« ForrigeFortsett »
ostrich, pelican, crane and Guinea fowl Grotte Terrene, it communicates with the abound. The air is filled with locusts, gardens, which are laid out in the French which are devoured by the natives, both taste, upon 10 terraces, rising above each roasted and boiled, and formed into balls other, and narrowing in proportion to of a sort of paste. The mineral produc- their elevation. The whole has the aptions are unimportant. The principal pearance of a truncated "pyramid, on the return which the Moorish merchants ob- top of which stands a colossal unicorn, tain for their goods is slaves. The cur- the armorial ensign of the Borromei. rency of the country consists of strips of Orange, citron and lemon-trees, united by cotton, about three inches wide and a fine hedges, or forming arbors, breathe yard long, called gubbuk, four or five of their fragrance; lofty laurels form a little which make a rottala.
grove; myrtles and cypresses are to be BORODINO. (See Moscow, Battle of.) seen, together with pomegranate-trees, the
BOROUGH; originally, a fortified town. fruit of which ripens here; for the mounIn England, the term was early restricted tains which crown the lake serve as a shelto those towns which sent burgesses to ter against the cold winds. The climate parliament. This burden, as it was once of the Isola Madre, however, is milder considered, was probably imposed on the than that of the Isola Bella. In the latter, largest and wealthiest towns, or on those the orange and citron-trees, &c. must be which had placed themselves under the secured, in winter, by boards laid over protection of some baron. The number them, and, in extreme cold, by applying of boroughs in Great Britain, represented charcoal-pans underneath. The inhabitin parliament, is 222, sending 396 bur ants of the Isola dei Pescatori carry on a gesses: of these, 171 are in England, and trade in fish to Milan and Piedmont, and are represented by 339 burgesses. Sev- are engaged in smuggling. eral centuries have elapsed since the dis- BORROMEO, Carlo, count, of an ancient tribution of representatives among the Milanese family, born, Oct. 2, 1538, at towns was fixed. Many places, formerly Arona, on Lago Maggiore, the family-seat populous, and entitled to be represented, of his virtuous and pious parents, was, at now contain not more than two or three the age of 12, a commendatory abbot ; houses, and yet retain their original priv- studied the law at Pavia; was, in 1559, ilege. These are called rotten boroughs. made doctor, and, in 1560, was succesSee Parliament.)
sively appointed, by his uncle, Pius IV, BORROMEI ISLANDS (Isole dei Conigli, apostolical prothonotary, referendary, caron account of the many rabbits there); dinal, and archbishop of Milan. From his four small islands in the Lago Maggiore, earliest youth, grave, pious and severe in Upper Italy, which is 30 miles in length towards himself, the young ecclesiastic, and 7 or 8 in breadth. The greater part at the age of 22, devoted himself to the belongs to Piedmont, the rest to the king- duties of government with a conscientious dom of Lombardy. Its banks are formed zeal. As legate over Romagna, the march of a beautiful Alpine country, with many of Ancona and Bologna, he had a great villages, villas, vineyards, gardens and share in the civil government: as protectchestnut groves. The islands have their or of Portugal, of the Netherlands, of name from the family of Borromeo, which, Switzerland, of the Franciscans, Carmelfor centuries, was in possession of the ites, and of the knights of Malta, he adrichest estates in the vicinity of the Lago ministered several important branches of Maggiore. Vitelliano Borromeo, in 1671, the spiritual government of the pope, who caused garden-soil to be spread over three created him his grand penitentiary, and naked rocks in this lake, and terraces to did nothing of importance without his be walled up. Thus arose the Isola Bella, advice. The re-opening and the results Isola Madre, L'Isolino and Isola dei Pes- of the council of Trent, so advantageous catori, the two first famous for their beau- to the papal authority, were chiefly effecttiful garden-grounds. The Isola Madre, ed by the great influence of B., which abounding in pheasants, lies in the middle was felt during the whole sitting of the of the lake. It consists of seven terraces, council. He did much for the embellishwith a kitchen-garden, cypresses, laurels, ment of the papal buildings, employing chestnuts and myrtles. The Isola Bella even his own fortune for that purpose, is loaded with artificial ornament. It and established many good institutions, contains a handsome palace of four sto- as archbishop of Milan; improved the dis. ries, which lies near the shore, and is cipline of the clergy, founded schools, semoccupied, for some months in the year, by. inaries, a regular order of secular divines, the count Borromeo. By means of the libraries, hospitals, and was indefatigable
in doing good. All his virtues, however, the most decided manner, and confirmed could not save him from persecution and by a refusal to listen to his remonstrances. calurnny; he was even severely attack- Blücher felt obliged to suspend him, from ed by the government, but no charge his command, and to report his behavior could be proved against him. He died, to the king. Borstell returned into his Nov. 3, 1584, at the age of 46, exhausted country, and a court-martial condemned by mental sufferings, the accusations of him to several years' confinement in a his enemies, and his monastical penances fortress. In the year 1815, he was parMiracles were immediately wrought at his doned and reinstated in his command by tomb, and his canonization took place in the king. 1616. Posterity will venerate the purity B ORY-DE-SAINT-VINCENT, J. B. G. M., of his life, the energy and grandeur of his born at Agen, 1772, displayed, from his character, his exemplary administration, earliest youth, an excessive ardor both on and the noble works which he accom- literary and political subjects. As a youth, plished; and, in spite of the bigotry which he was full of zeal for natural history, and, is to be attributed to the spirit of his age, as a man, his political views, though often and to his clerical relations, must acknowl erroneous, were always marked with edge his truly Christian and apostolic genius. This is the character of the escharacter.
