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nevolence. He died at London, in 1691, many years, but yet found time for liteand was interred in Westminster abbey, rary and philosophical pursuits, and conBirch published an edition of his works tributed several valuable papers to the 5 vols. folio, London, 1744.

Transactions of the royal society. He BOYLSTON, Zabdiel, was born at Brook- died March 1, 1766. His only publicaline, Massachusetts, in 1684. He studied tions, besides his communications to the medicine at Boston, where, in a few royal society, are, Some Account of what years, he rose into extensive practice, and is said of Inoculating, or Transplanting accumulated a considerable fortune. In the Small-pox, by the learned doctor 1721, when the small-pox broke out in Emanuel Timonius, and Jac. Pylarinus, Boston, and filled the whole country with (a pamphlet, Boston, 1721), and An Hisalarm, doctor Cotton Mather pointed out torical Account of the Small-pox inocuto the physicians of the town an account lated in New England, &c.(London 1726). of the practice of inoculation in the East, BOYNE; a river of Ireland, running into contained in a volume of the Transactions the Irish channel, near which was fought of the royal society. This communication a celebrated battle between the adherents was received with great contempt by the of James II and William III, in 1690 ; whole faculty, with the exception of the latter was victorious, and James was B. Although this practice was unex- obliged to flee to the continent. ampled in America, and not known to BoZZARIS. (See Greece.) have been introduced into Europe, he BRABANT, duchy of; in the kingdom immediately inoculated his own son, a of the Netherlands, having Holland on child of six years of age, and two servants. the north, Liege and Limburg on the Encouraged by his success, he began to east, Flanders on the west, and Hainault extend his practice. This innovation was and Namur on the south. North B. conreceived with general opposition. The tains 252,000 inhabitants, and South B. physicians of the town gave their unani- 366,000. B. was erected into a duchy in mous opinion against it, and the select- the 7th century. For some ages, it bemen of Boston passed an ordinance to longed to the Frankish monarchy, and subprohibit it. But, supported by the con- sequently became a German fief. At all viction of the utility of this invention, and periods in the history of the Belgic provthe countenance of several intelligent inces, it appears to have been preëmiclergymen, he persevered; and, in 1721 nent among the states, in the general and 1722, inoculated 247 persons; 39 assemblies of which its deputies held the more were inoculated by others, and of first place, and gave their votes before the the whole number (286), only six died. others. The last duke, a descendant of During the same period, of 5759, who Charlemagne, dying in 1005, the duchy had the small-pox the natural way, 844, devolved on Lambert I, count of Louvain, nearly one seventh, died. Still, however, his brother-in-law. Through his posterihis opponents maintained that his prac- ty, it descended to Philip II, duke of tice was wilfully spreading contagion; Burgundy, and afterwards came, in the that, as the disease was a judgment from line of descent, to the emperor Charles V. God on the sins of the people, all attempts In the 17th century, the republic of Holto avert it would but provoke him the land took possession of the northern part, more; and that, as there was a time ap- which was thence called Dutch B. The pointed to every man for death, it was im- other part belonged to Austria, and was pious to attempt to stay or to avert the occupied by the French in 1746, but restroke. Religious bigotry, being thus stored at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. called into action, so exasperated many of It was again occupied by them in 1797, the ignorant against B., that attempts were and their possession confirmed by the threatened against his life, and it became treaties of Campo Formio (1797) and unsafe for him to leave his house after Luneville (1801)." Dutch B. was united alusk. Time and experience at length to the French empire in 1810. Austrian came in to the aid of truth, opposition B., while under the dominion of Austria, died away, and B. had the satisfaction of had its own states, consisting of 2 bishops seeing inoculation in general use, in New and 11 abbots, with the barons, and England, for some time before it became deputies, chosen by the cities of Brussels, common in Great Britain. In 1725, he Louvain and Antwerp. Since the formavisited England, where he received much tion of the kingdom of the Netherlands attention, and was elected a fellow of the in 1815, North B. sends 7, and South B. royal society. Upon his return, he con- 8 members to the representative assemtinued at the head of his profession for bly. The province of Antwerp, which



