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1823. Don Joaq. de Carneiro Campos drade from the assembly. Immediately (formerly professor of mathematics at the after, the troops entered the city, surcollege of Lisbon) received the depart rounded the hall of the convention, and ment of foreign affairs, and don Man. an officer delivered an imperial decree, Jacint. Figueroa da Gama that of the ordering the dissolution of the assembly. finances—both adherents to the politi- The president recorded it on the journals, val principles of 1791.—Meanwhile, the declared the session terminated, and the royal power had been restored in Lis- deputies separated, Nov. 12, 1823. But bon in May, 1823 ; but the Brazilians while departing, and subsequently, many demanded the more loudly a free con- were arrested; among them the three stitution and a separation from Portu- Andrade, who were eventually transportgal. The emperor, therefore, refused to ed. In a decree of the same day, the receive the envoy of the king his father, emperor termed the assembly perjured, the count de Rio Mayor, Sept. 6, 1823, but, on the following day, limited this because he could not give assurance expression to the faction of the Andrade. of the acknowledgment of the indepen- —The provinces, also, were the theatre dence of B. At the same time, the con- of many turbulent scenes. In Pernamgress authorized a loan of £2,500,000 in buco, the violent dissolution of the conLondon, which has subsequently been gress gave rise to much dissatisfaction, increased about £700,000. (75 per cent. and it was difficult to appease the hatred only was paid in specie, at 6 per cent. of the Brazilians against the Portuguese. interest !) . The constitution of Aug. 10, A second national assembly was finally 1823, which the national assembly had convened at the end of Nov., 1823, and accepted with some alterations, was final- the emperor caused a constitution, drawn 'y laid before the emperor, but, in conse- up by his council of state, to be laid bequence of a revolution which suddenly. fore the cabildo (the municipality of the ensued, not accepted, because it resem- capital, Dec. 11, 1823, which collected bled the Spanish and Portuguese consti- the votes of the citizens respecting it in tutions, and restricted too much the au- writing. As all assented to this constituthority of the sovereign. Since the fall of tion, the oath was administered Jan. 9, the Andrade, the republican party had 1824. The same course was pursued in gained strength, and attacked, in their the provinces: but here many citizens journals, with particular violence, the voted against the constitution ; among Portuguese in the Brazilian service, and others, the president, Man. de Carvalho demanded their expulsion. Two officers, Paes d'Andrade of Pernambuco. Marchi in retaliation, did some injury, Nov. 8, 25, 1824, the oath to observe the constito an apothecary at Rio, who laid his tution was also taken by the emperor and complaints before the congress. The two empress. In its fundamental principles, ex-ministers Andrade, and their third this constitution coincided with those brother, don Antonio Carlos, likewise a previously projected. The four branches deputy, demanded that congress should of civil authority—the legislative, the investigate the matter; others desired mediative, the executive and the judicial that it should be referred to the courts of -are made to rest on a transfer of power justice. This gave rise to a violent tu- by the people. The government is momult on the 10th ; the people took part in narchical, hereditary, constitutional and it; the disinissal of the ministers, and representative. The representation of the the departure of all the Portuguese, were Brazilian nation consists of the emperor loudly required. The ministers gave in and the general assembly, a body comtheir resignation, and the emperor col- posed of two chambers—that of the depulected the troops at his palace San Chris- ties, chosen for four years, and that of the tovao, four leagues from the city. The senators, chosen by the emperor from the congress hereupon declared itself perma- election-lists. With the former rests the nent. Nov. 12, it was informed, by a power of originating bills for the imposimessage from the emperor, that all the tion of taxes and the levying of soldiers, officers regarded themselves as injured as well as of proposing a change of dynby two journals, of one of which the asty. The latter retain their dignity for three Andrade were editors, and patrons life. The sessions of these chambers are of the other; and they were accused, in public. The majority of votes decides. general, of being at the head of a rebel- The senate has jurisdiction of the misderious party. The minister of the interior meanors of the members of the royal declared, at the same time, that the troops family, of the ministers, deputies and insisted on the removal of the two An- council of state. The two chambers pos

