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very strong, hooked claws, well suited pose. When ice was placed in the cage, for burrowing.–Five species at present it rolled upon it with great satisfaction, belong to this genus. The Linnæan genus and showed every sign of being gratified. comprised the raccoon, badger, &c., now, --The black bear of America is distinproperly, separated from it. These spe- guished by its color and a peculiarly con. cies are, the brown bear of Europe (U. vex facial outline. It is found very genarctos); the white or polar bear (U. mar- erally in mountainous and forest lands, itimus); the American or black bear (U. and subsists, in a great degree, on berries Americanus); the grisly bear (U. horrib- and vegetable substances, though it preys ilis), also of America; and the Malay- upon small animals, and insects, which it anor Asiatic bear (U. labiatus).-The searches for industriously, by turning over brown bear is chiefly an inhabitant of large logs of decayed timber. It is rarely, cold and elevated situations, and feeds on if ever, known to attack man, unless in a great variety of animal and vegetable self-defence. It is very fond of young substances. During winter, this species, corn and honey, which, being an expert like some others, remains torpid in caves, climber, like the brown European bear, it whither it retires, in the autumn, very fat, obtains by plundering the wild bees.and comes out, in the spring, extremely The grisly bear inhabits the country ademaciated. The brown bear is remarka- jacent to the Rocky mountains, and is, ble for its sagacity, as well as the ferocity of all the race, the most dreadful for size, of its disposition, and it becomes espe- strength and terrible ferocity of nature.* cially sanguinary as it advances in age. — The Malay, Asiatic or long-lipped bear, Besides the differences of color and size is a native of the mountainous parts of which distinguish this bear from those India, and feeds on white ants, rice, honey, belonging to the old continent, it differs the fruit of the palm, &c. The spefrom the American bears, by having a cies is inoffensive and timid, burrows in convexity of front above the eyes, which the ground, and lives in pairs, together renders its physiognomy strikingly dis- with the young, which, when alarmed, similar to theirs. Other distinctions, suffi- seek safety by mounting on the backs of ciently obvious, present themselves when the parents. the species are compared. The polar, or BEARD ; the hair round the chin, on maritime bear, is only found in high the cheeks and the upper lip, which is a northern latitudes, along the borders of distinction of the male sex. It differs the Icy ocean and northern coasts of from the hair on the head by its greater America in the vicinity of Hudson's bay. hardness and its form. The beard begins It does not descend to the eastern coast to grow at the time of puberty. The of Siberia nor Kamtschatka; neither is it connexion between the beard and puberfound in the islands lying between Sibe- ty is evident from this, among other cirria and America. It is uniformly white, cumstances, that it never grows in the attains a large size, is very powerful, fe- case of eunuchs who have been such rocious and daring. It is an excellent from childhood; but the castration of diver and swimmer, being apparently as adults does not cause the loss of the much at home in the ocean as on land. beard. According to Cæsar, the GerAn individual of this species was seen, by mans thought, and perhaps justly, the the late northern explorers, in the mid- late growth of the beard favorable to the dle of Melville sound, swimming across, developement of all the powers. But there where the shores were at least 30 miles are cases in which this circumstance is an apart. The polar bear is the most exclu- indication of feebleness. It frequently sively carnivorous of the genus, though takes place in men of tender constitution, equally capable of living on vegetable whose pale color indicates little power food with the rest. He preys upon seals, The beards of different nations afford an the cubs of the whale, morse, &c., or the interesting study. Some have hardly carcasses of whales left by whalers after any, others a great profusion. The latter removing the blubber. Individuals of generally consider it as a great ornament, this species are sometimes, though rarely, the former pluck it out; as, for instance, seen in caravans of wild animals in the the American Indians. The character U. States. A large and beautiful one was of the beard differs with that of the indiexhibited in New York, in the spring of vidual, and, in the case of nations, varies 1826, and, notwithstanding the coolness of the weather, it appeared to suffer extremely from heat, as it bathed itself

preceding species, too extensive to be introduced

Iselt into this work, see the first volume of the Amerifrequently in water provided for the pur- can Natural History, by the writer of this article.