formerly belonged to the duchy, sends 5. law at Oxford, and, about the year 1244, Much of the soil, especially in the south- Henry III made him one of his judges ern part, is fertile, produces large quanti- itinerant. Some writers say, that he was ties of grain, and affords excellent pas- afterwards chief justice of England; but turage. In the north, considerable tracts his fame at present is derived from his are covered with moss, heath and woods; legal treatise, entitled De Legibus et Conbut others yield large crops of wheat, suetudinibus Angliæ, which was first printhops and flax. There are manufactures ed in 1569, folio, but of which a more of cloth, lace, linen, &c. The chief riv- correct edition was published in 1640, ers are the Dommel, the Demer, the Dyle 4to. It is possibly to the unsettled nature and the Nethe, which, with the canals, of the times, and the alternate ascendency facilitate the internal commerce of the of the crown and barons, that we must duchy. In the northern part, the in- attribute his inconsistency with regard to habitants are Protestants; in the southern, the royal prerogative; in one place obchiefly Catholic.

serving that no man must presume to BRACHMANS. (See Gymnosophists.) dispute or control the actions of the king;

BRACTEATES; thin coins of gold or and in another, that he is subordinate to silver, with irregular figures on them, the law, and may be “bridled” by his stamped upon one surface only, so that court of "earls and barons.” The time the impression appears raised on one of his death is unknown. side, while the other appears hollow. It BRADDOCK, Edward, major-general, seems most probable, that these coins, and commander of the British army in being circulated in great quantities under the expedition against the French, on the Otho I, emperor of Germany, when the river Ohio, in 1755, arrived in. Virginia working of the silver mines of the Hartz in February of that year, and, in the spring afforded the most convenient medium of marched against fort Du Quesne, now exchange, were first coined at that place, Pittsburg. He reached the Monongahela,

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the Roman money was not known or in gage having been left behind, under the circulation. The original form of these care of colonel Dunbar, to advance by coins was borrowed from that of the By- slower marches. On the next day, he zantian gold ones, which, about that time, moved forward to invest the fort, and, by lost in thickness what they had gained disregarding the caution of his provincial

in extension. Allowance was made, how- officers, who warned him of the danger · ever, for the greater softness of the silver. of surprise in an Indian war, fell into an Gold and copper bracteates belong only to ambuscade, by which he lost nearly one a later period. The name bracteate itself half of his troops, and received himself a points to Byzantium (according to Isidore, mortal wound. All his officers on horseit is derived from Bpazeīv, to ring). Brac- back, except colonel, afterwards general, tea signifies leaf of gold, or other metal. Washington, who acted as aid, being The real name, at the time when they killed, the army retreated precipitately, were in circulation, was denarius, moneta, near 40 miles, to Dunbar's camp, where obolus, panningus. They are of impor- the general, who was conveyed there in tance as illustrating history. ' A very good a tumbril, expired. representation of a rich collection of brac- BRADFORD, William, an American lawteates can be seen in W. G. Becker's yer of eminence, was born in PhiladelTwo hundred rare Coins of the Middle phia, September 14th, 1755. In the Ages (Dresden, 1813, 4to.). In later times, spring of 1769, he entered the college there have been many bad imitations of of Nassau hall, at Princeton, New Jersey, these coins, and the study of them is there- then under the direction of the late learned fore much more difficult.-Bracteated and pious doctor John Witherspoon. In coins, or bracteati nummi ; a term used to 1779, he was admitted to the bar of the signify coins or medals covered over with supreme court of Pennsylvania, where a thin plate of some richer metal. They his character soon introduced him to an are usually made of iron, copper or brass, unusual share of business; and, in Auplated over and edged with gold or silver gust, 1780, only one year after he was leaf. Some of them are to be found even licensed to practise, he was appointed among the truly ancient coins. The attorney-general of the state of PennsylFrench call them fourrées.

vania. August 22, 1791, he was made a BRACTON, Henry de, one of the earliest judge of the supreme court of Pennsylwriters on English law, flourished in the vania. His industry, integrity and ability 1.3th century. He studied civil and canon enabled him to give general satisfaction

