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energy, but not without defects: his Latin 180 piers. The western avenue, so called, style is hard. The French academy con- leading across the bay, from the western sider him among their most renowned part of the city to Roxbury, is 8000 feet members. His life has been written by M. in length, and is formed of solid earth, de Bausset. (For his dispute with the arch- supported on each side by walls of stone. bishop of Cambray, Fenelon, see Fenelon It serves the double purpose of a bridge and Quietism.)

and a dam, by means of which and a BOSTANGI (gardeners); the guard of the cross dam, two large basins are formed, sultans in the seraglio, whose overseer is one of which is filled at every flood-tide, called bostangi baschi, and has the super- and the other is emptied at every ebb, intendence over the gardens of the se- whereby a perpetual water-power is cre raglio, over the channel of the Black sea, ated for carrying mills and machinery. and the imperial summer residences. This dam was built at a cost exceeding The bostangi baschi accompanies the $600,000. One of the bridges is free; all sultan in all his rides, and has the privi- the others are toll bridges. The streets lege of wearing a beard. The bostangi are mostly narrow and irregular, and are also the boatmen and executioners of some of them are crooked. The wharves the sultan.

are, in general, spacious, and afford ample BOSTON (anciently Botolph's Town); a accommodation to shipping, and storetown of England, in Lincoln ; 34 miles houses for merchandise. Long wharf is S. S. E. Lincoln, 115 N. London ; lon. 0° 1650 feet in length; Central wharf, 1240 21 W.; lat. 52° 48' N. Population in 1801, feet long and 150 wide. The wharves 5926; in 1811, 8113. It is nearly sur- and many of the streets have been made rounded by fens, on the Witham, which by raising the ground formerly covered is navigable, and forms a port, well fre- by the tide. The number of dwelling

canals. It has four annual fairs, and number of store-houses and shops. A markets on Wednesday and Saturday. great part of the buildings are of brick, It has a flourishing trade with the Baltic four stories in height. Many of them are for hemp, tar, timber, &c. In former of hammered granite and sienite. These periods, it stood high as a commercial are excellent building materials, of a town. The church is a handsome struct- beautiful, gray color, hard and durable, ure, and serves as a mark to seamen. splitting easily, and readily wrought into

BOSTON, the capital of Massachusetts the required form. Many of the dwelling and the largest city in New England, lies houses are large and well built. The 14 miles S. W. Salem, 40 N. N. E. Prov- principal public buildings are the stateidence, 56 S. W. Portsmouth, 100 E. N. house, which is of brick, is situated on E. Hartford, 210 N. E. New York, 300 the highest part of the city, and comS.S. E. Montreal, 300 N. E. Philadelphia, mands a view of the country and bay for 436 N. Washington; lon. 71° 4' W.; lat. many miles round; the county court420 22 N. Pop. in 1765, 15,520; in 1790, house, which is of stone; Faneuil hall, in 18,038; in 1800, 24,937; in 1810, 33,250; which town-meetings and public assemin 1820, 43,298; in 1825, 48,281. Its popu- blies for political discussions are held; lation, in 1829, amounted to 58,281. the Massachusetts general hospital, and It is situated at the bottom of Massachu- the Faneuil hall market, two handsome setts bay, at the mouth of Charles river. buildings of granite, the latter two stories It stands principally on a small peninsula in height, 540 feet in length and 50 feet of elevated ground, two miles and three in width; about 40 churches; 10 public quarters in length and one in breadth, and school-houses ; a house of industry, a is connected with the continent by a nar- house of correction; a county jail; and row neck of land, and by seven bridges. two theatres. Among the best specimens Including South Boston, which is without of architecture are the market-house, the peninsula, its whole extent is nearly Trinity church, the general hospital, seythree square miles. It has a capacious eral of the bank buildings, and the Treharbor, of sufficient depth of water for mont house, the front of which is built of the largest ships of war to enter safely gray sienite, and is ornamented with a and lie at anchor, protected from storms handsome portico of the Doric order, by a great number of islands, on several with fluted pillars. This last-named of which are fortifications. The bridges, building is finely situated, and is the most with one exception, are of wood. That elegant and commodious hotel in the U, which leads from B. to Cambridge is States. The city is divided into 12 wards, 3483 feet in length, and is supported by The municipal government is vested in a

