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was first a Papist, then a Protestant, then Amazon, Madeira, Topayas, Xingu, To. a Papist, and finally a Protestant again. cantins, Negro, St. Francisco, Paraguay, Being accused of inconstancy, “It is not Parana, and Uraguay. There is scarcely so,” he replied; “for I always keep to my to be found on the globe a finer counprinciple, which is this to live and die try than B.; one blessed with a more vicar of Bray.” A well known song is genial climate, or a more fertile soil ; founded on this incident.
more happily diversified with wood and BRAY, François Gabriel, count de; in water, or with abundance of navigable 1809, Bavarian ambassador at St. Peters- rivers; or more famed for its precious burg; since 1820, at Paris; was born in produce of gold and diamonds. It comNormandy, where his father belonged to prises within its limits nearly all the most the nobility of the province; assisted, as valued productions of the earth. Viewed knight of St. John of Malta, in a bloody from the sea, the country appears rugged attack upon Algiers. He prepared him- and mountainous; but, on a nearer apself for the diplomatic career at Ratisbon, proach, its appearance is highly romantic where, previous to the overthrow of the and picturesque, clothed as it is with the German empire, French diplomatists were most luxuriant vegetation, its hills Covbred for the courts of Northern Europe. ered with thick woods, and its valleys
an service, and, while ambassador at St. wards the interior, the land rises, by gentle Petersburg, wrote his able work, Essai gradations, to the height of from 3 to Critique sur l'Histoire de la Livonie, suivi 6,000 feet above the level of the sea; d'un Tableau de l'État actuel de cette Pro- and, in these temperate regions, European vince (1817, Dorpat, 3 vols.)
fruits and grain are raised in abundance, BRAZIL; a country of vast extent, and while the intermediate valleys are exone of the richest regions of the earth, tremely favorable to the production of comprising the eastern and central parts sugar, coffee, and all kinds of tropical of South America; bounded N. by Colom- produce. A large part of the interior is bia, Guiana, and the Atlantic ocean, E. overspread with an impenetrable forest, and S. E. by the Atlantic ocean, and w. the trees being closely interwoven with by Buenos Ayres, or the United Provinces brush wood and shrubs, and covered with of La Plata, Bolivia and Perú.-The fol- creeping plants, adorned with beautiful lowing table exhibits the population of the flowers, thus giving a peculiar and rich several capitanias, or provinces, as stated appearance to the scenery. The forests by Mr. Brackenridge, who visited South abound in a great variety of useful and America in the years 1817 and 1818. beautiful wood, adapted for dyeing, cabProvinces. Pop. Chief Towns.
inet-work and ship-building. They con
tain numerous wild animals. The cliPernambuco...550,000... Pernambuco. Bahia .........500,000... St. Salvador,
mate, in the neighborhood of the Amazon
and in the northern parts, is hot, but Minas Geraes .. 380,000... Villa Rica.
tempered by the humidity of the air; in Rio Janeiro ...400,000... Rio Janeiro. St. Paul .......300,000... St. Paul.
the southern parts, it is temperate, and
generally healthy.-B. has been long celRio Grande ... 250,000... Portalagre. Maranham .... 200,000... St. Luis.
ebrated for gold and diamonds, which Para...........150,000... Para.
abound in the higher regions of the inMatto Grosso ..100,000... Cuyaba.
terior, and are chiefly found in the beds
of the mountain torrents, where the stream Goyas .........170,000... Villa Boa.