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in this office. On the attorney-general vatory at Greenwich, 1750–62; Oxford, of the U. States being promoted to the 1805, 2 vols. folio. From this rich mine office of secretary of state, B. was ap- have been taken thousands of observations pointed to the vacant office, Jan. 28, 1794. on the sun, moon and planets, which, This office he held till his death. In 1793, properly arranged, have brought our ashe published an Inquiry how far the tronomical tables to great accuracy. It Punishment of Death is necessary in was from this that Mayer drew the elePennsylvania. This performance justly ments of his celebrated tables of the moon. gained him great credit. His death was In addition to his merit as a man of scioccasioned by an attack of the bilious ence, B. was modest, benevolent, humane fever. He died August 23, 1795, in the and generous in private life. He died in 40th year of his age.

1762, aged 70. BRADLEY, James, a celebrated astrono- BRADSHAW, John; president of the high mer, was born at Shireborn, England, in court of justice which tried and condemn- , 1692. He studied theology at Oxford, ed Charles I. He studied law in Gray's and took orders; but his taste for astron- Inn, and obtained much chamber pracomy soon led him to change his course tice from the partisans of the parliament, of life. His uncle instructed him in the to which he was zealously devoted. elements of mathematics, his own indus- When the trial of the king was determintry did every thing else, and, in 1721, he ed upon, the resolute character of B. was appointed professor of astronomy at pointed him out for president, which Oxford. Six years afterwards, he made office, after a slight hesitation, he acceptknown his discovery of the aberration of ed. His deportment on the trial was light. (q. v.) But, although this discove- lofty and unbending, in conformity to the ry gave a greater degree of accuracy to theory which rendered the unhappy soveastronomical observations, and although reign a criminal, and amenable; and every the discrepancies of different observations thing was done, both for and by him, to were much diminished, yet slight differ- give weight and dignity to this extraordiences remained, and did not escape his nary tribunal. He rendered himself ob observation. He studied them during 18 noxious to Cromwell, when the latter years with the greatest perseverance, and seized the protectorate, and was deprived finally discovered that they were fully of the chief justiceship of Chester. On explained by the supposition of an oscil- the death of Cromwell, and the restoralating motion of the earth's axis, com- tion of the long parliament, he obtained a pleted during a revolution of the moon's seat in the council, and was elected presnodes, i. e., in 18 years. He called this ident. He died in 1659, and, on his deathphenomenon the nutation of the earth's bed, asserted that, if the king were to be axis; and published, in 1748 (Philosoph. tried and condemned again, he would be Trans. No. 785), his account of the ap- the first to agree to it. He was magparent motion of the fixed stars, with its nificently buried in Westminster abbey, laws, arising from this phenomenon of whence his body was ejected, and hanged nutation. D'Alembert afterwards ex- on a gibbet at Tyburn, with those of Oliplained the physical causes of this phe- ver and Ireton, at the restoration. nomenon, upon the principle of universal BRAGA. (See Mythology, northern.) attraction. By these two discoveries, BRAGANZA; one of the oldest towns of astronomers were, for the first time, Portugal. It was made a duchy in 1442, enabled to make tables of the motions of and from its dukes the present reigning the heavenly bodies with the necessary family of Portugal are descended. The accuracy. B. had already, in 1726, ex- town and surrounding district still belong plained the method of obtaining the lon- to the king of Portugal as duke of Bragitude by means of the eclipse of Jupiter's ganza. Lat. 41° 44' N.; lon. 6° 25' W. first satellite. In 1741, at the death of (See Portugal.) doctor Halley, he received the office of BRAHAM; one of the greatest profesastronomer royal, and removed to the ob- sional singers England has ever produced. servatory at Greenwich. Here he spent His tenor is unrivalled for power, comthe remainder of his life, entirely devoted pass and flexibility. His compass extends to his astronomical studies, and left 13 to about 19 notes, to each of which he volumes folio of his own observations, in knows how to give almost any degree of manuscript. Of these, the first volume strength; and his falsetto, from D to A, is was published by Horesby, 1798. The so entirely within his control, that it is whole appeared under the title of Astro- hardly possible, in the ascent and descent nomical Observations made at the Obser.. of the scale, to distinguish at what note

