« ForrigeFortsett »
gundy wines. The Bordelais are the safest merly Dulamon, is equal to St. Bris and wines for daily use, as they are among Carbonieux. Among other red wines are the most perfect of the light wines, and the Bourgeais, which are of a fine color, do not easily excite intoxication. They and acquire by age lightness and an have been accused of producing the gout, agreeable almond aroma: of all the Borbut without reason. Persons who drench delais wines, they most resemble the Burthemselves with Madeira, Port, &c., and gundy wines. The first growths are indulge in an occasional debauch of claret, Debosquet, Chateau-Rousset, Tajac and may, indeed, be visited in that way; be- Falfax. The Bourgeais wines were forcause a transition from the strong bran- merly preferred to Médoc. The wines died wines to the lighter is always fol- of St. Emilion have been much esteemed. lowed by a derangement of the digestive The Fronsac and Canon are the best. organs. The principal vineyards are those Those of Entre-deux-Mers become agreeof Médoc, Graves, Palus and Vignes able with age. The vins de Côtes are good Blanches; after these, those of Entre- vins ordinaires: they are generally fermes deux-Mers, St. Emilion and the Bourgeais and hard, and improve by age. The best are the most important. The first growth are those of Bassens and Cenon. Those of Médoc are the famous wines of Cha- of St. Gervais, Cadillac and St. Romain teaux-Margaux, Lafitte and Latour. The are soft and agreeable. (For further inLafitte is characterized by its silky soft- formation, see Le Guide ou Conducteur ness on the palate, and a perfume partak- de l'Étranger a Bordeaux ; 2d ed., Bouring of violet and raspberry. The Latour deaux, 1827, which contains a minute is fuller, has more aroma, but less softness. account of the wines raised in the neighThe Chateaux-Margaux is lighter than borhood of Bourdeaux. See, also, A. the Latour, and delicate, like the Lafitte, Henderson's History of the Ancient and but has not so high a flavor. Of the sec- Modern Wines, 4to., London, 1824.) The ond growth, we may mention the Rauran light wines of Bourdeaux might be very and the Leoville. The average produce advantageously substituted, in the U. of the first growth is 100 tonneau (of 217 States, for the strong liquors too generally gallons each). The soil of Médoc is a drank in this country sandy and calcarious loam. The gravelly BORDENTOWN, in New Jersey ; on the lands (les Graves), to the south and west east side of the Delaware, 26 miles N. E. of Bourdeaux, produce the Graves. The of Philadelphia. It is a small, pleasant first growth of the red Graves is the Haut- town, and now the residence of Joseph Brion, which rivals the first growth of Bonaparte. Médoc; it has more color and body, but BORDONE, Paris, a celebrated painter is inferior in aroma and taste. The of the Venetian school, born at Treviso, principal white Graves are St. Bris and in 1500, died in 1570. Under Titian, he Carbonieux. The best Médoc ought to be made rapid progress in painting. The kept three or four years before removal; execution of many works for his native the Graves five or six. The wines of city and for Venice spread his fame as Palus, which is a bed of rich alluvial de- far as France, whither he was invited by posits, are inferior to the preceding; they the king. The galleries of Dresden and are stronger and more deeply colored than Vienna possess several of his pieces. those of Médoc. Being hard and rough, His most famous picture is the Old Gonthey are improved by a voyage, and dolier presenting a Ring to the Doge; it is are principally sent to the East Indies painted in oil, and now to be seen at and America as vins de cargaison, or are Venice. mixed with Médoc, which is intended for BOREAL; northern. exportation. By the voyage, they become BOREAS; the north wind, worshipped more light and delicate, but are not to be by the Greeks as a deity, residing in compared with the growths of Médoc and Thrace, and represented with wings, the Graves. The best are Queyries and which, as well as his hair and beard, Mt. Ferrand. The former are deeply were full of flakes of snow; instead of colored, and have much body. Age gives feet, he had the tails of serpents, and, with them an agreeable aroma, resembling that the train of his garment, le stirred up of a raspberry. Among the white Borde- clouds of dust. Boreas was the son of lais wines, besides those already mention- Astreus and of Aurora. When Apollo ed, the finest growths are Sauternes, and his favorite Hyacinthus were once Preignac, Barsac and Bommes. Martillac playing at quoits, he blew the quoit of the and St. Medard are of a good quality, and former, of whom he was jealous, upon have lightness and body. Dariste, for- the head of the youth, who was killed by