is most rapid. Most of the streams that Total, 3,000,000
rise from the chain of mountains which
extend through the province of Minas GeIn 1826, the country was divided anew, raes are rich, especially near their sources, so as to constitute nineteen provinces. in gold and diamonds. The towns of St. Of the population, as stated by Mr. Brack- Paul, Villa Rica, Cuyaba, and others in enridge, 1,000,000 are supposed to be of the interior, have grown out of mining European origin or descent, 1,200,000 establishments. Tejuco is the chief town Negroes, and 800,000 subdued Indi- of the principal diamond distrie. Brazil ans; the unsubdued Indians not being was discovered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral. included. A later estimate makes the Emanuel, king of Portugal, had equipped number of Negro slaves, 1,800,000. Malte- a squadron for a voyage to the East InBrun estimates the population of B. at dies, under the command of Cabral. The 3,800,000 ; Hassel and Humboldt, at admiral, quitting Lisbon, March 9, 1500, 4,000,000.-The principal rivers are the fell in accidentally, April 24, with the
continent of South America, which he at strong garrison. The Spaniards next first supposed to be a large island on the sent out a formidable fleet, laid siege to coast of Africa. In this conjecture he St. Salvador, and compelled the Dutch was soon undeceived, when the natives to surrender. When the affairs of the came in sight. Having discovered a good Dutch assumed a more favorable aspect harbor, he anchored his vessels, and called at home, they despatched admiral Henthe bay Puerto Seguro. On the next day, ry Lonk, in the beginning of 1630, to athe landed with a body of troops, and, hav- tempt the entire conquest of B. He sucing erected the cross, took possession of ceeded in reducing Pernambuco, and, on the country in the name of his sovereign, his return to Europe, left behind him and called it Santa Cruz; but the name troops which reduced, in 1633, 1634 and was afterwards altered by king Emanuel 1635, the provinces of Temeraca, Paraito that of Brazil, from the red-wood which ba and Rio Grande. These, as well as the country produces.--The Portuguese Pernambuco, furnished yearly a large entertained, for some time, no very fa- quantity of sugar, a great deal of wood vorable opinion of the country, not hav- for dyeing, and other commodities. The ing been able to find there either gold or Dutch now determined to conquer all B., silver; and, accordingly, they sent thither and intrusted Maurice of Nassau with none but convicts, and women of aban- the direction of the enterprise. This dis- , doned character. Two ships were annu- tinguished officer reached the place of his ally sent from Portugal, to carry to the destination in the beginning of 1637, and new world the refuse of the human race, subjected Seara, Seregippe, and the greater and to receive from thence cargoes of part of Bahia. Seven of the fifteen provparrots and dye-woods. Ginger was af- inces which composed the colony had terwards added, but, in a short time, pro- already submitted to them, when they hibited, lest the cultivation of it might were suddenly checked by the revoluinterfere with the sale of the same article tion, which removed Philip IV from the from India. In 1548, the Jews of Por- throne of Portugal, and gave to the Portutugal, being banished to B., procured guese independence, and a native sovesugar-canes from Madeira, and began the reign. The Dutch, then, as enemies cultivation of that article. The court of of the Spaniards, became friends to the Lisbon began to perceive that a colony Portuguese, and the latter confirmed the might be beneficial without producing title of the Dutch to the seven provinces, gold or silver, and sent over a governor of which they were in possession. This to regulate and superintend it. This was division gave rise to the name of the BraThomas de Souza, a wise and able man. zils, in place of the former appellation. De Souza found it very difficult to suc- The Dutch government soon began to ceed in inducing the natives to fix on oppress the Portuguese colonists, who, settled habitations, and to submit to the after an obstinate contest, drove them out Portuguese government. Dissatisfaction of several of the provinces.. Finding they ensued, which at length terminated in were not able to retain possession of the war. De Souza did not bring with him a country, the Dutch ceded all their interest sufficient number of men to conclude to the Portuguese for a pecuniary comhostilities speedily. By building St. Sal- pensation. The dominion of Portugal vador, in 1549, at the bay of All Saints, was now extended over all B., which, he established a central and rallying point during the 18th century, remained in the for the colony; but the great object of re- peaceful possession of the Portuguese, ducing the Indians to submission was -The value of B. to Portugal has been on effected by the Jesuits, who gained their the increase since the discovery of the affections by presents and acts of kind- gold mines, in 1698, and the discovery of ness.