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science, peculiarly fitted him for the busi- zari, shares with Brunelleschi the credit ness of instruction. He was remarkably of being the restorer of architecture. He composed and resigned during the ap- was born at Castel Duranti, in the duchy proaches of death, and left this world in of Urbino, in 1444. He applied himself the full hope of a glorious immortality. first to painting; but his passion for archiHis publications are, a narrative of his tecture soon gained the ascendency. At labors at Kaunameek, and his journal, or length he went to Milan, and there his account of the rise and progress of a whole time was spent at the cathedral. remarkable work of grace among a num- Pope Alexander VI named him his archiber of Indians in New Jersey and Penn- tect, and Julius Il made him superinsylvania, 1746.

tendent of his buildings. At the command BRAINERD; a missionary station among of the latter, he united the Belvedere with the Cherokee Indians, in the district of the palace of the Vatican. He persuaded Chickamaugah, within the chartered lim the pope to order the church of St. Peter its of Tennessee, near the boundary line to be torn down, and another to be erectof Georgia, on Chickamaugah creek, a ed in its place, which should not have its few miles above its entrance into the river equal in the world. In 1513, the foundaTennessee; 150 miles S. E. of Nashville, tion of this edifice was laid, according to 250 N. W. Augusta. This missionary the plan of B. It yet remains the greatest station was commenced in 1817, and production of modern architecture. B. it is the oldest establishment formed by died in 1514, without living to see this the American board of missions among work completed. He had begun the edithe Cherokees. The property belonging fice with incredible despatch; but his sucto the mission, in 1822, was estimated at cessors, Raphael, Julius of San Gallo, $17,390, and there are between 30 and 40 Peruzzi and Michael Angelo altered the buildings of various descriptions, mostly original plan, and left nothing of B.'s of logs. The labors of the missionaries workmanship standing, except the arches here have been remarkably successful in which support the tower of the dome. imparting to the Cherokees a knowledge His writings, part prose, part verse, first of the rudiments of learning, and of the discovered in 1756, were printed the same arts of civilized life, as well as of the year at Milan. principles and duties of religion.

BRAMINS; the first of the four casts of BRAKENBURG, Regner, a well-known the Hindoos. They proceeded from the Dutch painter, distinguished for his rustic mouth of Brama, which is the seat of scenes, family pieces, &c., was born at wisdom. They form the sacred or sacerHaerlem, in 1649. The time of his death dotal cast, and its members have mainis not known: it took place at Friesland. tained a more absolute and extensive auHis paintings are true to nature.

thority than the priests of any other nation. BRAMA; the first person in the Trinity, Their great prerogative is that of being or Trimurti, of the Hindoos, consisting of the sole depositaries and interpreters of Brama, the creator, Vishnu, the presery- the Vedas or sacred books. There are er or redeemer, and Siva, the destroyer. seven subdivisions of the Bramins, which He is represented with four heads and as derive their origin from seven penitents, many arms, and the swan is consecrated personages of high antiquity and remarkto him. His name signifies knowledge of able purity, who are said to have rebuked the laws, in allusion to his creative power. the gods themselves for their debauchHe is the god of the fates, master of life eries. The great body of the Bramins and death, and, by some, has been repre- pay equal veneration to the three parts of sented as the supreme eternal power; but the mysterious trinity, but some attach he is himself created, and is merely the themselves more particularly to one per agent of the Eternal One. He is believed son of the triple godhead. Thus the to die, according to some, annually, or, Vishnuvites are distinguished by an oraccording to others, after a longer period, ange-colored dress, and the mark called and to rise again. His character is no nama on their foreheads. The devotees better than that of the Grecian Jupiter of Siva wear the lingam, and are distinHe is considered as the author of the guished from the former by their great Vedas, and as the lawgiver and teacher abstemiousness. A Bramin should pass of India. The worship of B. is regarded through four states. The first begins as the oldest religious observance in that at about seven, when the duty of the country. (For a more particular account, young novice, or Brachmacari, consists in see Indian Mythology.)

learning to read and write, studying the BRAMANTE OF URBINO, Francesco Laz- Vedas, and becoming familiar with the