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sess, in general, great privileges. The of amity and commerce, and another emperor has the executive and mediato- treaty, respecting the abolition of the rial authorities; but his veto is not abso- slave-trade, delayed for four additional lute. He cannot refuse his sanction to a years, between B. and Great Britain. bill equally approved by two legislative But neither was ratified by the king of assemblies. The press is free, but libels Great Britain, because, among other are punished by law. All immunities, things, they contained stipulations for the privileged corporations, &c. are abolish- mutual surrender of political criminals ed. The Roman Catholic is the estab- (or those charged with high treason) and lished religion: to other denominations refugees. About this time, the governdomestic worship is allowed, but without ment of the United Provinces of the Plata the power of having churches, &c. Not- urged the restoration of the Banda Oriwithstanding this liberal constitution, the ental, which B. had held in possession republican party gained the supremacy in since 1816. The emperor, therefore, dePernambuco. The president, Man. de clared war against Buenos Ayres, Dec. Carvalho Paes d'Andrade, recalled by the 10, 1825, and caused the mouth of the emperor, attempted to unite the northern La Plata to be blockaded by his vessels provinces into one republic, called the of war. But the people of the Cisplatino, Union of the Equator. But, as soon as with the natives of Monte Video, had althe emperor had no longer cause to fear ready taken up arms, for the sake of a an attack from Portugal, his forces in- union with the United Provinces of the vaded Pernambuco, in August, by land Plata. The insurgents took Maldonado. and sea, under the command of lord General Lecor (viscount de Laguna), Cochrane and general Lima. Carvalho however, maintained himself in Monte and Barros, with a great portion of the Video. On the other hand, the republic inhabitants, made an obstinate resistance; of the Plata formally received the Banda but, on the 17th of Sept., 1824, the city Oriental into its confederacy, and, at the was taken by assault. Carvalho had fled close of the year 1825, B. possessed but to an English ship of war; the others two points in the Banda Oriental Monte into the interior of the country. In the Video and the colony del San Sagramenfollowing year, the emperor sent general to. A question of much importance now Brandt and the chev. de Carneiro to Lon- arose, whether the emperor don Pedro don, to negotiate there, with the Portu- should succeed his father, king John VI, guese minister, the marquis de Villareal, in the kingdom of Portugal. The king respecting the independence of B. Sim- died March 10, 1826, having appointed ilar negotiations afterwards took place in his daughter, the infanta Isabella Maria, Lisbon, through the British envoy ex- provisional regent. According to the traordinary, sir Charles Stuart, who constitution of B., don Pedro could not finally concluded, at Rio Janeiro, with leave the country without the consent of the Brazilian minister of foreign affairs, the general assembly. He therefore enLuis Jose de Carvalho e Mello, a treaty tered upon the government of Portugal, between B. and Portugal, Aug. 29, 1825, and gave this kingdom a J'epresentative on the following terms :- 1. B. should be constitution, but renounced the crown recognised as an independent empire, of Portugal in his own person by the act separate from Portugal and Algarvia. 2. of abdication of May 2, 1826, and resignThe king of Portugal was to resign the ed his right to his daughter donna Maria sovereignty of B. in favor of his son and da Gloria, princess of Beira, born in 1819, his legitimate posterity. 3. The king of who was to marry her uncle don Miguel, Portugal should retain the title of empe- born in 1802; meanwhile, the emperor ror of B. for his own person merely. 4. confirmed the present regent of Portugal. The emperor don Pedro should promise (For a further account of Maria, Miguel, to receive from no Portuguese colony and the state of Portugal, see Portugal. proposals for a union with B. 5. The Soon after, May 8, he opened the second trade between the two nations should be constitutional assembly of B. at Rio. He restored, and all property confiscated had previously, April 16, 1826, founded should be returned, or compensation the new Brazilian order of Pedro I.made for it. The king of Portugal rati- The war with Buenos Ayres was continfied this treaty Nov, 15, 1825. The em- ued in the Banda Oriental with little peror of B. has since sent ambassadors to vigor, and with little prospect of advanthe courts of Lisbon, London, Paris and tage to either party, but with a ruinous Vienna. Sir Charles Stuart, soon after, charge upon the finances of both. A neconcluded at Rio, Oct. 18, 1825, a treaty gotiation for peace was at length opened,