the blow, By Orithya, daughter of Erec- e. g., the Borghese Gladiator, the Hertheus of Athens, he was father of Cleopa- maphrodite, the Silenus, the Dying Senetra, Chione, Calais and Zetes. The last ca, Amor and Psyche. Bonaparte protwo partook in the Argonautic expedi- vided for the payment out of the national
domains in Piedmont, which the king of BORGHESE ; a Roman family, which Sardinia confiscated in 1815.; at the same derives its origin from Sienna. They time, in consequence of the second invahave held the highest offices in this re- sion of France, the prince received back. public, from the middle of the 15th cen- part of these treasures of art. He now tury. Pope Paul V, who belonged to lives in Florence. In 1818, he sold Luthis family, and ascended the papal chair cedio, in Savoy, for 3,000,000 livres. In in 1605, loaded his relations with honors the kingdom of Naples, he possesses the and riches. In 1607, he appointed his principalities Sulmone and Rosano. He brother, Francesco B., leader of the troops is one of the richest Italian princes. Dursent against Venice to maintain the papal ing his residence in Rome, in 1826, Leo claims; bestowed the principality of Sul- XII treated him with great distinction, mone on Marco Antonio B., the son of and the establishment of some pious inhis brother Giovanni Battista; granted him stitutions was expected from him. a revenue of 150,000 dollars, and obtained BORGHESE, Marie Pauline, princess, for him the title of a grandee of Spain. originally Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon, Another of his nephews, Scipione Caffa- born at Ajaccio, Oct. 20, 1780, went, relli, he created cardinal, and made him when the English occupied Corsica, in adopt the name of B. From Marco An- 1793, to Marseilles, where she was on the tonio B., prince of Sulmone, is descended point of marrying Freron, a member of the rich family of B., which is continued the convention, and son of that critic in the prince Camillo B. and his brother whom Voltaire made famous, when anFrancesco, prince B. Aldobrandini. (See other lady laid claim to his hand. The Cenci.)
beautiful Pauline was then intended for BORGHESE, Camillo Philip Louis, general Duphot, who was afterwards prince; formerly duke of Guastalla, murdered at Rome, in December, 1797; prince of France, &c.; born 1775, at but she bestowed her hand, from choice, Rome; son of Marco Antonio B. When on general Leclerc, then at Milan, who the French invaded Italy, he entered had been, in 1795, chief of the general their service, showed great attachment to staff of a division at Marseilles, and had the cause of France, in particular to gen- there fallen in love with her. When Leeral Bonaparte; went, in 1803, to Paris, clerc was sent to St. Domingo, with the and married the second sister of Napole- rank of captain-general, Napoleon ordered on, Pauline, widow of general Leclerc. her to accompany her husband with her In 1804, he became a French prince, and son. She embarked, in December, 1801, grand cross of the legion of honor, and, at Brest, and was called, by the poets of at the breaking out of the war against the fleet, the Galatea of the Greeks, the Austria, in 1805, commander of a squad- Venus marina. Her statue, in marble, has ron of the imperial guard. After its ter- since been made by Canova, at Rome-a mination, his wife received the duchy of successful image of the goddess of beauty. Guastalla, and he was created duke of She was no less courageous than beautiful, Guastalla. After having served, in 1806, for when the Negroes, under Christophe, in the campaign against the Prussians stormed Cape François, where she reand Russians, and after having been sent sided, and Leclerc, who could no longer to Warsaw, to prepare the Poles for a re- resist the assailants, ordered his lady and volt, the emperor appointed him governor- child to be carried on shipboard, she general of the provinces beyond the Alps. yielded only to force. After the death of He fixed his court at Turin, and became her husband, Nov. 23, 1802, she married, very popular among the Piedmontese. at Morfontaine, Nov. 6, 1803, the prince After the abdication of Napoleon, he Camillo Borghese. (q. v.) Her son died broke up all connexion with the Bona- at Rome, soon after. With Napoleon, parte family, and separated from his wife. who loved her tenderly, she had many
The prince sold to the French govern- disputes, and as many reconciliations; for ment, for the sum of 8,000,000 francs, she would not always follow the caprices 322 works of art, which ornamented the of his policy. Yet even the proud style palace of his ancestors, known under the in which she demanded what her brothers name of the villa Borghese. (See Rome.) begged, made her the more attractive to Among them were several masterpieces; her brother. Once, however, when she