with the climate, food, &c. Thus the -Shaving, among many ancient nations, beard is generally dark, dry, hard and was the mark of mourning; with others, thin in irritable persons of full age: the it was the contrary, Plutarch says that same is the case with the inhabitants of Alexander introduced shaving among the hot and dry countries, as the Arabians, Greeks, by ordering his soldiers to cut Ethiopians, East Indians, Italians, Span- off their beards; but it appears that this iards. But persons of a very mild dis- custom had prevailed before among the position have a light-colored, thick and Macedonians. The Romans began to slightly curling beard: the same is the shave about 454 A. U., 296 B. C., when case with inhabitants of cold and humid a certain Ticinius Menas, a barber from countries, as Holland, England, Sweden. Sicily, introduced this fashion. Scipio The difference of circumstances causes Africanus was the first who shaved every all shades of variety. The nature of the day. The day that a young man first nourishment, likewise, causes a great va- shaved was celebrated, and the first hair riety in the beard. Wholesome, nutri- cut off was sacrificed to a deity. Adrian, tious and digestible food makes the beard in order to cover some large warts on his soft; but poor, dry and indigestible food chin, renewed the fashion of long beards; renders it hard and bristly. In general, but it did not last long. In mourning, the beard has been considered, with all the Romans wore a long beard somenations, as an ornament, and often as a times for years. They used scissors, ramark of the sage and the priest. Moses zors, tweezers, &c., to remove the beard. forbade the Jews to shave their beards. The public barber shops (tonstrince), where With the ancient Germans, the cutting off the lower classes went, were much reanother's beard was a high offence; with sorted to; rich people kept a shaver (tonthe East Indians, it is severely punished. sor) among their slaves. Even now, the beard is regarded as a BEARN; before the revolution, a provmark of great dignity among many na- ince of France, at the foot of the Pyretions in the East, as the Turks. The nees, with the title of a principality; custom of shaving is said to have come about 42 miles long and 36 broad; boundinto use during the reigns of Louis XIII ed E. by Bigorre, N. by Armagnac, Turand XIV of France, both of whom as- san and Chalosse, W. by Dax, a part of cended the throne without a beard. Soule, and the Lower Navarre, and s. by Courtiers and inhabitants of cities then the Pyrenees. It belonged, with Navarre, began to shave, in order to look like the to Henry IV, when he obtained the king, and, as France soon took the lead crown. The plain country is very fertile, in all matters of fashion on the continent and the mountains are covered with firof Europe, shaving became general; but trees, while within are mines of copper, it is only since the beginning of the last lead and iron; and the little hills are century, that shaving off the whole planted with vines, which yield good beard has become common. Till then, wine. It is now included in the departfashion had given divers forms to mus- ment of Lower Pyrenees. Pau was the tachioes and beards. Much could be capital town. Pop. about 220,000. said, and has been said, in a medical point BEATIFICATION, in the Roman Catholic of view, on shaving the beard. Such a church; an act by which the pope declares discussion would lead us, however, here a person beatified or blessed after his death. too far. It is not to be denied, that the It is the first step to canonization, i. e. mouth, one of the most expressive parts the raising one to the honor and dignity of the countenance, is shown to much of a saint. No person can be beatified better advantage in consequence of shay- till 50 years after his or her death. All ing; but, at the same time, old age ap- certificates or attestations of virtues and pears to much greater disadvantage, the miracles, the necessary qualifications for beard concealing the loss of the teeth. saintship, are examined by the congregaMoreover, the eye gains much in ex- tion of rites. This examination often pression by a full beard. Every one continues for several years; after which knows the trouble of shaving; and who his holiness decrees the beatification. does not remember Byron's computa- The corpse and relics of the future saint tion of the amount of this trouble in are from thenceforth exposed to the venDon Juan? Seume, a German author, eration of all good Christians; his image says, in his journal, “To-day I threw my is crowned with rays, and a particular powder apparatus out of the window: office is set apart for him; but his body when will come the blessed day, that I and relics are not carried in procession shall send the shaving apparatus after it !” Indulgences, likewise, and remissions of 20


