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great practical utility. The work of numerous discoveries, but endeavored to Sprengel on the structure and nature of reform the nomenclature, which had beplants, is, perhaps, the most complete. come much confused by the multiplicaSeparate parts of the anatomy of plants tion of names of the same plant. These nave been treated of by Link, Treviranus are the fathers of botany, whose standard and Moldenhawer; vegetable chemistry works still reward examination. By the by Senebier, Saussure and Schrader. exertions of these men, the number of
History of the Science. Of the two gen- known plants, at the beginning of the 17th eral divisions of botany, the physiological century, amounted to 5500. The necesor philosophical is the elder. Before the sity of classification increased with the Greek philosophers attempted to distin- quantity of materials. Lobelius and John guish classes and species of plants, they Bauhin adopted the natural division of examined the laws of vegetable life, the trees, grasses, &c., without reference to difference of plants from animals, and, as any general principle. Andreas Cæsalpifar as it could be done with the naked nus, by the advice of Conrad Gesner, fixeye, their structure. Theophrastus of ed upon the fruit and the seed as the Eresus is the creator of philosophical foundation of a classification, which is still botany, which he treated on a great and retained by many of his followers, who original plan. From the writings of the are called fructists. In the 17th century, Alexandrians, and from original observa- new methods were introduced by Robert tions, Dioscorides of Anazarba, in the first Morison and John Ray; the latter of century of the Christian era, compiled a whom attended to the structure of the work, which contains imperfect descrip- corolla and its parts, while Rivinus contions of about 1200 plants, the medical sidered only the regularity or irregularity qualities of which were more attended to of its shape, and Tournefort its resemby the author than the description of their blance to other objects. The number of characteristics or their philosophical clas- known plants was increased by Morison, sification. This work continued, for 15 Plukenet, Barrelier, Boccone, van Rheede, centuries, the only source of botanical Petiver and Plumier. In the 17th centuknowledge. The Persian and Arabian ry, the foundation of botanical anatomy physicians added about 200 plants, which was laid by Grew and Malpighi; botaniwere unknown to the Greeks, and, conse- cal chemistry was founded by Homberg, quently, the number of known plants, at Dodart and Mariotte ; and the difference the time of the revival of letters, was of sex was discovered by Grew, Morland about 1400. Germany has the merit of and Rud. Jak. Camerarius. This discovhaving founded historical botany. The ery Micheli attempted to extend even to obvious imperfections of Dioscorides, the lower degrees of organization, moss, when the plants of Germany came to be lichens and sponges. To such predecesinvestigated, and the extravagances into sors, and to the great collectors of herwhich those persons fell, who attempted bariums, Rumphius, Parkinson, Sloane, to apply his descriptions to German Flacourt, Sommelyn, Buxbaum, Ammann plants, impelled Hieronymus of Bruns- and Feuillée, the immortal Linnæus was wick, Otho Braunfelsius, Leon. Fuchsius, indebted, in part, for the idea on which Hieron. Tragus and Conrad Gesner, to his system was founded, and for his great examine the vegetable productions of stores of botanical knowledge. When their country, independently of Dioscori- the first edition of his Species Plantarum des, and to represent them in wood-cuts. was published, he was acquainted with Gesner first started the idea that the parts of 7300 species; in the second edition, with fructification were the most essential, and 8800. If we consider that a moderate that plants must be classified with refer- herbarium now contains from 11,000 to ence to them. They were followed, in 12,000 species, we must be astonished at the 16th century, by the Italians, Peter the increase in the number of known Matthiolus, Andr. Cæsalpinus, Prosp. Al- plants in 60 years. The two sexes of pinus and Fab. Columna; the Belgians, Linnæus were afterwards extended, by Dodonæus, Clusius and Lobelius. Among Dillenius, Schmidel and Hedwig, to the the botanists of this period, who extended imperfect vegetables. This system was the science by their labors in collecting opposed by Adanson, Alston and Haller; speciinens, are the French Dalechamp, it was extended still farther by Schreber the English Gerard, the German Joach. Scopoli, Crantz and Jacquin. In the 18th Camerarius, Tabernæmontanus and John century, numerous discoveries in the yeBauhin, whose brother Gaspard not only getable world were made by John Burincreased the number of known plants by mann, J. G. Gmelin, Pallas, Forskál. For