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privileges of his cast, and all points of virtue is very small; that the great body corporeal purity. Thus he is taught his of them are devoted to ambition, intrigue right to ask alms, to be exempted from and voluptuousness, and that their chartaxes, from capital and even corporal pun- acter is disgraced by avarice, meanness ishment. Earthen vessels, belonging to and cruelty. Their charity extends only Bramins, when used by profane persons, to those of their own cast. The objects or for certain purposes, must be broken. of their worship, besides their innumeraLeather and skins of animals, and most ble gods, are almost every species of anianimals themselves, are impure, and must mals, and a variety of malignant demons. not be touched by them. Flesh and eggs The transmigration of souls is one of their they are not allowed to eat. The Bramin essential doctrines, and they believe in the is also taught to entertain a horror of the existence of a hell. Some of the ceremodefilement of the soul by sin; and rules nies of the Braminical worship are horrifor purification by ablution, penances, and ble: some are inore licentious than the orvarious ceremonies, are prescribed. The gies of Bacchus. The sacrifices commonly second state begins at his marriage, when consist of vegetables, but animals are somehe is called Grihastha. Marriage is neces- times sacrificed, and the burning of widows sary to his respectability. His daily du- is a relic of the horrid practice of offering ties become more numerous, and must be human victims. (See Indian Mythology.) more strictly performed. Regular ablu- BRANDENBURG, mark or marquisate of; tions, fasting, and many minute observ- one of the most extensive districts in the ances, become requisite. The Bramins, former circle of Upper Saxony. The soil however, engage in secular employments, is, in some parts, fertile, but mostly sandy, political, commercial, &c. The third and fit for grain. It is rich in wood, fish, state is that of the Vana-Prasthas, or in- flax, hemp, hops, tobacco, and pastures, habitants of the desert, which is now, how- particularly for sheep; it also produces ever, seldom reached. They were honored lime, salt-petre, turf, and some iron, &c. by kings, and respected even by the gods. B. carries on an active trade in manufacRetiring to the forest, green herbs, roots tured articles, and is well situated for and fruit were their food: reading the commerce, since it has many canals, rivVedas, bathing morning, noon and even- ers, lakes, and many towns lying on them. ing, and the practice of the most rigor- Most of the inhabitants profess the Luous penances, were prescribed. “Let the theran faith ; the rest are Calvinists. From Vana-Prastha," says Menou in the Insti- 1685 to 1688, many French refugees, tutes, “ slide backwards and forwards on Walloons, and inhabitants of Lorraine the ground, or stand the whole day on and of the Palatinate, settled in the mark. tip-toe, or continue rising and sitting During the reign of Frederic II, prior to down alternately; in the hot season, let 1777, more than 10,000 families took up him sit exposed to five fires; in the rain, their residence there. The country is let him stand uncovered; in the cold sea- watered by the Elbe, Spree, Havel, Oder, son, let him wear wet garments; then, Wartha, Netze and Ucker. The district having stored up his holy fires in his of B. is divided into the Electoral Mark mind, let him live without external fire, and the New Mark. 1. The former inwithout a shelter, wholly silent, and feed- cludes, 1. the Old Mark (capital Stendal); ing on roots and fruit. When he shall 2. the Priegnitz (capital Perleberg); 3. have thus become void of fear and sorrow, the Middle Mark (capital Berlin); 4. the and shaken off his body, he rises to the Ucker Mark (capital Prenglau). II. The divine essence." The fourth state is that New Mark (capital Custrin) receives its of a Sannyasi, in which new and severer name from this circumstance, that the penances are to be performed. Suppress- elector Frederic II redeemed it, in 1455,

other such ceremonies, are performed, till to whom it had been pledged until tha the devout patient rises to a participation period. At present, B. is the most im of the divine nature. The sanctity and portant of the Prussian states, including, inviolability of a Bramin are maintained, in as it does, the capital (Berlin), and the the eyes of his countrymen, by the most governments of Potsdam and Frankfort. severe penalties. The murder of one of It contains, upon 15,800 square miles, the order, robbing him, &c., are inexpia- 1,335,160 inhabitants, and 150 towns, &c. ble sins: the killing of his cow can only be The first people who are known to have expiated by a painful penance. To some inhabited B. were the Suevi. They were travellers it appears that the number of succeeded by the Sclavonians, a barbaBramins respectable for knowledge and rous people, whom Henry I conquered