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mayor, 8 aldermen, and a common coun- literary, scientific and charitable societies cil of 48 members. The executive pow- in B. Among the former are the Amerers are exercised by the mayor and alder- ican academy of arts and sciences, which men, and measures of a legislative char- has published four volumes of memoirs ; acter are adopted by a concurrent act of the historical society, which has published that board and of the common council. 22 volumes; the Massachusetts medical These officers are chosen annually by the society; the mechanic institution, under citizens, voting in the wards in which whose patronage courses of lectures for they reside. Ward officers are also chosen mechanics are delivered annually. Among annually to superintend the elections, the latter are the humane society; the

forms the county of Suffolk. The coun- furnished with medical attendance and ty is represented in the senate of the state medicine free of expense ; the female by six senators. Until the year 1821, the asylum, for the maintenance of female municipal affairs of the town were super- orphans; the boys' asylum, and several intended by a board of seven select-men, others. The pursuits of the inhabitants annually chosen; and all measures for are in a great measure mercantile. They raising and granting money, establishing carry on an extensive foreign trade, and schools, and making municipal regula- own many ships, which are employed not tions, were adopted in town-meeting, or only in the importing, exporting and assembly of the qualified voters, held in coasting trade, but in trade between forFaneuil hall. All public officers were eign markets. B. is the second commerchosen in town-meeting. There is a po- cial town in the U. States. The value of lice court of three justices, for examining the annual imports is about $13,000,000, all criminal charges and the trial of minor and that of the exports $9,000,000. The offences; and a municipal court, held by amount of shipping owned in B., at the a single judge, which has jurisdiction of commencement of 1828, was 161,583 tons. all criminal causes not capital, which are Many kinds of manufactures are carried tried by jury. The annual expenditures on here. The capitalists of B. are also of the city amount to about $300,000; of the principal proprietors in the joint stock which sum $53,000 are expended for the manufacturing companies established in support of schools ; $50,000 for paving, Lowell, Waltham, and other towns in repairing and widening streets; $30,000 Massachusetts and some of the neighbor

The public schools are, a Latin grammar been made, within a few years, in the school, open to all boys between the ages appearance of the city by the widening of 9 and 15; a high school, in which are and repaving of streets, the erection of taught the various branches of mathe- new and elegant buildings, and the emmatics and other branches of English edu- bellishment of the public grounds. The cation ; 8 grammar and writing schools, principal public square is the common, hany of which have 2 masters each--a which, with the mall, a gravelled walk grammar and a writing master, who teach, which surrounds it, covers a surface of alternately, boys and girls, at different about 50 acres. It is a handsome piece hours; one African school ; and 57 pri- of ground, has a sloping and undulating mary schools, which are kept by Wo- surface, is partly shaded with elms, and is men, and in which children from four to surrounded by some of the most elegant seven years of age are taught to read, buildings in the city. There are six spell and write. The schools are under newspapers published daily, three semithe direction of a school committee, con- weekly, several weekly, and a number of sisting of the mayor and aldermen and 12 other periodical journals, some of which members, annually elected. The princi- are conducted with great ability, and are pal literary institution in the vicinity, extensively circulated. Among these are Harvard university, is situated at Cam- the North American Review and the bridge, three miles from the city. The Christian Examiner. B. was founded in medical branch of this institution is es- August, 1630. It received the name of B. tablished in Boston, where the professors from a borough of the same name in Linreside. The Boston athenæum has two colnshire, England (from which a part of large buildings; one containing a library, the inhabitants emigrated), by a vote of and the other a picture gallery, a hall for the court of assistants, September 7, and, public lectures, and other rooms for sci- on the 19th of October of the same year, entific purposes. The library consists of the general court of the colony was held at out 24,000 volumes. There are many there. This general court was not com