ster, Hasselquist, Browne, Jacquin, Aublet, situated on the W. side of the gulf of Sommerson, Stahl, Swartz, Aiton. Ve- Bothnia, bounded N. and W. by Lapland, getable physiology was enlarged and en- S. by Angermania, and E. by the gulf of riched with new discoveries by Bonnet, Bothnia. The country is tolerably fertile, Du Hamel, Hill, Koelreuter and Senne- but sudden frosts, in the month of July, bier, and thus botany approached its pres- often destroy the laborer's hopes. There ent degree of improvement. (See Spren- are mines of copper and iron. The pringel's History of Botany, 2 vols., Leipsic, cipal towns are Umea, Pithea and Lulea. 1818.) An outline of the Linnæan sys- Population, about 56,000. . tem is to be found in the article Plants. BOTIINIA, GULF OF; the northern part
BOTANY Bay. (See New South Wales.) of the Baltic sea, which separates Sweden
Both, John and Andrew; born at from Finland. It commences at the island Utrecht, in 1610, the sons of a glass painter, of Aland, 61° N. lat., and extends to 66° : who instructed them in the rudiments of its length is about 360 miles, its breadth drawing. They afterwards made further from 90 to 130, and its depth from 20 to progress in the school of Abraham Bloe- 50 fathoms. It freezes over in the winter, maert, and went, at an early age, together so as to be passed by sledges and carriages. to Italy. John, attracted by the works of Its water contains only one third of the Claude Lorraine, chose him for his model; proportion of salt found in other seaAndrew preferred the painting of the hu- water. It abounds in salmon and in man figure, and imitated the style of seals, which furnish great quantities of Bamboccio. But, although their inclina- train-oil.—This gulf is gradually decreastions led them in different directions, their ing in extent. mutual friendship often united their talents B OTHWELL; a village of Scotland, on in the same works. Thus Andrew paint- the Clyde, nine miles from Glasgow. At ed the figures in the landscapes of his Bothwell bridge, a decisive battle was brother; and their labors harmonized so fought, in 1679, between the Scottish well, that their pictures could not be sus, covenanters, commanded principally by pected of coming from different hands. their clergy, and the royal forces, comThe ease and fine coloring, in the beauti- manded by the duke of Monmouth, in ful figures of John, cannot be overlooked, which the former were totally routed. in spite of the excess of yellow, sometimes BOTHWELL, James Hepburn, earl, is found in them. His fame has been con- known in Scotch history by his marriage firmed by time, and his merit, as well as with queen Mary. It is supposed, by his residence in Italy, has procured him some historians, that he was deeply conthe name of Both of Italy. Andrew was cerned in the murder of tho unfortunate drowned at Venice, in 1650. John, in- Darnley, Mary's husband, and that he consolable for his loss, abandoned Italy, was even supported by the deluded and returned to Utrecht, where he died queen. He was charged with the crime, shortly after. The plates which John and tried, but acquitted. After the death Both has himself etched from his princi- of Darnley, he seized the queen at Edinpal works are much valued.
burgh, and, carrying her a prisoner to BOTHNIA, East, a province formerly Dunbar castle, prevailed upon her to marbelonging to Sweden, but ceded to Russia ry him, after he had divorced his own in 1809, situated on the E. side of the gulf wife. Though seemingly secure in the of Bothnia, bounded N. by Lapland, E. by possession of power, and though created the Russian government of Archangel earl of Orkney by the unfortunate queen, and Olonetz, S. by Finland, and W. he soon found that his conduct had rousby the gulf of Bothnia, is about 300 ed the indignation of the kingdom. Mamiles in length, and from 60 to 210 ly found not in him the fond husband she in breadth. Towards the south, and on expected: he became unkind and brutal. the sea-coast, the land is low and marshy. A confederacy was formed against him The summers are often so cold as to de- by the barons, the queen was liberated stroy a great part of the crops. Popula- from his power, and he escaped to the tion, about 70,000. The cattle are small, Orkneys, and afterwards to Denmark, and bears are numerous. The salmon where he died, 1577. In his last mofishery is abundant, and that of pearls ments, it is said, that, with an agonizing often successful. The principal exports conscience, he confessed his own guilt, are timber, butter, whale-oil, pitch, tar, and the queen's innocence, of the murder &c. The principal towns are Cajana, or of Darnley. Cajaneborg, Ulea, Christinestadt, &C. BOTOCUDES, savages of Brazil, received
BOTHNJA, WEST; a province of Sweden, their name from the large wooden pegs, BOTOCUDES_BOTTOMRY.