forgot herself towards the empress, whom few days, from the camp of the king. In she never liked, she was obliged to leave 1497, Alexander bestowed the duchy of the court. She was yet in disgrace, at Benevento, together with the counties of Nice, when Napoleon resigned his crown Terracina and Ponte-corvo, on his eldest in 1814; upon which occasion she imme- son, who had already received from the diately acted as a tender sister. Instead king of Spain the duchy of Gandia. of remaining at her palace in Rome, she Cæsar became jealous of his elevation, set out for Elba, to join her brother, and and, when the duke of Gandia was muracted the part of mediatrix between him dered, a week after his investiture, public and the other members of his family. opinion accused his brother Cæsar of the When Napoleon landed in France, she deed. His father permitted him to lay went to Naples, to see her sister Caroline, aside the purple, and devote himself to and afterwards returned to Rome. Be- the profession of arms, and sent him to fore the battle of Waterloo, she placed all France, to carry to Louis XII the bull
at the disposal of her brother. They were which he had long desired to obtain. in his carriage, which was taken in that Louis rewarded B., for the compliance of battle, and was shown publicly at Lon- his father, with the duchy of Valentinois, don. He intended to have returned them a body-guard of 100 men, and 20,000 lito her. She lived, afterwards, separated vres a year, and promised to aid him in from her husband, at Rome, where she his projects of conquest. In 1499, Cæsar occupied part of the palace Borghese, and married a daughter of king John of Nawhere she possessed, from 1816, the villa varre, and accompanied Louis XII to ItSciarra. Her house, in which taste and aly. He first undertook the conquest of love of the fine arts prevailed, was the Romagna, expelled the lawful possessors centre of the most splendid society at of the land, caused them to be treacherRome. She often saw her mother, her ously murdered, and himself to be apbrothers Lucien and Louis, and her uncle pointed, by his father, duke of Romagna, Fesch. When she heard of the sickness in 1501. In the same year, he wrested of her brother Napoleon, she repeatedly the principality of Piombino from Jacopo requested permission to go to him at St. d'Apiano. He also endeavored, though Helena. She finally obtained her request, in vain, to make himself duke of Bologna but the news of his death arrived imme- and Florence. In 1502, he announced diately after. She died, June 9, 1825, that he was about to attack Camerino, at Florence. She left many legacies, and and demanded, for that purpose, soldiers a donation, by the interest of which two and artillery from Guidobaldo of Monteyoung inen of Ajaccio will be enabled to feltro, duke of Urbino. Camerino was study medicine and surgery. The rest taken by storm, and Julius of Barona, the of her property she left to her brothers, lord of the city, with both his sons, was the count of St. Leu and the prince of strangled at the command of B. This Montfort. Her whole property amounted fate he prepared for all whom he had to 2,000,000 francs.
robbed. Those who did not fall into his Borgia, Cæsar; the natural son of an hands, he pursued with poison or the ecclesiastic, who afterwards became pope dagger. Meanwhile, all the petty princes Alexander VI, and of a Roman lady, had united, and collected the soldiery for named Vanozza. At a time when the court their defence; but Cæsar B. terrified some of Rome was a school of falsehood and by means of 3000 Swiss, whom he called licentiousness, and compacts and oaths to Italy, and gained over others by advanafforded no security, he reduced crime to tageous offers. Thus he dissolved their a system. Other princes have shed more alliance, seized their lands, and saw no blood, have exercised more atrocious cru- further obstacle to his being made, by his elty ; but his name is stigmatized with father, king of Romagna, of the March, the greatest infamy; for with B. all was and of Umbria, when Alexander VI died, calculated with cool reflection. He pro- Aug. 17, 1503. At the same time, Cæsar faned whatever was most holy for the at- B, was attacked by a severe disease, at a tainment of his purposes. His father, moment when his whole activity and who had become pope in 1492, invested presence of mind were needed. He him with the purple. When Charles found means, indeed, to get the treasures VIII of France made his entry into Romne, of his father into his possession, assemAlexander was obliged to treat with hiin, bled his troops in Rome, and formed a and delivered Cæsar B. into his hands as closer alliance with France; but enemies al hostage, who escaped, however, after a rose against him on all sides, one of the