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posed of representatives, but of the pro- of three ships loaded with tea, after various prietors under the charter, acting in their unsuccessful attempts had been made by own right. The first church was built in public meetings of the citizens, to prevent 1632. The Middlesex canal, leading from its being landed and sold, in violation of Boston harbor to the Merrimack river, the non-importation resolves of the peoforms with this river a navigable channel ple, a number of men, disguised as In to Concord in New Hampshire. There dians, went on board the ships, and threw are no other means of transportation to all the cea overboard. In the following and from the interior, except such as are spring, the port of B. was closed by an afforded by the common roads. In this act of parliament (Boston Port-bill), and respect, B. is behind the other principal the landing and shipping of goods within cities of the U. States, and its inland trade the harbor was ordered to be discontinis much less than it would otherwise have ued. The session of the general court been. Projects are now before the public was removed to Salem, and additional for remedying this inconvenience by the bodies of troops and a military governor construction of rail-roads. The popula- were ordered to B. In 1775, the war tion has doubled from the year 1783 commenced with the battles of Lexington once in about 23 years. Previously to and Bunker hill, and the town of B., in that date, the population of the town had which the British troops were encamped been, for 100 years, nearly stationary, and to the number of 10,000 men, was befor 50 years entirely so ; its trade, and that sieged by the American army. The of the colony, having been subjected to siege continued until the March followsevere restraints and heavy burdens In ing, when the British troops evacuated the reign of Charles II, the inhabitants of the town and castle, embarked on board the colony fell under the royal displeas- their own ships, and withdrew to another ure, and, in 1683, a writ of quo warranto part of the country. The inhabitants was issued against the charter of the col- were among the earliest and most ardent ony. A legal town-meeting of the free- assertors of the rights of the people, and men of B. was held, and the question was among the earliest advocates and active put to vote, whether it was their wish that supporters of independence. During the the general court should resign the charter revolutionary struggle, popular meetings and the privileges therein granted, and it were frequent. These meetings were was resolved in the negative unanimously. usually held in Faneuil hall. Benjamin The charter, however, was declared for- Franklin was born in B., Jan. 17, 1706. feited by a decree of the court of chan- BOSWELL, James, the friend and biogcery, and, soon after, sir Edmund Andros rapher of Johnson, born at Edinburgh, in was appointed the first royal governor. 1740, studied in his native city, in GlasHis administration, which endured for gow, and in the Dutch university of two or three years, was arbitrary and op- Utrecht. He afterwards resided several pressive. In April, 1689, the people of times in London, and cultivated the acB. took forcible possession of the fort in quaintance of the most distinguished men B., and the castle in the harbor, turned the of his time. Here he became acquaintguns upon the frigate Rose, and compelled ed with Johnsonma circumstance which her to surrender, seized the governor, and he himself calls the most important event held him a close prisoner under guard in of his life. He afterwards visited Voltaire the castle. A little more than a month at Ferney, Rousseau at Neufchatel, and afterwards, news was received of the Paoli in Corsica, with whom he became l'evolution in England, and the event was intimate. He then returned by the way celebrated with great rejoicings. In 1765, of Paris to Scotland, and devoted himself after the passage of the stamp act, the to the bar. In 1768, when Corsica atperson appointed distributor of stamps tracted so much attention, he published was compelled, by threats of violence, to his valuable Account of Corsica, with decline the acceptance of the office, and Memoirs of Paoli. At a later period, he the house of the lieutenant-governor was settled at London, where he lived in the destroyed by a mob. A large military closest intimacy with Johnson. In 1773, and naval force was stationed at B. for he accompanied him on a tour to the the purpose of overawing the people. Scottish Highlands and Hebrides, and On tlie evening of March 5, 1770, a ser- published an account of the excursion geant's guard fired upon a crowd of peo- after their return. After the death of ple, who were surrounding them, and Johnson, he became his biographer. The pelting them with snow-balls, and killed minuteness and accuracy of his account, five men. Dec. 16, 1773, on the arrival and the store of literary anecdote which