with which they ornament their ears and kind, and formed of the most ordinary lips. A small part of these savages is materials. It is composed of sand, with now somewhat civilized. Most of the lime, and sometimes clay, and alkaline tribes are still in a completely barbarous ashes of any kind, such as kelp, barilla, state, continually at war among them or even wood ashes. The green color selves, and accustomed to eat the flesh is owing partly to the impurities in the of their enemies. A more particular, ashes, but chiefly to oxyde of iron. This though incomplete, account of them is glass is strong, hard and well vitrified. to be found in the Travels of the Prince It is less subject to corrosion by acids of Neuwied and others in Brazil. With than flint-glass, and is superior to any the view of promoting their civilization, cheap material for the purposes to which three Indian villages were laid out, in it is applied. 1824, by order of the emperor.
BOTTOMRY is the hypothecation or BOTTA, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo, pledge of a vessel for the payment of a inember of the academy of sciences at debt. The creditor has no right to tako Turin, a poet and historian, born, 1766, at possession of the ship, until the expiration S. Giorgio, in Piedmont, studied medicine of the time for which the loan is made, and botany at Turin. In 1794, he was and then (under a bottomry contract in a physician in the French army which the usual form) only by the intervention passed the Alps. This service carried of an admiralty court. If the loan is not him to Corfu. In 1799, he was a member repaid at the stipulated time, the lender of the provisory government of Piedmont, applies to an admiralty court, which (the and was one of those who favored the in- truth of the claim being established) decorporation of Piedmont with France. crees a sale of the ship to satisfy the debt. After the battle of Marengo, he was a The conditions of such a contract usually member of the Piedmontese consultà. In are, that, if the ship is not lost or destroythe corps legislatif, he displeased Napo- ed by those risks which the lender agrees leon, because he openly censured the des- to run, the debt is to become absolute. potism of his administration. In 1814, he The risks assumed by the lender are usuwas one of the members of the corps le- ally the same as are enumerated in a gislatif, which pronounced that Napoleon common policy of insurance. If the ship had forfeited his throne. After the resto- is wholly lost in consequence of these
members of the legislative body, because of a partial damage, the bottomry bond he was a foreigner, and not naturalized. usually provides that this damage shall In 1815, Napoleon appointed him direct- be borne by the lender in the proportion or of the academy at Nancy. At the res- of the amount loaned to the value of the toration, he resigned this post, and lives ship. If this amount is equal to one half now as a private individual. His most of the value of the ship, the lender is to important works are his Description of bear one half of the amount of such loss, the Island of Corfu (2 vols.); his transla- &c. As the lender thus assumes a certion of Born's (Joannis physiophili) Speci- tain risk, he is justly entitled to a greater men monachologice; Memoir on the The interest than if he did not thus take the ory of Brown; Recollections of a Journey hazard of the loss of the whole loan; and in Dalmatia ; On Tones and Sound; this is called marine interest. He is entiShort History of the Royal House of Sa- tled to the usual rate of interest on his voy and Piedmont; History of the North loan, in addition to the usual premium of American Revolutionary War; Il Camillo insurance for the sarne voyage or period. o Veja conquistata, a much-esteemed epic The stipulation for such a rate of marine poem, in 12 cantos, published in 1816; interest is not a violation of the laws Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814 (4 vols. against usury, for it is not merely a com4to.), in 1824, somewhat rhetorical, but a pensation for the use of the money loangood picture of the state of this unhappy ed, but also for the risk assumed. The country; Histoire des Peuples d'Italie ship-owner may borrow money on bot(Paris, 1825, 3 vols.), in which he denies tomry, whether his vessel be in port or at to the Christian religion and to philoso- sea. But the captain of the ship, as such, phy the merit of having civilized Europe, cannot so borrow when in the port where and attributes this effect to the revival of the owner resides, or near enough to conlearning.