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and converted to Christianity in the early tion was established by the victors. B part of the 10th century. The govern- had gained so much respect, that his ment was first conferred on a Saxon death, in 1810, was lamented as a public count, and did not become hereditary till calamity. Great powers of observation, the time of Albert, whose son was raised and an extensive knowledge of the world, to the dignity of elector in 1100. This are displayed in all his works race becoming extinct, Charles IV as- BRANDT, Nicholas or Sebastian; a Gersigned the electorate to his son Sigis- man chemist of the 17th century, usually mund, who became emperor in 1415, and considered the discoverer of phosphorus. sold the region to Frederic, burgrave of Leibnitz mentions him as a chemist of Nüremberg, the ancestor of the present Hamburg, who, during a course of exper: reigning family. Frederic William the iments on urine, for the purpose of disGreat made various accessions to the term covering a solvent which would convert ritories of his ancestors, and obliged the silver into gold, accidentally produced king of Poland, in 1656, to declare Prus- phosphorus, in 1667 or 1669. He comsia an independent state. The Old Mark municated his discovery to another chemwas ceded to Napoleon in 1807, and ist, who showed it to Leibnitz and Boyle. formed part of the kingdom of Westpha- BRANDT, Sebastian (named Titio), born lia; but it was restored to Prussia in at Strasburg, in 1458, died there in 1520. 1814. The elector of B. held the seventh He studied law at Bâle, where he was rank among the electors of the empire, and graduated; and delivered lectures on this had five votes in the council of princes science, for many years, with great ap

BRANDENBURG ; capital of the province plause. He was still more distinguished of the same name (q. v.), on the Havel, 30 for his poetical talents, and the emperor miles west of Berlin, formerly the resi- Maximilian I invited him, several times, dence of the reigning family of Prussia. to his court. He has immortalized himIt contains 12,000 inhabitants.

self by a poem called The Ship of Fools, or BRANDES, Ernest; a learned and able the Ship from the Land of Folly, which German scholar and statesman, born at satirizes the crimes and follies of his age, Hanover in 1758. Happily endowed by first published at Bâle, 1494, 4to. Four nature, and educated under favorable editions appeared in one year. It has circumstances, he afterwards extended since been repeatedly printed and transhis views by travel, by his connexion lated into all the languages of Europe. with public affairs, by his intercourse In Germany, it was, for about a century, with the best society, and by an intimate truly a national book, so well known and union with the greatest scholars in Ger- esteemed by all classes, that the celemany. From 1775 to 1778, he studied at brated preacher Geiler of Kaisersberg Göttingen, of which he afterwards be- delivered public lectures upon it from the came the benefactor, when the govern- pulpit at Strasburg. In this work, we ment of Hanover appointed him secretary find a collection of moral instructions, of the cabinet, and intrusted him with the and satires upon the crimes, vices and chief direction of the affairs of the uni- abuses common both in public and priversity. During a tour which he made vate life. The book is divided into 113 through Germany and France (1780–81) chapters, which, however, have no conhis attention was particularly drawn to nexion with each other. The descripthe theatres of Paris and Vienna, and he tions are not, in general, poetic, but still gave his opinion concerning them in his contain many happy and beautiful paswell-known remarks upon the theatres of sages, often display learning, and not selLondon, Paris and Vienna. During his res- dom vigor; and the Ship of Fools will idence in England, in the winter of 1784, always be a valuable book, full of sound 1785, he formed many literary and politi- reasoning, pure morality, clear and bold cal connexions, besides gaining a complete thoughts, and knowledge of mankind. knowledge of the English constitution. It has been republished by Hagen in his His journey gave his mind a political Fool's Books. turn. After having been appointed to fill BRANDY. (See Distillation.) . a number of honorable offices, he was BRANDYWINE, a small river which made a member of the privy council. rises in the state of Pennsylvania, passes When the French took possession of into the state of Delaware, and, after a Hanover, in 1803, he was one of the del- course of about 45 miles, joins the Chrisegates appointed to treat with Mortier, tiana, two miles below Wilmington. It and remained a member of the govern- abounds in favorable sites for the appliment, until the committee of administra- cation of water-power; and the Brandy