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it contains, render this work very valua- Schwetzingen; and the royal Hanoveble. It was published in 2 vols. 4to., in rian, in Herrnhausen. In Great Britain, 1790, and has been repeatedly reprinted. the royal garden at Kew; the Chelsea B. died in 1795.

garden, founded for the London apotheBosWORTH; a small town in the county caries; and that at Liverpool, under the of Leicester, England, about three miles superintendence of Shepherd, are the from which is Bosworth field, where was most celebrated scientific institutions, to fought, in 1458, the memorable battle be- say nothing of the extensive gardens tween Richard III and the earl of Rich- where plants are raised for sale. In mond, afterwards Henry VII. This battle, France, the royal garden in Paris, under in which Richard lost his life, put a period the inspection of Desfontaines and Thouin, to the long and bloody wars of the roses, is the principal. Formerly, that of Malbetween the houses of York and Lancas- maison, founded by the empress Joseter.

phine, was the most famous (see BonBOTANICAL GARDENS ; establishments pland). In Italy, the garden of the in which plants from all climates, and all university at Turin, superintended by parts of the world, are cultivated in the Capelli, is, perhaps, the best ; in Spain, the open air, in green-houses and hot-houses. royal garden at Madrid, under Mariano The object of such an establishment is Lagasca; in Denmark, the garden of the partly information and the improvement university at Copenhagen, under the suof science, partly pleasure and luxury. perintendence of Hornemann. In Russia, Theophrastus seems to have instituted the the excellent institution of the count first botanical garden. He bequeathed it Alexis Rasumowsky, at Corinka, near to his scholars. Attalus Philometor, king Moscow, deserves to be placed by the of Pergamus, and Mithridates Eupator of side of the most celebrated establishments. Pontus, vied with each other in the estab- The principal botanical gardens in the lishment of gardens, where they cultivated U. States are in New York, in Philadelpoisons and antidotes. Pliny mentions a phia and Cambridge. In Asia, the garbotanical garden which was laid out in Ita- den of the East India company at Cally by Antonius Castor, son-in-law of king cutta is the most important.-At present, Dejotarus. In the middle ages, Charle- almost all universities and learned acadeinagne exerted a favorable influence, by mies, as well as many rich private proestablishing gardens near the imperial prietors, have botanical gardens. palaces and castles, specifying even the BOTANY, the science of plants, may be single shrubs, which were to be planted. divided into two parts, one of which deIn the beginning of the 14th century, scribes their external appearance, and is Matthæus Sylvaticus, at Salerno, found- sometimes called phytography; the other ed the first botanical garden, properly so treats of their internal structure and orcalled. The republic of Venice, soon ganic action, and may be termed philoafterwards, in 1333, instituted a public sophical botary or phytonomy. The former medical garden, and had the plants paint- requires a perfect knowledge of terminoled by Amadei. The paintings are still ogy, the latter a thorough knowledge of preserved. After the time of the revival the plants themselves, with a view to a of learning, the first botanical gardens, systematic classification of them, accordwhich contained, however, for the greater ing to fixed principles. The necessity of part, merely medicinal plants, were laid such a classification must have been felt out in Italy. Duke Alfonso of Este was as soon as the number of known plants the founder of an excellent institution of became great, and their relations and this kind in Ferrara ; then followed the analogies obvious. At the time of the gardens in Padua, Pisa and Pavia. Mont- revival of letters, hardly 1500 plants were pellier, in France, first imitated his exam- known from the descriptions of the an ple. The academical garden in Leyden cients. At présent, at a moderate estimawas instituted in 1577; that of Paris, in tion, more than 50,000 have been describ1633; and about the same time the first ed. It is obviously impossible to introduce botanical gardens in Germany and Eng- order into this infinite chaos, or to acquire land were founded. At present, the any distinct knowledge, without the aid largest and most renowned in Germany of general principles. Even in the 16th are the imperial Austrian, at Schönbrunn, and 17th centuries, the founders of botanunder the inspection of Jacquin; the royal ical science perceived that in plants, as Prussian, near Berlin, under Link and well as in all other natural bodies, the esOtto; that of Weimar, in Belvedere; sential and necessary parts must be disthat of the grand duke of Baden, at tinguished from the accidental, and that a