sins, are granted on the day of his beatifi- tained the degree of A. M., and accepted cation ; which, though not so pompous as the office of school-master and parishthat of canonization, is, however, very clerk to the parish of Fordoun, looking splendid. Beatification differs from can- forward to the church of Scotland as his onization in this, that the pope does not principal prospect, for which reason he act as a judge in determining the state still attended, during winter, the divinity of the beatified, but only grants a privi- lectures at Marischal college. In June, lege to certain persons to honor him by a 1758, these views were somewhat changparticular religious worship, without in- ed, by the attainment of the situation of curring the penalty of superstitious wor- one of the masters of the grammarshippers; but, in canonization, the pope school of Aberdeen. In 1761, he pubspeaks as a judge, and deterinines, ex ca- lished a volume of poems, which were thedra, upon the state of the canonized. received favorably, but which he subseBeatification was introduced when it was quently thought very little of, and enthought proper to delay the canonization deavored to buy up. They nevertheless of saints, for the greater assurance of the procured him some powerful friends, truth of the steps taken in the procedure. whose patronage obtained him the apSome particular orders of monks have pointment of professor of moral philosoassumed to themselves the power of be- phy and logic at Marischal college. In atification. Thus Octavia Melchiorica 1765, he published a poem, the Judgwas beatified by the Dominicans. (See ment of Paris, (4to.), which proved a failCanonization.)

ure, although it was afterwards added to BEATON, David, archbishop of St. An- a new edition of his poems, in 1766. The drews, and cardinal, was born in 1494. work which procured him the greatest Pope Paul III raised him to the rank of fame was his Essay on Truth, which cardinal in December, 1538; and, being first appeared in 1770. It was so popular, employed by James V in negotiating his that, in four years, five large editions were marriage at the court of France, he was sold; and it was translated into several there consecrated bishop of Mirepoix. foreign languages. Among other marks Soon after his instalment as archbishop, of respect, the university of Oxford conhe promoted a furious persecution of the ferred on the author the degree of LL.D., reformers in Scotland; but the king's and George III honored him, on his visit death put a stop, for a time, to his arbi- to London, with a private conference and trary proceedings, he being then excluded a pension. He was also solicited to enter from affairs of government, and confined. the church of England by flattering proHe raised, however, so strong a party, posals from the archbishop of York and that, upon the coronation of the young the bishop of London ; which proposals queen Mary, he was admitted into the he declined, lest his opponents should council, made chancellor, and received a attribute the change to self-interest. The commission as legate a latere from Rome. popularity of this celebrated essay, which He now began to renew his persecution was written in opposition to the prevalent of heretics, and, among the rest, of the scepticism of Hume and others, was prinfamous Protestant preacher George Wis- cipally owing to its easiness of style, and hart, whose sufferings at the stake he to a mode of treating the subject, calcuviewed from his window, with apparent lated for the meridian of slight scholarexultation. B. was murdered in his ship and medium intellect. This is often chamber, May 29, 1546. He united with a great source of immediate celebrity; great talents equally great vices, and left but, thus produced, it is usually as transiseveral children, the fruit of open concu- tory as spontaneous, which has proved binage.

the case in the present instance. A few BEATTIE, James, LL. D., a pleasing months after the appearance of the Essay poet and miscellaneous writer, was born on Truth, B. published the first book of at Lawrencekirk, in the county of Kin- the Minstrel (4to.), and, in 1774, the seccardine, in 1735. He lost his father when ond; which pleasing poem is, indisputahe was only seven years of age, but was bly, the work by which he will be the placed early at the only school his birth- longest remembered. To a splendid ediplace afforded, whence he was removed tion of his Essay on Truth, published, by to Marischal college, Aberdeen. He there subscription, in 1776, he added some misstudied Greek, under the principal, Thom- cellaneous dissertations on Poetry and as Blackwell, and made a general profi- Music, Laughter and Ludicrous Compociency in every branch of education, sition, &c. In 1783, he published Dism except mathematics. In 1753, he ob- sertations, Moral and Critical (4to.); and