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wine flour-mills form the finest collec- there is a handsome village. The village tion of the kind in the U. States. This in the west parish contains an academy ; river is noted for giving name to a battle that in the east parish has a large printing fought near it, Sept. 11, 1777, between establishment, various manufactures, and the British and Americans, in which the a flourishing trade. In the south-east latter were defeated, with the loss of corner of B. was fort Dummer, which about 300 men killed and 600 wounded. was established in 1724, and was the first

BRANTÔME, Pierre de Bourdeilles, lord settlement formed by Anglo-Americans of the abbey of, born at Perigord, about in Vermont. 1527, died in 1614. In his epitaph, com- BRAUWER, BRAUR, or BROUWER, Adriposed by himself, he relates, in a vaunting an; a celebrated painter, of the Dutch manner, how he first bore arms under school, born at Haerlem, in 1608, or, the great Francis of Guise, and after- more probably, at Oudenarde, where his wards served the king, his master. After father was a painter of common paperthe death of Charles IX, he withdrew to hangings. Poverty contributed, perhaps, his estate, and wrote his memoirs, which to form his talents. When a child, he have a great deal of vanity and self- painted flowers and birds to be stitched complacency, mingled with much that is on caps, which were sold by his mother. interesting. They are a living picture of Francis Hals, a skilful painter, expecting his age; for B. was personally acquainted to profit by the talents of the young artist, with all the great characters of the time, took him to Haerlem. Here, amidst and an eye-witness of all the important wearisome labors and poor diet, B. spent events which then took place, and, in the greater part of his time in a garret, some, was an actor. B.'s character was occupied in making little paintings, of the that of his birth-place (Gascony) and of value of which he was ignorant, while his rank. He was a courtier, regardless Hals kept the profits of them for himself. of right or wrong; who does not blame Two pretty paintings of his, The Five the great, but observes and relates their Senses and The Twelve Months, are menfaults and crimes as ingenuously as if he tioned as belonging to that period. By were uncertain whether they deserve the advice of Adrian of Ostade, his fellow praise or blame ; as indifferent about hon- pupil, he escaped to Amsterdam, where or and chastity in women as about integ- he was surprised to hear, that his paintrity in men. He describes a scandalous ings were esteemed. He now gained act without being sensible of its offensive- considerable sums by his labors; but, inness. He speaks of the good king Louis stead of devoting himself to his art, he XI, who ordered his brother to be poison- made the inn his workshop, never exerted, and of the virtuous ladies, whose ad- ing himself till the hostess insisted upon ventures no pen but his own could de- payment. He threw into the fire a paintscribe. He places us in the middle of ing for which he did not receive the that century, when expiring chivalry was price demanded, and began a new one contending with the forming, and, as yet, with more care. Having gone to Antunsettled manners of later times. B., in werp during the wars of the Low Counthe midst of his wandering life, had ac- tries, he was thrown into prison as a spy. quired more learning than most of his He declared that he was a painter, apfellow-soldiers. He has left Vie des pealing to the duke of Ahremberg, who Hommes illustres et des grands Capitaines was likewise imprisoned there; and, at Français; Vie des grands Capitaines the prince's intercession, having been Étrangers; Vie des Dames illustres; Vie provided with materials, he painted his des Dames galantes ; Anecdotes touchant guards engaged in playing cards, with so les Duels ; Rodomontades et Jurements des much expression and truth, that Rubens, Espagnols. Twelve editions of his works at the sight of the picture, exclaimed, were published from 1666 to 1740, some- “This is B.'s work ; none but he can times entire, sometimes in selections. succeed so well in such subjects.” Ru

bens effected his release by standing BRASS. (See Copper.)

bail for him, clothed him, and received BRATTLEBOROUGH ; a post-town in him into his house and at his table. Windham county, Vermont, on the Con- B., however, instead of being grateful necticut, 41 miles N. of Northampton, for this generosity, escaped secretly, to 110 S. of Montpelier ; population in 1820, plunge into still greater extravagan2,017. It is one of the most considerable ces. He took lodgings with a baker, and flourishing towns in Vermont, and Craesbeke, who became a skilful painter contains two parishes, in each of which by his instructions. This man, whose VOL. II.