sult him on any emergency. In any BOTTLES, by the ancients, were made other port, he may pledge the ship on of skins and leather: they are now chief- bottomry for the purpose of raising money ly made of thick glass, of the cheapest necessary for repairing, supplying and
navigating her, if he can obtain it in no ed to be constructed in 1739, was made other way. If he borrow thus without by him, and is considered his masternecessity, the bond is void, and the lender piece. A Cupid which he made for the can look only to the personal responsi- king was unsuccessful. For the Traité bility of the captain.
des Pierres gravées, B. furnished designs, BOTS. (See Estrus.)
from which the plates were copied. The BOTZEN, or BOLZANO ; a town in Ty- execution of the greatest monument of
the Adige, containing 8100 inhabitants, XV, which was erected by order of the and 1000 houses. It has four annual city of Paris, was committed to him. He fairs. The rivers of the town, the former labored 12 years on this, with inconceivaprivileges of the bishop of Trent, and the ble perseverance, and has left, in the intersection of the main roads leading to 'horse, a model which may be ranked Germany, Italy and Switzerland, at this with any work of antiquity. He died in place, on account of the chains of moun- 1762. His designs are great and accurate. tains and the courses of the streams, af- His pieces bear the character of simple forded it great advantages for commerce, grandeur. He put more spirit and exwhich yet continue, in some degree. Its pression into his sketches than into the commerce, however, is much injured by marble. In general, more fire is to be the smuggling over lake Como, and also desired in his sculpture. The paintings from Switzerland, into Lombardy. B. which he executed at Rome are bold lies in a valley, enclosed by high moun- and powerful. Afterwards he adopted a tains ; it is, therefore, excessively hot in more polished, delicate manner, to suit the summer, and sometimes even visited by taste of the age. Among his scholars, the sirocco. The finest fruits of Upper Louis-Claude Vassé, who died in 1772, Italy (agrumi) are produced here, if pro- is distinguished. Caylus has written his tected by a covering in winter on the east life. side of the mountain. Autumn is here BOUCHER, Alexander, or, as he was acthe most beautiful season in the year. customed to call himself, from the title The winter is generally short. On the given him in a French journal, L’Alexandeclivities of the mountains is produced a dre du violon, one of the most remarkable peculiar kind of red wine. In the valleys, but eccentric violinists, was born at Paris mulberry-trees flourish. B. is, therefore, in 1770. At the age of six, he played bethe best place for silk-worms in the Aus- fore the dauphin, and at eight he played trian dominions.
in public. He was in unfortunate circumBOUCHARDON, Edmund, born, in 1698, stances in early life, until he obtained a at Chaumont-en-Basigni, son of a sculptor place in Spain, under Charles IV, who was and architect, applied himself early, to himself a very good violinist. In 1814, he drawing and painting. He made many went to England. At Dover, the customcopies, without, however, giving up the house officers were about to seize his instudy of nature. In order to devote him- strument, but B. suddenly struck up “God self to statuary, he went to Paris, and en- save the King," with variations, and was tered the school of the younger Coustou. suffered to pass unmolested. He is as He soon gained the highest prize, and remarkable for eccentricity as for his muwas made royal pensioner at Rome. He sical powers. He is now established at studied his art partly in the works of anti- Berlin. B. has attracted much attention by quity, and partly in those of Raphael and his resemblance to Napoleon, whose gait, Domenichino. He executed several busts, demeanor and look he can perfectly imiand was to have erected the tomb of tate. Every one fancies he sees the exClement XI, but the orders of the king emperor when B. folds his arms. He recalled him to Paris in 1732. Here, declares this resemblance to have been among other works, he made a large disadvantageous to him at the time of the group in storie, representing an athlete restoration of the Bourbons. overcoming a bear. This stood for a long BOUCHER, Francis; painter to the king, time in the garden of Grosbois. After- and director of the academy of painters; wards, he assisted in repairing the foun- born at Paris, 1704, died 1770. While a tain of Neptune at Versailles. He exe- pupil of the celebrated Lemoine, he gaincuted ten statues, which adorn the church ed, at the age of 19, the first prize of the of St. Sulpice. A monument to the duch- academy. After studying at Rome for a ess of Lauraguais, made by him, is also short time, he returned to Paris, and was in that church. The fountain in the rue styled the painter of the graces--a title