in 1786, appeared his Evidences of the tains 3 churches and a seminary, which Christian Religion (2 vols., 12mo.) In was incorporated as a college, endowed 1790, he published the first volume of his with funds amounting to 60 or $70,000, Elements of Moral Science, the second having a handsome edifice, and a library of which followed in 1793; and to the of 700 voluines, but it has hitherto aslatter was appended a dissertation against sumed only the form of an academy. the slave-trade. His last publication was BEAUFORT, Henry, legitimate brother an Account of the Life, Character and of Henry IV, king of England, was made Writings of his eldest son, James Henry bishop of Lincoln, whence he was transBeattie, an amiable and promising young lated to Winchester. He was also nomman, who died at the age of 22, in 1790. inated chancellor of the kingdom, and This great affliction was followed, in sent ambassador to France. In 1426, he 1796, by the equally premature death of received a cardinal's hat, and was aphis youngest and only surviving son, in pointed legate in Germany. In 1431, he his 18th year; which losses, added 5 the crowned Henry VI in the great church melancholy loss of reason by his wife, of Paris. He died at Winchester, 1447. wholly subdued his constitution; and, He was a haughty, turbulent prelate, and after two paralytic strokes, he died at Shakspeare is considered as giving a true Aberdeen, in August, 1803. B. was a portrait of him, when he describes his religious and an amiable man, but consti- last scene. tutionally more calculated for a poet than BEAUHARNAIS, Alexander, viscount ; a philosopher, and for a pleader than a born in 1760, in Martinique; served with controversialist. He was, however, a re- distinction, as major, in the French forces spectable, if not a strong writer, and under Rochambeau, which aided the U. might have been thought more of at States in their revolutionary war; married present, had he been thought less of Josephine Tascher de la Pagerie, who heretofore.

was afterwards the wife of Napoleon. BEAUCAIRE ; a small, well-built, com- At the breaking out of the French revomercial city of France, with 8000 inhab- lution, he was chosen a member of the itants (lon. 4° 43' E.; lat. 43° 48' N.), in national assembly, of which he was, for Lower Languedoc, now in the depart- some time, president, and which he openment of the Gard, on the right bank of ed, after the king's departure, with the the Rhone, opposite Tarascon, with which following words :- Messieurs, le roi est it communicates by a bridge of boats. It parti cette nuit : passons à l'ordre du jour. has a commodious harbor for vessels In 1792, he was general of the army of which ascend the river from the Mediter- the Rhine, and, in 1793, was appointed ranean, 7 leagues distant, and is famous minister of war. In consequence of the for its great fair (founded in 1217, by decree re noving men of noble birth from Raymond II, count of Toulouse), held the army, he retired to his country-seat. yearly, from the 22d July, during 10 days. He was falsely accused of having proIn former times, this fair was frequented moted the surrender of Mentz, and was by merchants and manufacturers from sentenced to death, July 23, 1794, when most countries of Europe, the Levant, 34 years old. For information respecting and even from Persia and Armenia, so his son Eugene, viceroy of Italy, see that many thousand booths were erected Eugene ; respecting his daughter Horfor foreigners in the adjoining valley. tense, see Louis Bonaparte ; and respectBefore 1632, the fair of B. was exempting his elder brother, François Beauharfrom all taxes, and the annual sale nais, see the next article.) amounted to several million dollars. BEAUHARNAIS, François, marquis de; Since that time, B. has gradually declined, born at La Rochelle, Aug. 12, 1756; voted and its trade, the articles of which are the with the right side in the national assemproductions of the vicinity, was valued, bly. He viclently opposed the motion in 1816, at 23,000,000 francs.

of his younger brother, the viscount AlBEAUFORT; a seaport and post-town exander, to take from the king the chief in a district of the same name, in South command of the army, and would not Carolina, on Port Royal island, at the listen to any of the amendments promouth of the Coosawhatchie ; 60 miles posed, saying, Il n'y a point d'amendement N. E. Savannah, 72 S. W. Charleston; avec l'honneur. He was called, in conselon. 80° 33' W.; lat. 32° 31' N.; popula- quence of this, le féal Beauharnais sans tion about 1000. It is a very pleasant uwendement. In 1792, with the count and healthy town, with an excellent har- d'Hervilly, the baron de Viomenil and bor, though but little commerce. It con- others, he formed the project of a new