says which he wrote in the Nain Jaune, BORSTELL, Louis George Leopold von; and Aristarque, and of the defence of his lieutenant-general in the Prussian service, principles, published in Aix-la-Chapelle. born in 1773. In the campaign against His Essai sur les Isles Fortunés de the French, in 1813, he commanded two l'Antique Atlantide ou Précis de l'Histoire brigades, and decided the battles of Gross- générale de l'Archipel des Canaries, and beeren and of Dennewitz; the latter, by his treatise on the cryptogamic plants, are hastening from Kropstädt to the field of full of original views. He accompanied battle, and, in opposition to the orders of captain Baudin, in 1798, in his voyage the crown-prince of Sweden, joining the round the coasts of New Holland, examinleft wing of Bülow, in order to take Gehls- ed closely the volcanoes of the island of dorf, the key of the enemy's position. Bourbon, and was led to form many geoGeneral B. was very active through the logical hypotheses. When military inwhole war, and, in 1815, had the com- tendant of the general staff of marshal mand of the 2d Prussian corps. While Soult, he showed much severity towards he was occupied with its organization in the commissaries. In 1815, he served as Namur, some battalions of Saxon guards colonel in the campaign under Napoleon. and grenadiers in Liege, excited by the After the battle of Waterloo, he proposed, news of the partition of their country, and July 1, to his colleagues of the chamber by some incautious expressions, as well of representatives, not to submit voluntaas by the measures which had been taken rily to the Bourbons. In consequence of to gain over the Saxon officers and sol- the royal decree of Jan. 17, 1816, he emidiers, broke the windows in the lodgings grated, and lived in Aix-la-Chapelle and of prince Blücher, and committed other Halberstadt, and, afterwards, in Brussels, excesses. It was necessary that they where, with van Mons, he edited à jourshould be punished in the most severe nal dedicated to natural science, which is manner, as many thousand soldiers, for- at present continued in Paris. He wrote, merly in the French and Westphalian also, an excellent work on the subterranean service, but now united under Prussian, quarries in the lime mountains near MaesEnglish, Belgian and other colors (many tricht. After his return, in 1820, he was of them yet attached to Napoleon), were engaged in many of the journals of the on the French borders, almost in sight of liberal party. He reported the sittings of the enemy, and there was danger of a the deputies in the. Courier Français, and repetition of these scenes, if they were assisted in Courtin's Encyclopédie. treated with clemency. Blücher therefore Bos, Lambert, a profound philologist, sent the guilty battalions to Namur, with was born at Worcum, in Friesland, 1670, orders to B. to disarm them, to burn their and died in 1717. He studied in the unicolors, and to shoot the ring-leaders. B. versity at Franeker, where his rapid and considered the order too severe: accus- brilliant progress obtained for him the comed to expose his person and life for Greek professorship in 1704. His Ellipses his own colors, he felt that such a dis- Græcce is a standard work, and has been grace must be worse than death; and he often printed. The edition of Schäffer adopted the determination of not obeying (Leipsic, 1808) is the best. The Antiquit. the command, although pronounced in Græc. Descriptio has also passed through
aumerous editions. His Vet. Test. ex and not less applause. The poems of B Versione LXX is highly esteemed. He are still esteemed. His other literary was also the author of several other valu- works, inostly translations, are forgotten. able philological works.