most bitter of whom was the new pope, ral cord, which coils and uncoils itself Julius II. B. was arrested and carried to successively upon the drill, and is aided Spain, where he remained for two years by a weight or fly-Boring for water has in prison. He at length made his escape been, of laté, successfully employed in to his brother-in-law the king of Navarre, obtaining a supply without sinking a went with him to the war against Castile, well. In the progress of the boring, freand was killed by a shot before the castle quent veins of water are passed through, of Biano, March 12, 1507.-Cæsar B. was but the operation should be continued untemperate and sober, loved and protected til a main spring is struck, which, if from the sciences, wrote verses himself, and a sufficiently elevated source, will flow possessed so much eloquence, that he se- up to the surface; otherwise a well must duced even those who were most on their be sunk to the level of the source, and the guard against his treacherous designs. water must be raised by a pump. To ex
BORGIA, Stefano, cardinal, superintend- clude mineral waters, land-springs, &Cog ent of the Propaganda, one of the noblest the hole is generally cased with a metalprotectors of science in the 18th century, lic pipe. was born at Velletri, in 1731, and died BORNEO, next to New Holland, the November 23, 1804, in Lyons. His life largest island in the world, is about 800 was affected, in various ways, by the po- miles long and 700 broad, with a populitical revolutions of Europe. The dicta- lation estimated at from 3,000,000 to torship of Rome was intrusted to him, 5,000,000. Lon. 109° to 1190 E.; lat. 70 together with two other cardinals, by N. to 4° 20 S. Its central parts have Pius VI, when the French attacked the never been explored by Europeans, and city. His Memorie istoriche della Città di the insalubrity of its climate has preventBenevento del secolo VIII al XVIII (3 ed them from frequenting its shores. On vols., 1763, 4to.), show his ability as a his- this account, the geography of Borneo is torian and antiquary.
very imperfect. The principal chain of BORGNE ; a bay or gulf (improperly mountains is called the Crystal mountain, called lake) in Louisiana, east of lake from the numerous crystals they contain. Pontchartrain. It communicates with The island is often devastated by volcathe gulf of Mexico and lake Pontchar- noes and earthquakes. The coast, for 10 train, and is 40 miles long and about 15 or 20 miles inland, is marshy, and a broad.
considerable portion is a moving bog. BORING is a species of circular cutting, Though situated under the equator, the in which a cylindrical portion of a sub- heat is not excessive, being moderated by stance is gradually removed. When the sea and mountain breezes, and by the tubes of metal are to be formed, a cast is, rains, which are incessant from Novemin some cases, made in solid metal, and ber till May. Some of the rivers are the whole of the bore is produced by the large. The principal are the Borneo, the boriing machine: in others, the cast is Banjarmassing and Passmir. Gold is made hollow at first, and the borer is on- found in large quantities. Diamonds, ly used to give uniformity and finish to which are found no where else but in the inside of the tube. In boring cannon, Hindostan and Brazil, are confined to the the tool is at rest while the cannon re- south and west coasts. The best are obvolves. By this arrangement the bore is tained from Landak. The miners are the formed with more accuracy than by the aboriginal savages. The petty prince of old method of putting the borer in mo- Maltan is in possession of one of the tion. The tool is kept pressed against largest diamonds in the world. It is valthe cannon by a regular force. Cylinders ued at 1,200,000 dollars, which is 150,000 of steam-engines are cast hollow, and af dollars less than the Russian, and 500,000 terwards bored ; but, in this case, the borer more than the Pitt diamond. The other revolves, and the cylinder remains at rest. minerals are iron, copper and tin. Pearl In either case, the axis of the borer and and mother of pearl are found on the that of the cylindrical material should co- north coast. Rice, yams and betel, with incide ; for otherwise, if the borer revolve, all the fruit-trees of India, excellent shipit will perforate obliquely; is the material timber, groves of nutmeg and clove-trees, revolve, the perforation will be conical. pepper, ginger and cotton, are produced The instruments used are gimlets, augers, on the island. The camphor differs from centrebits, drills, &c. Drills are made to that of Japan, and is found only in Suturn rapidly, either in one direction by matra and Borneo, Benzoin, a species means of a lathe-wheel and pulley, or al- of resin, is produced in great abundance. ternately in opposite directions by a spi- B. produces the pongo, the largest of the