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scientific classification must be founded every part; at the internal structure, as on the former alone. Now it was obvious well as the external relations, analogies that the production of fruit and seed is the and differences. This can be done only ultimate object of vegetation, and, accord- by a profound and toilsome investigation, ingly, in the first attempts at classification, of which the mere follower of a system the relations and component parts of the has hardly a notion. Seed is considered seed and of the fruit were made the found- as the ultimate object of vegetation. Its ation of the arrangement. This arrange- parts, their formation, situation, and other ment was confirmed by an observation of relations, must be critically examined. the uniformity of nature in the formation of The most perfect natural system, in modthose parts in plants of similar kinds. ern times, is that of Jussieu, particularly But it was found, also, that uniformity in as enlarged by Decandolle. (See Decanthese formations prevailed in too great a dolle's Regni vegetabilis Systema naturale, number of plants to allow them alone to his Théorie elémentaire de la Botanique, be made the distinguishing characteristics: and his Prodromus Systematis naturalis It became, therefore, necessary to have Regni vegetabilis ; also the Nouveaux Ell'ecourse to other parts. The flower was émens de la Botanique, by Richard.) first chosen, as it presents a great variety The second general division of this sciof forms, and, at the same time, a uniform- ence begins with the investigation of the ity of structure. But the limits to this internal structure, or the anatomy of uniformity, and the absence of flowers in plants. This study has been recently culinnumerable plants, with the consideration tivated, by the Germans, to an extentz that they are not essential, suggested to which, 30 years ago, could hardly have the immortal founder of modern scientific been conceived. It is closely connected botany the idea that the sexual parts are with the first division, if the plants are most intimately related to the growth of studied in their natural order. Without the fruit, and that they are, therefore, of good microscopes, and the aid of the best the greatest importance, and furnish bet- works in this branch, a distinct knowledge ter grounds of classification than the of the structure of plants cannot easily be flower. A general principle was thus obtained. Chemical botany must be conestablished, fertile in consequences, excel- nected with the anatomy of plants. Their lently adapted to facilitate the diffusion constituent parts, their various changes, and extend the sphere of the science. and the different combinations of their The Linnæan system was founded exclu- liquid and solid parts, are to be examined. sively on the relations of the sexual parts. From those, at last, we ascend to the laws Linnæus divided all known plants into of vegetable life, which are, in general, the two general divisions, one of which has same as those of animal life. Animal visible sexual parts (phanerogamous), physiology must, therefore, be intimately while in the other they are invisible or united with the physiology of plants. wanting (cryptogamous). The first divis- Connected with the latter are two ion comprehends the 23 first classes of his branches of knowledge, which the botasystem, which are distinguished according nist cannot well dispense with, since they to the situation of the sexual parts in the offer the most important conclusions on same or in separate flowers, their number, the economy of nature, on the history their length, &c. If any system has in- of the earth, and on the application of troduced order in the midst of variety, science to the arts. These are, first, the and shed light on the immense diversities science of the deformities and diseases of of nature, it is that of Linnæus. Hence, plants, which can be made certain only even those who have departed from it in by correct physiological views, and which their writings have considered it neces- is of great value in gardening, agriculture, sary for elementary instruction. Many and the cultivation of woods; and, second, objections, however, are brought against a knowledge of the mode in which plants it. It has been made a question whether have been spread over the earth. If we it is fitted for the investigation and classi- study the forms of vegetation which have fication of unknown plants. It is said come to us from distant ages, in the flötz that ihe sexual parts may be very differ- formations, this observation affords the ent in similar plants; that he never will most interesting discoveries in relation to have a complete idea of nature, who pro- the history of our earth. If we trace the ceeds only on one principle. It has, there- laws by which vegetation seems to have fore, been thought necessary to find a more been distributed, we extend our knowlnatura, arrangement. (See Plants.) In edge of the general action of nature, and crder to follow nature, we must look at arrive at conclusions which may be of

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