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inclinations agreed with those of B., had ernment in imitation of that of the U 2 handsome wife, and the connexion States. The new constitution was 301between these three persons became so emnly sworn to in the capital, Feb. 2, intimate, that they were obliged to flee 1824; and, in the ensuing elections, B., from justice. B. went to Paris, but, find being unsuccessful in the contest for the ing no employment there, returned to presidency, was chosen vice-president; Antwerp, where he died in the hospital, and, from that period, has been regarded in 1640. Rubens, who remembered only as the leader of the opposition party in his talents, caused him to be honorably Mexico. During the year 1827, it is well buried in the church of the Carmelites. known, the struggle between the party in All the pictures of B. show what sort of favor of the present constitution, and the places and company this artist frequented. party opposed to it, daily increased in He did not, however, like Teniers, under- violence and bitterness, the former being stand how to give to mean objects the distinguished by the party name of Yorkvariety of which they are susceptible. inos, the latter by that of Escoceses, from Nevertheless, his paintings command high the different masonic rites which they prices from amateurs. It would, indeed, uphold. Although the latter party inbe difficult to excel B. in power and har- cluded the Spaniards and other enemies mony of coloring, in the management of of the republic, it was hoped that B.'s the chiaro-oscuro, and in truth of expres- love of his country and weight of charsion.

acter would prevent his countenancing BRAVO, Nicholas, one of the most prom- any design of theirs inimical to the liberinent leaders in the Mexican revolution, ties of Mexico. But, Dec. 23, 1827, lieuwas a native of New Spain, and son of tenant-colonel Manuel Montano raised the don Leonardo Bravo. He became iden- standard of rebellion at Otumba, and the tified with the patriot party at an early government immediately despatched a period of their struggle for independence, strong body of troops, under general and adhered to it through all their vicissi- Guerrero, to disperse the insurgents. A tudes of fortune. After the fatal termina- few days after he marched, several offition of Hidalgo's career, B. made common cers, known to be violent Escoceses, clancause with Morelos, commanding a di- destinely left Mexico, and joined Montano; vision of the latter's army in 1812, at and, at length, the vice-president, B., folwhich period he was particularly distin- lowed them. Their whole force, at this guished, among other achievements, by a time, did not exceed 150 men. They victory over the Spanish general Musitu. proceeded to Tulancingo, immediately on When Iturbide's deception of the royal- B.'s joining them, where they fortified ists gave him the means of promoting the themselves; but, after a feeble resistance, revolution, in 1821, B. was one of the first were compelled to surrender. B., and 25 to take advantage of circumstances, and other officers, were taken prisoners, and to raise anew the standard of revolt, un- thus terminated this desperate attempt. deterred by past misfortunes. Iturbide B.'s great merits in the cause of indepenendeavored in vain to acquire the confi- dence secured to him the lenity of the dence of B., who, like Victoria, suspected government; and he was merely senhis ambitious purposes long before he tenced to seven years' banishment from suffered them openly to appear. Victoria the republic. No authentic account has and B. steadily opposed the projects of yet transpired of B.'s motives and particthe usurper, and, at length, became so far ular inducements in taking this step; and, committed in their opposition as to be in the absence of such evidence, it is difarrested and imprisoned by him, whilst ficult to believe that a man of his tried president of the executive junta. They patriotism can have dreamed of restoring were subsequently released, and B. took the Spanish authority in Mexico. (See arms against the emperor at the earliest Ward's Mexico, &c.) opportunity.--Upon the establishment of BRAVURA AIR; an air so composed as a provisional republican government in to enable the singer to show his skill in 1823, subsequently to the fall of Iturbide, execution by the addition of embellishthe executive consisted of generals Vic- ments, striking cadences, &c. It is sometoria, B. and Negrete. During the dis- times used for the style of execution. cussions relative to the formation of a BRAY; a small village in the county of constitution, B. maintained the necessity Berks. The church is a vicarage in the of a central system, like that of Colombia, gift of the bishop of Oxford. The vicar in opposition to the federal party, which of Bray lived in the reigns of Henry VIII, @pally prevailed in organizing the goy- Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth, and

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