monkey tribe, which grows to the size of pastures. Oats, butter and fish constitute a man; the oran-outang, which bears the the principal riches of the inhabitants. strongest resemblance to the human spe- There are mines of coal and quarries of cies in look, manners, and gait; two spe- marble in the island. cies of wild buffalo, wild boars, elephants BORNOU, a kingdom of Central Africa, and tigers. The species of birds are in- lying between 150 and 10° N. lat., and 126 numerable, and most of them different and 18° E. lon., is bounded N. by Kanem from those of Europe. The salangane or and the Desert, E. by lake Tchad, S. by swallow, which constructs edible nests, is Mandara, and W. by Soudan. The first numerous. Wild bees supply wax, which Europeans by whom it was visited, major is exported in great quantity. The coasts Denham and captain Clapperton, furnish are inhabited by Malays, Javanese, Bugis us with the most authentic information or natives of Celebes, and some descend- concerning this country (Travels in Northants of Arabs, who are all subject to des- ern and Central Africa, in 1822, 23 and potic princes called sultans. Moham- 24; London, 1826). From March to July, medanism is the prevailing religion. The the heat is extreme, the thermometer rising princes and nobles live in a style of bar- to 107°, and rarely falling below 86° Fahr.: barous pomp.. The interior is peopled during this time, scorching winds from the by a race of Malay colonists, who have south prevail. As in other tropical counbeen longer established on the island than tries, the seasons are divided into the dry those of the coasts. They are called Bi- and rainy: the latter continues from March ajoos or Viajas. The natives are called to October, when the air becomes milder Dejakkese or Idaan. They are fairer than and fresher. The country is populous, the Malays, tall, robust and ferocious. containing 13 principal towns. These are They extract some of the front teeth, and generally large and well built, with walls insert pieces of gold in their stead. Their 40 feet high and about 20 feet thick. The bodies are painted, and their only cloth- houses consist of several court-yards, ing is a girdle round the middle. The with apartments for slaves, habitations for Biajoos hang up the skulls of their ene- the different wives, and several turrets mies at the doors of their huts. The connected by terraces, forming the apartHarafooras, a race of the interior, differ ments of the owner. The Shouaas are from the Idaans in having darker com- Arabians: they are deceitful, arrogant and plexions and longer ears. Their dancing cunning. The Bornou people, or Kanowgirls are much admired by Europeans for ry, have Negro features: they are peacetheir activity and grace. The forests of able and quiet, but cowardly, and addictthe central region are occupied by Papu- ed to pilfering. The government, until ans. Several European nations have at lately, has been an elective absolute montempted to form settlements on the island. archy, under a sultan. The sultanship is The Dutch alone have succeeded in form- now but a name, the real power being in ing permanent establishments. Their the hands of El Kanemy, sheikh of the chief profits are derived from pepper and Coran, an able, warlike and popular chief. diamonds. On the north-west part of His force is chiefly cavalry, and is estithe island, 10 miles from the sea, on a mated at about 30,000 men, armed with fine river, is situated the town of Borneo. spears, shields and daggers. The chiefs, It contains 3000 houses, and is the seat wear jackets of chain armor, cuirasses, or of a sultan who formerly reigned over the coats of mail. Indian corn, cotton and inwhole island. The houses are often built digo are the most valuable productions of on rafts, moored to the shore, so as to rise the soil. Very few fruits or vegetables are and fall with the tide: the chief commu- raised, and agriculture is in a wretched nication is by means of boats. The in- state. The domestic animals are asses, habitants carry on considerable trade with camels, horses, dogs, sheep, goats, cows, China: they are said to be intelligent, and and innumerable herds of oxen. Lions, faithful to their contracts, but, in other panthers, leopards, hyenas, jackals, elecases, prone to treachery, and the crews phants (in herds of from 50 to 400) and of vessels trading here cannot be too buffaloes crowd the forests. The crocomuch on their guard against them. dile and hippopotamus are considered a
BORNHOLM; an island belonging to Den- luxury A Shouaa belle, arrayed for con Inark, in the Baltic sea, nearly surrounded quests, her hair streaming with fat, a with rocks; lon. 15? E.; lat. 55° 10' N.; black rim of kohol round her eyes, sits pop., 18,902. It is about 28 miles long, jambe deçà, jambe delà on her favorite and 18 broad. Square miles, 218. The bullock, who is guided by a thong passed soil is stony, but fertile, with excellent through the cartilage of his nose. The