haps, have risen to excellence, had he BOUFFLERS, marshal de, born 1644 not yielded to the corrupt taste of his age, died 1711, may be considered one of the and had devoted himself more completely most celebrated generals of his age. He to his studies. The ease with which he was an élevè of the great Condé, of Tuexecuted made him careless. His draw- renne, Crequi, Luxembourg and Catinat. ing is faulty; his coloring does not har- His defence of Namur, in 1695, and of monize, especially in his naked pieces, Lille, in 1708, are famous. The siege of which are so glaring, that they appear as the former place was conducted by king if the light was reflected on them from a William in person, and cost the allies more red curtain. In a word, he is looked than 20,000 men. The latter was conupon as the corrupter of the French ducted by prince Eugene. An order was school. He was neither envious nor av- sent from Louis XIV, signed by his own aricious, but encouraged younger artists hand, commanding B. to surrender; but as much as was in his power. The great he kept it secret, until all means of denumber of his paintings and sketches fence were exhausted. The retreat of show with what rapidity he produced the French after the defeat at Malplaquet, them. The latter alone announted to under the direction of B., was more like more than 10,000. He has also etched a triumph than a defeat. some plates, and many of his paintings BOUFFLERS, Stanislaus, chevalier de, have been engraved.
member of the French academy, son of BOUCHES-DU-RHÔNE (mouths of the the marchioness of B., mistress of StanisRhone); a department in the south of laus, king of Poland, born at Luneville, France, in the ancient government of 1737, was considered one of the most Provence. Chief town, Marseilles. Pop. ingenious men of his time, and was disin 1827, 326,302. (See Departments.) tinguished for the elegance of his man
BOUDINOT, Elias, was born in Phila- ners and conversation. He was destined delphia, May 2, 1740. He was descended for the church, but declared that his love from one of the Huguenots, who sought of pleasure would interfere with the durefuge in America from religious perse- ties of this profession. He entered the cution in France. He studied the law, military career, was soon appointed govand became eminent in that profession. ernor of Senegal, and, while in this office, At an early period of the revolutionary made many useful regulations. After his war, he was appointed, by congress, com return, he devoted himself to that light missary-general of prisoners. In the year kind of literature which distinguished the 1777, he was chosen a member of con- age of Louis XV. He was much admired gress, and, in 1782, was made president by the ladies, and in the higher circles of of that body. After the adoption of the the capital, as well as in the foreign courts constitution, he entered the house of rep- which he visited. His reputation gave resentatives, where he continued six him a seat in the states-general, where he years. He then succeeded Rittenhouse was esteemed for his moderation and his as director of the mint of the U. States, good intentions. After Aug. 10, 1792, he an office which he resigned in the course left France, and met with a friendly reof a few years, and lived, from that time, ception from prince Henry of Prussia, at at Burlington, New Jersey. He devoted Reinsberg, and Frederic William II. A himself earnestly to Biblical literature, large grant was made to him in Poland and, being possessed of an ample fortune, for establishing a colony of French emimade munificent donations to various grants. In 1800, he returned to Paris, charitable and theological institutions. where he devoted himself to literary The American Bible society, of which he pursuits, which, in 1804, procured him a became president, was particularly an seat in the French institute. He died object of his bounty. He died at the age Jan. 18, 1815. He lies buried near the of 82, in October, 1821.
abbé Delille, and on his tomb is this in BOUDOIR; a small room, simply and scription, written by hinıself, and charac gracefully fitted up, destined for retire- teristic of his lively disposition : Mes ment (from bouder, to pout, to be sulky). amis, croyez que je dors. His works were It may be indebted for its name to an published in 8 vols. 12mo. 1815. His angry husband, whose wife, when inclined mother was long the ornament of the to pout, shut herself up in her chamber. court of Stanislaus, during its residence The boudoir is the peculiar property of at Luneville, by the graces of her mind the lady-her sanctum sanctorum. To and beauty of her person. Voltaire adthis she flies for peace and solitude from dressed to her a madrigal which finishes the bustle of society.