—The increasing prosperity of B., the diamond mines, in 1782. Up to the which became visible to Europe at the year 1810, B. had sent to Portugal 14,280 beginning of the 17th century, excited cwt. of gold, and 2100 pounds of diathe envy of the French, Spaniards and monds, which foreign countries, and esDutch, successively. The latter, howev- pecially Great Britain, at last succeeded er, were the principal enemies with whom in purchasing, at the Lisbon market. the Portuguese had to contend for the Rio Janeiro now became the mart for the dominion of B. Their admiral, Willekens, proceeds of the Brazilian mines and native in 1624, took possession of the country productions. But the administration was in the name of the United Provinces. any thing but adapted to promote the Having plundered the people of St. Sal- prosperity of the country. The attention vador, he returned to Europe, leaving a of the government was turned almost ex
clusively to the gold washings, and to the for gold, or for diamonds, in case of any working of the diamond mines; and the future discovery of such treasures, should policy of the administration consisted in be the property of the crown, or, at least, the exaction of taxes and duties, which the object of high taxation. In the grants were collected from the fortified ports, of the ancient plantations, the crown had to which trade was solely confined. not indeed provided for such a continForeigners were excluded, or jealously gency, and had reserved no such rights. watched, and trade was paralysed by nu- Even the humanity of the government, merous restrictions. In the interior, the in attempting to ameliorate by laws the lands situated on the great rivers, after condition of the slaves, was a subject of being surveyed, were frequently pre- offence, because it appeared to the lords sented, after the year 1640, by the kings to be an injury to their legal property to of the house of Braganza, to the younger proceed in such a matter without their sons of the Portuguese nobility, whom the consent. Out of Rio Janeiro, in the more system of entails excluded from the pros- northerly and more fertile section, the pect of inheritance. These grantees en- number of young merchants in the large listed adventurers, purchased Negro slaves maritime cities and their vicinity was by thousands, and subjected the original greatly increased by emigrations from inhabitants, or drove them from their dis- states where more freedom of thought tricts, and ruled their dominions with al- was enjoyed than in B. Many came most unlimited sway. The missions of even from Germany. These adventurers, the Jesuits also received similar dona- bent on gain, naturally felt burthened by tions from the kings. They organized a the heavy system of taxation, and by the brave militia from the converted savages monopolies of the crown. They carried and their descendants, and bore the sword on the smuggling trade to such a degree, and the cross farther and farther into the that they lived, in fact, in open war with interior. Equally independent with the the government. In addition to these secular lords of the soil, they united the malcontents, there were many disbanded converted savages in villages and parishes soldiers, who had embarked from Portualong the rivers. The celebrated Jesuit gal, in the hope of being rewarded by the Vieyra introduced the cultivation of court for their services, but, from the povspices, in which Holland alone had hith- erty of the finances, found that they could erto traded. As these Brazilian proprie- obtain nothing but land, which was of no tors defrayed, from their own means, the value to these warriors. Moreover, many above-mentioned indemnifications made Europeans emigrated to Bahia and Perto the Dutch, the Portuguese govern- nambuco, who, though destitute, were not ment, in return, confirmed and enlarged altogether uninformed, and who desired all the privileges of the ancient planters, to make their fortune there, some way or extending them to the present and future other. The lower class of the native possessions of these noble families. But, clergy, too, were very much dissatisfied, in the end, the government multiplied its because, even while the court resided own monopolies, and assumed preroga- in B., Portuguese noblemen received tives interfering with the interests of the the most important ecclesiastical offices. ancient and rich landlords. Even from Without ascribing to the Brazilians any 1808 to 1821, as long as the court resided democratic propensities, all these circum in Rio Janeiro, the Portuguese by birth stances must have awakened the desire continued to have the preference, in the of independence in their breasts, as much high offices of state, before the chief na- as it augmented their hatred of the Portive families; and the system of taxing tuguese. From these two causes, a conthe productions of B., and the importa-flict of parties of several years' duration tion of articles needed by the Brazilian has lately taken place, the result of which nobility for themselves and slaves, was is the new empire. The removal of the even extended. The government final. Portuguese government to B., Jan. 19, ly placed obstacles in the way of in- 1808), when the royal family landed in creasing the number of the latter, which Bahia, whence it transferred its residence the rich landlords deemed indispensable to Rio Janeiro in March, till the deparfor the establishment of new plantations. ture of king John VI to Lisbon, April The vassals, moreover, always had a 26, 1821), was the commencement of stumbling-block in their way in the fiscal the prosperity of B. As early as Jan. prerogative of the court, that the land 28, 1808, all the ports of B. were open.. which the vassal called his own, but ed for the unconditional entrance of which he had hitherto neglected to search all friendly and neutral vessels, and for