BOSCAWEN, Hon. Edward, a British Bosc, Louis Antoine Guillaume; super- admiral of the last century, was born in intendent of the French establishments 1711, and distinguished himself at Porto for breeding sheep; member of several Bello and at Carthagena, where, he stormlearned societies in France, &c.; born at ed a battery at the head of a part of his Paris, in 1759, where his father was phy- crew. In 1744, he was promoted to the sician to the king; måde himself known, Dreadnought, a sixty gun ship, in which from 1784 to 1788, as editor of the Jour- he took the Media. Three years afternal de Physique. Proscribed in the reign wards, he signalized himself under Anson, of terror, in 1793, he took refuge in the at the battle of cape Finisterre. Towards forest of Montmorency; and, though daily the close of this year, he was raised to the exposed to the danger of being taken and rank of rear-admiral, and despatched with executed, he occupied himself with labors a squadron to the East Indies. Though in natural history. In 1796, the directory he failed in an attempt on Pondicherry, sent him to the U. States, as consul at he succeeded in making himself master Wilmington, and afterwards at New York; of Madras, and returned to England, but the American government doubted where he obtained a seat at the admiralty whether the French directory was entitled board. In 1755, he again sailed for North to be represented by a consul. Thus America, and, in an action with a French exempt from official duties, he travelled squadron, two ships of the line fell into through the U. States, collecting botan- his hands. In 1758, in conjunction with ical and zoological specimens, and con- lord Amherst, who commanded the land tributing to the advancement of his favor- forces, he succeeded in reducing Louisite studies. In 1799, B. was made admin- bourg and cape Breton, and, the year folistrateur des hospices. From that time, he lowing, having then the command in the has been actively engaged in researches Mediterranean, pursued the Toulon fleet, in natural history. His brother, Etienne under De la Clue, through the straits of Bosc, an orator and author, combines a Gibraltar, and, coming up with it in Lagos profound knowledge of natural history bay, completely defeated it, burning two with an extensive acquaintance with po- ships and taking three. For these serlitical economy.
vices, he received the thanks of parliament | BOSCAN, Almogaver, Juan, a Spanish and £3000 a year, with the rank of genpoet, born towards the close of the 15th eral of marines, in 1760. He died in the century, at Barcelona, died about 1540. following year. He sat in the parliament His parents, who belonged to the most of 1743, as member for Truro, in his naancient nobility, gave him a careful edu- tive county. cation. He followed the court of Charles Boscovich, Roger Joseph, an astronV, and, in 1526, was attached to it for some omer and geometrician of distinguished time in Grenada. His noble manners eminence in the 18th century, was a naand character gained him the favor of the tive of Ragusa, in Dalmatia. He was edemperor. The education of the duke of ucated among the Jesuits, and, entering Alva was committed to him, and his in- into their order, was appointed professor structions developed the great qualities of mathematics in the Roman college, which the duke afterwards displayed. before he had entirely completed the After his marriage, B. lived at Barcelona, course of his studies. He was employed occupied in publishing his works, togeth- by pope Benedict XIV in various underer with those of his deceased friend Gar- takings, and, in 1750, began the measurecilaso, in which he was employed at the ment of a degree of the meridian in the time of his death. B. was persuaded to Ecclesiastical States, which operation ocattempt Italian measures in Spanish, by cupied him for two years. He afterAntonio Navagero, an Italian scholar and wards visited the Pontine marsh, to give
the court of the emperor. Thus he be- was then intrusted, by the repubric of came the creator of the Spanish sonnet, Lucca, with the defence of its interests, in and, with Garcilaso, first used the ter- : a dispute about boundaries with the goyzine in his poetical epistles and elegies. ernment of Tuscany. This affair obliged In general, he distinguished himself by him to go to Vienna, and, having termiintroducing Italian forms into Spanish nated it with success, he visited Paris and poetry, which met with great opposition, London. He was elected a fellow of the VOL. II.