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flight of the royal family ; but the arrest causes of proscription. He still possessof his companion, the baron Chambon, ed, at the age of more than sixty, all the

was appointed major-general in the army but his gayety. His contract to supply of the prince of Condé, and wrote, in the U. States with military stores, during 1792, to the president of the national their revolutionary war, had increased his assembly, protesting against their unlaw- fortune, of which he always made a noble ful treatment of the king, and offering to use; but he lost about a million livres by appear himself among his defenders. his famous edition of the works of VolWhen Bonaparte became first consul, the taire, the very imperfect execution of marquis sent him a letter, in which he which was not answerable to the imexhorted him, by the glory which he mense cost. He lost still more, at the end would gain by such a course, to restore of 1792, by his attempt to provide the the sceptre to the house of Bourbon. French army with 60,000 muskets. DisThe empress Josephine married her contented with the present, despairing of niece, the daughter of the marquis, to the future, wearied with struggling against the emperor's aid, Lavalette (q. V.), and the revolution and his creditors for the effected the recall of the marquis. Ap- ruins of his wealth, he died, at the age of pointed senator, and ambassador to the 69 years, without any particular disease, court of Spain, he united, in 1807, with in May, 1799. His biography appeared the prince of the Asturias (now Ferdinand in 1802; and, in 1809, an edition of his VII), against the prince of peace, and fell works, in 7 vols.-B. was a singular ininto disgrace with Napoleon, who ban- stance of versatility of talent, being at ished him. After the restoration, he re- once an artist, politician, projector, merturned to Paris, where he died, Jan. 10, chant and dramatist. He was passion1819.

ately attached to celebrity. His Marriage BEAUMARCHAIS, Pierre Augustin Caron of Figaro excited one of those extraorde; born at Paris, 1732; son of a watch- dinary sensations, for which Paris has maker, who destined him for his trade. always been remarkable. The English He early gave striking proofs of his me- modifications and versions of this comedy chanical and also of his musical talents. convey but a slight notion of the misHe was afterwards the teacher on the chievous subtlety and deep spirit of inharp of the daughters of Louis XV, and trigue in the original. B. left to his heirs was admitted into their society. By a a claim against the U. States of a million rich marriage, he laid the foundation of of francs for supplies furnished during the his immense wealth. He now aspired to war, which has been repeatedly presented literary reputation. His Eugenie appear- to congress, but always rejected on the ed in 1767; Les deux Amis in 1770. The ground that B. acted only as the agent of first still holds its place on the stage. He the French government, from whom he showed all his talent in his lawsuit against received funds to that amount. Goesman and La Blache, when he wrote BEAUMONT, Francis, and FLETCHER, against the former (who belonged to the John; two dramatic writers. The former parlament Maupeou, so called, which was was born in 1585, studied at Oxford, and engaged in a dispute with the ministry) died in 1616; the latter was born at Lonhis celebrated Memoires (Paris, 1774), don in 1576, and died there, in 1625, of which entertained all France. Had he the plague. Animated by the same inremained more quiet, he probably would clination, they both devoted themselves have gained his process. The fame of to poetry. Their plays, about 50, aphis Memoires alarmed even Voltaire, who peared under their joint names (London, was jealous of every kind of glory. The 1679, and lately, 1812, in 14 vols.), and it Barber of Seville and the Marriage of is impossible now to determine their reFigaro have given him a permanent rep- spective shares in these productions. utation. Shortly before the revolution, According to the testimony of some of he was involved in the process against their contemporaries, Fletcher was the the banker Kommann. In 1792, he inventing genius, while Beaumont, though wrote La Mère coupable, but never re- the younger, was more distinguished for gained his former fame. He was once maturity and correctness of judgment. inore in his true element in his memoir Shakspeare was their model, and, like Mes six Époques. He relates, in that him, they intermix pathetic and low work, the dangers to which he was ex- comic scenes; but their attempts to surposed, in a revolution, where a celebrated pass their model sometimes lead them name talent and riches, were sufficient into extravagances. The desire, also, of

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