the exportation of Brazilian productions, But the want of industry, at that time, under certain duties, with the sole excep- rendered the means of living in the capition of Brazil wood. B. now entered, tal and neighborhood extremely dear, also, into an immediate connexion with while the total absence of highways, and Germany, which had an equally bene- other means of facilitating transportation, ficial influence on its agriculture, intellect- deprived the products of the interior of ual improvement and commerce. The alniost all their value. Without a contreaty of alliance and commerce conclud- siderable capital, no foreigner can cultied with England at Rio Janeiro, Feb. vatè the land bestowed on him, and B. is 19, 1810, permitted the British even to as yet far removed from that equality of build and repair vessels of war in the har- rights, which secures to each one the full bors of B.; and the then prince-regent use of his means, as well as from that of Portugal promised never to introduce toleration, which affords protection and the inquisition into B., and to co-operate freedom of conscience to every creed. in earnest to effect the abolition of the The royal decree of March 16, 1820, slave-trade, excepting such as was carried which encourages the settlement of on in the Portuguese possessions in Af- foreigners, by an exemption from taxes rica. The decree of Nov. 18, 1814, for four years, will never, therefore, while next allowed all nations free intercourse these impediments exist, produce the rewith B. In 1815, the prince-regent sults which have followed the colonizapromised B. independence and equal tion of North America-a country, in other privileges with Portugal. Dec. 16, 1815, respects, less inviting. The foreign relahe made it a monarchy. Finally, by the tions of B., of late years, have not been marriage of tlie crown-prince (now em- altogether of a peaceful nature. After peror) of B., don Pedro, with the arch- the conclusion of the congress of Vienna, duchess Leopoldine, daughter of Francis Spain refused to cede Olivenza to PortuI. of Austria, Nov. 6, 1817, Germany gal; on which account, the Banda Oriental, was in various ways brought into contact with its capital, Monte Video, an important with B. The government in Rio Janeiro portion of the Spanish province of Buenos now allowed the free prosecution of Ayres, was taken possession of by B., natural researches. Thus Mawe, an Eng- and maintained with effect against the lishman, was permitted to examine the claims of the republic of Buenos Ayres, diamond mines; the chevalier Eschwege, after it had attained independence. An afterwards overseer of the cabinet of min- insurrection in Pernâmbuco, in April, erals in Rio, was enabled to examine the 1817, where a party raised the republican inountains of Minas Geraes at Villa Rica; standard, was suppressed by the Portuand the latest work on B., by Martius and guese troops stationed in B. But when Spix, contains similar evidence how zeal- the revolution broke out in Portugal, Aug. ous even a royal minister, Conde da 1820, having for its object the establishBarca, is in promoting scientific investi- ment of a constitution, the Portuguese gations. As B., by reason of its soil and troops in B. also obtained a constitution climate, may become the chief mart of all in behalf of the latter country. Don Pecolonial commodities, the government dro, the crown-prince, proclaimed the has encouraged, since 1809, the settle- acceptation of the Portuguese constitument of strangers, and has granted to tion in the name of himself and father, foreigners, at a small price, large tracts of Feb. 26, 1821. King John VI now comland (cismarias), of a league (22,500 feet) manded, the choice of deputies (March in breadth, and three leagues in length, 7th) to meet with the cortes assembled in for the cultivation of sugar, coffee, cotton, Lisbon, and was desirous to embark with &c., as well as wheat, rice and maize, them for that city. But, the bank being which afford here annually two crops. unable to make the necessary advances Swiss and Germans (such as Freyreiss, of money, a bloody insurrection ensued. the baron Busche, and Paycke of Ham- The king therefore changed the bank burg) have therefore founded large set- into a national bank, and, to defray the tlements here. According to Langsdorf, sums loaned, appropriated to it the charge who published Observations on Brazil, at of the diamond mines, and the regulation Heidelburg, 1821, Welsh corn generally of the trade in diamonds. The king soon yields in B. 130 fold, and rice 80 fold. after (April 21 and 22) saw himself comThe coffee-tree, which, in the West Indies, pelled to order the military to disperse yields annually, on an average, 11 pounds the assembly of electors, who demanded of coffee, in B., yields at least 2 or 3, the adoption of the Spanish constitution. and not unfrequently 5 or 6 pounds. On the other hand, he repeated the rati