royal society, and dedicated to this body are two thirds Christians, mostly of the a Latin poem on eclipses. Returning to Greek church, and one third Turks, who Italy, he was appointed mathematical pro- possess nearly all the territorial property fessor in the university of Pavia; whence, as allodiums or feuds, besides Jews and in 1770, he removed to Milan, and there Gipsies. The country is level towards erected the celebrated observatory at the the north; in the south, mountainous and college of Brera. On the suppression of woody. Its chief rivers are the Save, the the order of Jesuits, he accepted an invi- Verbas, the Bosna, Rama and Drina. B. tation to France from Louis XV, who contains fertile fields, orchards and vinegave him a pension of 8000 livres, with yards: the breed of cattle is excellent, and the office of director of optics for the the mountains furnish good iron, of which navy. This appointment induced him to a great part is manufactured in the counpay particular attention to that part of op- try into guns and blades. The other artitical science which treats of the theory of cles manufactured are leather, morocco, achromatic telescopes, on which subject and coarse woollen cloths. In the 12th he wrote a treatise of considerable extent. and 13th centuries, B. belonged to HunHe was obliged to leave Paris, in 1783, gary. In 1339, it fell into the hands of on account of ill health, when he retired Stephen, king of Servia. After his death, to Milan, where he died Feb. 12, 1787. . it remained independent, and the : Ban An edition of the works of father B. was Twartko took the title of king in 1370. published by himself, in 5 vols., 4to., 1785. In 1401, it became tributary to the Turks, His Theoria Philosophiæ Naturalis reducta and, since 1463, has been a Turkish proyad unicam Legem Virium in Natura ex- ince. It is divided into the southern and
istentium, first published in 1758, is a cu- northern parts, or Upper and Lower B. : rious production, containing speculations The former is called sometimes Herzogo
of which doctor Priestley availed himself vina, or the duchy of Saba, because the in his writings in favor of materialism. emperor Frederic III bestowed the title
BoSHMEN, BOSJESMEN, or BUSHMEN. of duke on the ruler of this district in (See Hottentots.)
1440. Travnik is the residence of the BOSHUANAS. (See Bushwanas.) pacha of B. The capital of the country
Bosio, N.; the most celebrated of liv- . is Bosna-Serai, or Saraievo (in Italian, ing French sculptors. · His Hercules, ex- Seraglio), at the confluence of the Migli
hibited in 1814, has been particularly azza with the Bosna, with 15,000 mostly · admired. - In the following year, he pro- miserable houses, and 60,000 inhabitants,
duced another excellent statue, his Her- including the garrison of 10,000 janiza: maphrodite. The artist received from ries. The citadel lies at some distance
Napoleon the cross of the legion of honor from the town. The taxes of Saraievo in 1815. The royal government has since are an appanage of the mother of the sulhonored him with important commissions, tan. Zwornick, Banjaluka and Turkish
and confirmed the choice of the academy Gradiska are also important in historical : of the fine arts, which elected him a and statistical points of view. The fear
member. Since 1823, his statue of Hen- of losing their property is the chief cause : ry IV, as a child, met with public admira- of the adherence of the Bosniacs to the tion. His statue of Louis XIV was des- Turkish government, since, in case of the tined for the place des victoires at Paris. conquest of B. by the Christians, they The execution is excellent; but the trans- expect the same treatment which the fer of the support of the horse to its tail Christians formerly experienced, when it might be objected to as contrary to mod- was conquered by the Turks. ern taste.
