiling water, and gradually sume about 25 tons annually) from the adding silphuric acid to engage the soda: boracic acid found in the Italian lakes; in the boracic acid is in this manner set at consequence of which the price of this



article has fallen in France from five shil- America, to determine the longitude and lings and ten pence the pound, to two latitude of several coasts, isles and shoals, shillings and two pence. The process and to try the utility of several astronomwhich they adopt is to dissolve 1200 ical instruments. In 1774, he visited the pounds of carbonate of soda in 1000 Azores, the cape Verde islands, and the pounds of water, to which is added, by 20 coast of Africa, for the same purpose. In pounds at a time, 600 pounds of Tuscan the American war, he was very useful to boracic acid. This is done in a leaden the count d'Estaing, by his knowledge of boiler, of double the capacity requisite to navigation. In later times, he visited contain the materials, in order to provide a second time the Azores, the cape Verde for the effervescence which takes place. islands, and the coast of Africa; but the The heat is kept up for 30 hours, when observations which he made in this voythe clean liquid is drawn off into leaden age have not been published. B. was the coolers, a foot in depth, where the first founder of the schools of naval architectcrop of crystals deposits itself in three days. ure in France. He invented an instru100 pounds of the best Tuscan boracic ment, of a very small diameter, which acid produce about 150 of borax.-Borax measures angles with the greatest accuappears in crystalline masses of a mode- racy, and which has been used in measrate size, or in distinct hexagonal prisms, uring the meridian; the reflecting circle,

mids; is of a white color, and transparent. besides an instrument for measuring the It requires 20 parts of cold and 6 of boil- inclination of the compass needle, and ing water for its solution. Exposed to many others. On the establishment of the heat, it swells up, boils, loses its water of national institute, he became one of its crystallization, and becomes converted in- members, and was occupied, with other to a porous, white, opaque mass, common- men of science, in framing the new sysly called calcined borax. A stronger heat tem of weights and measures adopted in brings it to the form of a vitreous trans- France under the republican government. parent substance, in which state it is Among the latest of his labors was a series known under the name of glass of borax. of experiments to discover the length of Borax forms one of the best fluxes known, a pendulum which should vibrate seconds, It is used in the analysis of minerals by in the latitude of Paris. Among his writhe blow-pipe, in melting the precious tings are Recherches sur la Résistance des metals, in forming artificial gems, and in Fluides ; Nouvelle Méthode pour observer soldering.-Another native combination la Longueur du Pendule; Nouveau Sysof boracic acid is that with magnesia, tème de Poids et Mesures, adopté par les known, in mineralogy, under the name of États Généraux, &c. The principal are boracite. It is found in small crystals, his Voyage, published in 2 vols, in 1778, imbedded in gypsum, near Lunenburg, and his Tables Trigonometriques Déciin Lower Saxony, and at Segeborg, in males, which have been edited by DeHolstein. Their form is that of a cube, lambre. B. died at Paris, in 1799. with the edges and four of the solid an- BORDEAUX. (See Bourdeaux.) gles truncated. They are remarkable for BORDELAIS WINES. The finer red their electric properties, becoming, when wines of the Bordelais (country round heated, negatively electrified at their per- Bourdeaux) are the best which France fect angles, and positively so at their trun- produces. They contain but little alcohol, cated angles.

keep well, and even improve by removal. BORAK AL. (See Alborak.).

As the original fermentation is complete, BORDA, Jean Charles; born at Dax, in they are, if judiciously managed, less the department of Landes, in 1733; an subject to disorder and acidity than engineer, and afterwards a captain in the the Burgundy wines. None of the very French marine, famous for his mathemat- best quality, however, is exported pure: a ical talents. In 1756, he was chosen a bottle of the best Châteaux-Margaux, or member of the academy of sciences, and Haut-Brion, is a rarity hardly to be prooccupied himself in making experiments cured in Bourdeaux itself, at the rate of on the resistance of fluids, the velocity of six or seven francs a bottle. For export, motion, and other topics relating to dy- the secondary growths of Médoc are minnamical science. In 1767, he published gled with the rough Palus. The red a dissertation on hydraulic wheels, and wines of the Bordelais are known in Eng

hydraulic machinery. In 1771, with Ver- of claret. They have less aroma and dune and Pingré, he made a voyage to spirit, but more astringency, than the Bur


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