fication of the (then incomplete) Portu- in consequence of the principle of the soveguese constitution, and, April 22, appoint- reignty of the people in a colony separated ed his son don Pedro prince-regent of from the mother country, and it was also B. He now embarked for Portugal, made a question, whether he should not reApril 26. But, as the Portuguese cortes nounce his claims to the crown of Portugal. was not willing to grant the entire equali- His father, indeed, when he left B., April ty of civil and political relations demanded 26, 1821, had given him full powers to do by the Brazilians, and, without waiting all that might be necessary to preserve this for the arrival of the Brazilian deputation, country to the house of Braganza. The had framed the articles of the constitution mission, nevertheless, of major Schäffer which related to B., and subsequently re- to Vienna, could not procure the acjected the additional articles proposed by knowledgment of the new emperor by the Brazilian deputies, and, finally, had his father-in-law, the emperor of Austria. expressly declared, that B. was to be di- The Brazilian troops, in the meantime, vided into governments, and ruled by the conquered Monte Video, which still had ministry of state at Lisbon, and the prince- a Portuguese garrison, in Dec., 1823, after regent was to be recalled to Portugal, which the Banda Oriental was united such violent convulsions were excited in with B., under the name of Cisplatino, as Rio Janeiro, and various parts of B., Dec.g. also Bahia, which was defended by a 1821, that it was explicitly declared to the Portuguese garrison, under general Naprince-regent, that his departure would deira. Lord Cochrane, the Brazilian adbe the signal for establishing an indepen- miral, blockaded the harbor from March dent republic. The prince, therefore, re- 26, 1823. Madeira, compelled to surrensolved to remain in B., and gave a public der by famine, sailed, during the negoexplanation of his reasons, Jan. 9th, 1822, tiation, in the night of July 2, to Europe, to his father, to the cortes in Portugal, and the Brazilian troops entered the place. and to the people of B. The Portuguese At home, don Pedro had two parties to troops were removed from B. The prince- contend with the ancient Portuguese, regent assumed, May 13th, 1822, the title which was the weaker, and the republiof perpetual defender of B., and, in June, can, the stronger. The latter was espe.. convened a national assembly, composed cially powerful in Pernambuco. The of 100 deputies, to frame a separate con- brothers Andrade sought to gain both stitution for the country. The cortes in parties by the proposal of a free constituLisbon, on the other hand, declared this tion, formed after the model of the Engconstitution void, Sept. 19th, 1822, and lish; but the obstacles of all kinds, and the demanded the return of the prince-regent violent opposition with which their adto Europe, on pain of forfeiting his right ministration was harassed, compelled them to the throne. Meanwhile, the national to resort to arbitrary measures and arrests. assembly of B. had declared the separa- They treated the malcontents as Carbontion of that country from Portugal, Aug. ari, and thereby excited the suspicion, 1, 1822, and, Oct. 12, appointed don that the emperor aspired to absolute auPedro the constitutional emperor of B. thority. They finally convoked the cortes The new emperor retained, at the same of B., the session of which was opened time, the title of perpetual defender of B. by the emperor, May 3, 1823. Of the 20 ---Soon after the establishment of the em- members, who constituted the opposition, pire, began the struggle with the republi- out of the 60 (instead of 160) present, can party. In this party were many Aranjo Lima was the most eloquent. free-masons. Don Pedro, who had pro- The ministers succeeded in causing sem claimed himself, shortly before, grand cret societies to be prohibited, by which master of all the free-masons in B., or- means they gained a pretence for imdered that all the lodges should be closed, prisoning many, whose sentiments were and the congress, which he had promised republican. This augmented the public to assemble for the purpose of framing a dissatisfaction, and, when the emperor, constitution, was not convened. At that having been severely injured by a fall time, the two brothers Andrade, Jose from a horse, did not appear in public for Bonifacio, minister of foreign affairs and a month, the enemies of the ministers of the interior, and Martin F. Ribeiro, became more bold in their outcries, and minister of finances, especially the former, even sent threatening representations to possessed the entire confidence of the the emperor. The imprisoned were acemperor. The most difficult matter was quitted by the supreme court of justice, 10 effect his recognition in Europe; for and the emperor found himself compelled ion Pedro had acquired the new dignity to dismiss the two Andrade, July 16,