BOSPHORUS. The strait which leads · BOSJESMEN. (See Hottentots.) ..from the Black sea into the Propontis, or
BOSNIA; a Turkish province, with the sea of Marmora, was formerly so called, title of a kingdom, which comprehends, either because Io, after being metamorbesides the ancient B., part of Croatia, phosed into a cow, passed over at this (Sanjiak Bielogrod), between the rivers place, or because the strait is so narrow Unna and Verbas, a 'tract of Dalmatia and that an ox can swim across. When other Herzogovina, and is bounded N. by Scla- straits were afterwards called by the same vonia, W. by Croatia, S. by Dalmatia and : iame, this was called B. Thracicus. Over the Adriatic sea, and E. by Servia. B. this channel (5 stadia, about: 3300 feet contains 22,500 square miles, with 850,000 : wide) Darius constructed a bridge of boats, inhabitants, mostly of Sclavonian origin, on his expedition against the Scythiaris. Bosniacs and Morlacs, among whom are Bosphorus Cimmericus was the name giv50,000 Turkish militia. The inhabitants en by the ancients to the strait that leads
from the Black sea into the sea of Azof. sion of a Latin Bible, which made an The Italians, who formerly traded in these indelible impression upon him. At the regions, called it bocca di S. Giovanni, age of 15, he was sent to Paris, where he or estretto di Caffa. There was also an- entered the college of Navarre, the presiciently a kingdom of the name of B., so dent of which, Nicholas Cornet, took called from the straits, on both sides of : pleasure in forming his mind. B., under which it was situated. In Panticapæum the direction of this worthy teacher, (at present, Kertsch, q. v.) a'Milesian col- studied Greek and the Holy Scriptures, ony in the Tauric Chersonese, the Archæ- read the ancient classics, and investigated anaktides established this kingdom, B. C. the Cartesian philosophy. He was made 479, and reigned till B. C. 437. Spartacus doctor of the Sorbonne and canon in was the first king. Under his successor, "Metz. Here he edified his hearers by his Satyrus, the kingdom was extended to the preaching and example ; was commiscoast of Asia, and his son Leucon acquired sioned by his bishop to refute the cateTheodosia, B. C. 300. He improved the chism of the Protestant minister Paul commerce of the country (in particular by Ferry, and did it in such a way, that even thé exportation of corn to Athens, also of his antagonists were obliged to respect fishes, fur, skins, bees-wax and slaves). him. The queen mother (Anne of AusFrom him his descendants were called tria) was induced, by this work, to emLeuconides. Leucanor became tributary .ploy B. in the conversion of the Protestto the Scythians 290 B, C., and the trib- ants in the diocese of Metz. This business ute was finally so oppressive, that Pari- often called him to Paris, where his sersades, the last of the Leuconides, prefer- mons met with great approbation. The red to submit to Mithridates, the king of sermon which he delivered in 1668, on Pontus, who vanquished the Scythians the occasion of marshal Turenne's joining under Scilurus, 116 B. C., and made his 'the Catholic church, procured him the son king of B. The latter killed himself. bishopric of Condom. In 1670, the king At the death of Mithridates, the Romans charged him with the education of the gave the country, B. C. 64, to his second dauphin. In consequence of this apson, Pharnaces, who was afterwards mur- pointment, he resigned his bishopric in dered. The Romans placed different 1671, because he thought it inconsistent princes successively upon the throne, who with his dutý to retain it during a continall pretended to be descendants of Mith- ual absence from his diocese. At this ridates. When this family became ex- time, he delivered his sermon 'at the futinct, A. D. 259, the Sarmatians took pos- neral of madame, the duchess of Orleans, session of the kingdom, fi'om' whom it a princess, who, in the midst of a brilliant was taken by the Chersonides, in 344. court, of which she was the ornament, The Tauric Chersonese' then belonged to died suddenly in the bloom of youth. the Eastern empire, till it was seized by His last sermon of this kind (that at the the Chazars, and afterwards by the Tar- tomb of the great Condé) is considered as tars, under the Mongol princes. (See a masterpiece. The manly vigor which Ταινία.)
characterized his orations is seen also in "Bossi, Charles Aurele, baron de, born thé Discours sur l'Histoire Universelle, deat Türin, 1758, son of count Bossi de signed for the instruction of his royal Sainte-Agathe, is a lyric poet of reputa- pupil. The care which he took of the tion. In his 18th year, he published two education of this prince was rewarded, in tragedies—thé Circassians and Rhea Syl- 1680, by the office of the first almoner of vid. His great poem on the French rev- the dauphin ; in 1681, by the bishopric of olution, entitled L'Oromasid, and a com- Meaux; in 1697, he obtained the dignity plete collection of his poems, appeared in of a counsellor of state, and, a year afterLondon, 1814. Only a few copies were wards, that of the first almoner of the struck off. His present life, in Paris, is duchess of Burgundy. His practice and that of a scholar and a private man. His his doctrine were equally severe. All his former political life placed him in difficult time was divided between his studies and situations, and has exposed his conduct the execution of his official duties; he to reproach.
seldom allowed himself any recreation, Bossuet, Jacques Benigne, bishop of. The last years of his life he passed among Meaux, born at Dijon, 1627, was six years his flock, in the midst of whom he died, old when his father became member of in 1704. The learned Benedictines of the parliament at Metz. The son re, the brotherhood of St. Maur have lately mained at Dijon, in the college of the published a complete edition of all the Jesuits. By chance, the boy got posses- works of B. The style of B. is full of