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the natural voice begins and ends. His dominions of the Turks and the Russians. intonation may be called perfect, so far as From this place much grain, raised ini respects the strength and quality of a note, Walachia, is sent to Constantinople. The and his tone readily takes the character fishery of sturgeon in the Black sea carof whatever he wishes to express. His ried on from B. is considerable. Lon 28° articulation is equally excellent, and not a 16 E.; lat. 45° 16N. syllable escapes the hearer. On this ac- BRAHMA,BRAHMIN.(See Brama,Bramin.) count, he particularly excels in recitative. BRAILOW. (See Brahilow.). The flexibility of his organs, and his rapid- BRAILS; certain ropes passing through ity of execution, are incredible. He goes pulleys on the mizzen-mast (q. V.), and rapidly through the whole compass of his afterwards fastened, in different places, on voice, makes the boldest leaps from the the hinder edge of the sail, in order to highest to the lowest notes, and makes draw it up to the mast, as occasion rechromatic runs with incredible velocity. quires. Brails is likewise a name given The hearer is never troubled with the to all the ropes employed to haul up the fear of his failing; and this unlimited pow- bottoms, lower corners and skirts of the er is used with extravagant liberality. B. great sails in general. The operation of enters into every composition with a glow drawing them together is called brailing of feeling which gives the performance them up, or hauling them up to the brails. the liveliest coloring, and brings into full BRAIN. The brain is a soft substance, action all his natural powers. Always partly reddish-gray and partly whitish, enthusiastic, his imagination pours itself situated in the skull, penetrated by nu out most profusely on sentiment, passion, merous veins, and invested by severa melody, expression and ornament. But membranes. Democritus and Anaxago it is in this that he overleaps the bounds ras dissected this organ almost 3000 years of art, and often excites more of wonder ago. Haller, Vicq d’Azir, and other anatthan pleasure, often dissatisfies more than omists in modern times, have also dissecthe delights, and, indeed, too often de- ed and investigated it without exhausting stroys the general effect. From this man- the subject. Between the skull and the ner of his arise that indescribably pervert- substance of the brain three membranes ed and constrained tone, those sudden are found. The outer one is called the stops, vehement bursts, and immoderate dura mater. This is strong, dense and heaping together of notes, which injure elastic. It invests and supports the brain. the singing; and hence also proceeds his The next which occurs is the tunica mixture of the theatrical with the church arachnoidea. This is of a pale white and concert styles, in all of which he has to color, yet in some degree transparent, sing by turns. B. has had numerous imi- very thin, and, in a healthy state, exhibits tators: the whole kingdom resounds with no appearance of vessels. The memthem; and a generation must pass away brane below this is called the pia mater. before the bad taste, which his errors have It covers the whole surface of the brain, occasioned in every corner of England, It is very vascular, and a great portion of shall be destroyed. Although he is one the blood which the brain receives is of the greatest singers which any age has spread out upon its surface in minute produced, yet it is not easy to find united vessels. The brain consists of two prinin one individual such extraordinary pow- cipal parts, connected by delicate veins ers and such glaring faults. He still sings and fibres. The larger portion, the cereat Drury lane theatre with great applause. brum, occupies, in men, the upper part of He is also a composer; as, for example, of the head, and is seven or eight times the Cabinet, in which he perforins the larger than the other, the cerebellum, lying principal part.

behind and below it. It rests on the BRAHE, TYCHO DE. (See Tycho.) bones which form the cavities of the eyes,

BRAHILOW, BRAILOW, or BRAILA, a the bottom of the skull and the tentorium, strongly-fortified Turkish town in Wala- and projects behind over the cerebellum. chia, on the northern bank of the Danube, On the whole exterior of the cerebrum with 30,000 inhabitants, governed by a there are convolutions, resembling the pacha of three tails, lies in a Turkish mil- windings of the small intestines. The itary district, which is similarly organized external reddish substance of the brain is to the adjacent frontier districts of Austria. soft and vascular, and is called the cortical The town is situated at the confluence of substance; the internal is white, and is the Sereth and the Danube, which divides called the medullary substance of the itself there into three arms, embracing a brain. This medulla consists of fibres, piece of neutral territory between the which are very different in different parts.

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The cerebellum lies below the cerebrum, in chairman expression which reached the a peculiar cavity of the skull. By exam- ears of the rector, who commanded B. to ining the surface, it is seen to be divided make a public confession in the hall. into a right and left lobe, by the spinal Thinking the order unjust to humble himmarrow lying between, but connected at self before the whole college for what he the top and bottom. Like the cerebrum, had uttered in private conversation, he it is surrounded by a vascular membrane, refused to comply, and, on this account, reddish-gray on the outside, and compos- as well as for having gone to the separate ed of a medullary substance within. In religious meeting at New Haven, after proportion to its size, also, it has a more being prohibited to do so by the authority extensive surface, and more of the vascu- of the college, he was dismissed. In the lar membrane, than the cerebrum. In a spring of 1742, he began the study of hrvrizontal section of it, we find parallel divinity; and, at the end of July, he was curved portions of the cortical and the licensed to preach, for which a thorough medullary substances alternating with examination had shown him qualified. each other, Between the cortical and the He had for some time entertained a strong medullary substance, there is always desire of preaching the gospel among the found, in the cerebellum, a third intermedi- heathens, which was gratified by an apate yellow substance. All the medulla of pointment as missionary to the Indians the cerebellum is also united in the middle from the society for propagating Christian by a thick cord. Experience teaches that, knowledge. At Kaunameek, an Indian in the structure of the brain, irregularities village of Massachusetts, situated between are far more uncommon than in other Stockbridge and Albany, he commenced parts of the human body. It is worthy his labors, in the 25th year of his age. He of observation, that every part of the brain remained there about 12 months, at first is exactly symmetrical with the part oppo- residing in a wigwam among the Indians, site. Even those which lie in the middle, but afterwards in a cabin, which he conand are apparently single (the spinal mar- structed for himself, that he might be row, for instance) consist, in fact, of two alone when not engaged in his duties of symmetrical portions. The total weight preaching and instruction. On the reof the human brain is estimated at two or moval of the Kaunameeks to Stockbridge, three pounds. It is larger and heavier in he turned his attention towards the Delaproportion to the youth of the subject; ware Indians. In 1744, he was ordained and in old age it becomes specifically by a presbytery at Newark, New Jersey, lighter. In delirious affections, it is some- and took up his habitation near the forks times harder and sometimes less solid and of the Delaware, in Pennsylvania, where softer. The brain is the organ of sensa- he resided for a year, during the course tion, and, consequently, the material rep- of which he made two visits to the Inresentative of the soul, and the noblest dians on the Susquehannah river. His organ of the body. (See Serres's Anato- exertions, however, were attended with mié comparée du Cerveau dans les quatre little success, until he went to the Indians Classes des animaux Vertebrés, &c. (Com- at Crosweeksung, near Freehold, in New parative Anatomy of the Brain in the four Jersey. Before the end of a year, a comClasses of vertebral Animals, &c.); Paris, plete reformation took place in the lives 1824, with engravings. It received the of the savages, 78 of whom he baptized prize of the French institute.)

within that time. They became humble BRAINERD, David, the celebrated mis- and devout; and it was not unusual for sionary, was born in April, 1718, at Had- the whole congregation to shed tears and dam, Connecticut. From an early pe- utter cries of sorrow and repentance. In riod, he was remarkable for the serious 1747, he went to Northampton, in Massaand religious turn of his mind, devo- chusetts, where he passed the short resitional exercises occupying a considerable due of his life in the family of the celeportion of his time, though, as he says, his brated Jonathan Edwards. He died in piety was originally prompted by the fear 1747, after great sufferings. B. was a man of punishment, and not by the love of of vigorous intellect and quick discernGod. In 1739, he became a member ment. He was gifted with a strong memof Yale college, where he was distin- ory, a happy eloquence, and a sociable guished for application and general cor- disposition, that could adapt itself with rectness of conduct; but was expelled, in ease to the different capacities, tempers 1742, in consequence of having said, in and circumstances of men, which, togeththe warmth of his religious zeal, that one er with an intimate knowledge of human of the tutors was as devoid of grace as a nature, as well as of theology and worldly

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