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under the mediation of Great Britain, has been lately estimated, by the minister which terminated in the execution of a of finances, at about $16,290,000. Of treaty, Aug. 27, 1828. In this treaty, the this sum, about $7,200,000 are all which emperor of Brazil and the government of come into the hands of the general govthe United Provinces unite in declaring ernment for the supply of the general exthe Cisplatino, or the province of Monte penses. The remainder is consumed in Video, which had been the chief object the internal administration of the proyof controversy, a free and independent inces in which it is collected. The whole state, under such form of government as estimate, however, is vague, and not much it might deem most suitable to its inter- to be depended on. Notwithstanding the ests, wants and resources. It was stipu- many natural resources of B., it must lated, that, for the purpose of forming this long remain weak, in a political view; government, the existing government of for its inconsiderable population is too the Banda Oriental should, immediately unequal in its advantages and too divided on the ratification of the treaty, convoke in its views. 1,800,000 are Negro slaves, the representatives of the part of the ignorant and barbarous; the Indians are province subject to it, and the govern- of no advantage to the industry of the ment of Monte Video its citizens, to make country. They live, for the most part, rechoice of a proportional number of dele- tired in the wilderness. The Mulattoes gates, and that these representatives and seem to combine in themselves the vices delegates should constitute a provisional of the savage and the European. Both government, whose duty it should be to sexes give themselves up, without shame, form a political constitution for the new to the impulses of their passions, and state. After the meeting of this provis- their cruelty to their slaves is often horriional government, the functions of the ble. The Europeans and the Creoles previously existing governments were to form, to some extent, the aristocracy of cease. The independence of the proy- the country. Most of them are planters ince of Monte Video was guarantied by or miners, or overseers in the colonies, the contracting parties. This treaty was and, in this way, are scattered far over duly ratified, the blockade of the La Plata the country, with little communication was immediately raised, and the troops with each other, without knowledge and of the two belligerents were withdrawn education. The most cultivated persons from the contested territory. By an act are found in the maritime cities. But, of the legislature, passed in 1827, the cel- even in Rio, the merchants, according to ibacy of the clergy has been abolished in Mathison, are men of very little informaB. (For further information, see Banda tion. They take no interest in any thing Oriental.)

but what immediately concerns their The national debt of B. is considerable, business. The clergy Mathison found including the English loan of £3,200,000. so dissolute, that he was ashamed to give The principal ecclesiastical dignitaries a description of their morals. Of men of are an archbishop, who resides at Bahia, higher character, capable of administering and 16 bishops, of the Roman Catholic, public offices, there are but few, and they the established religion. In all the large are chiefly Portuguese. (See the Corotowns, the government supports element- grafia Brazilica of Manoel Ayres de Cazal, ary and high schools. In the former, the Rio Janeiro, 1817, 2 vols. 4to. ; Southey's system of mutual instruction is introduced. History of Brazil, London, 1818, 2 vols. In Bahia and Rio Janeiro, there are in- 4to.) stitutions for teaching surgery, medicine, BREACH; the aperture or passage made engineering and law, and for imparting in the wall of any fortified place, by commercial information. Rio has an the ordnance of the besiegers, for the academy for the instruction of officers purpose of entering the fortress. They intended for the naval service; also an should be made where there is the least observatory. This city and Bahia, also, defence, that is, in the front or face of the contain academies for the promotion of bastions. In order to divide the resistthe fine arts, public libraries, &c. In ance of the besieged, breaches are com1826, 300 young Brazilians were pursuing monly made at once in the faces of the their studies in France. The army con- attacked bastions, and in the ravelin. sisted, in 1824, of 30,000 regular troops This is effected by battering, and, at and 50,000 militia, besides a regiment of such places as the cannon do not reach, free Negroes. The navy, in 1826, con- by the aid of mines.-Breach-Battery. sisted of 96 ships, including 1 ship of the (See Battery. The breach is called pracline and 4 frigates. The revenue of B. ticable, if it is large enough to afford

BREACH-BREAD-FRUIT.

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some hope of success in case of an assault. large loaf for the whole week. This is This is generally considered to be the divided for use with small saws. It is case if it allows a passage to 14 men called pumpernickel, and is sometimes abreast. Frequently, however, a breach exported. In many parts of Germany, of much less extent, even of half that bread is made of grain nearly entire, or width, may be entered.

but just bruised, which is very coarse, and BREAD. In the earliest antiquity, we frequently forms part of the food of the find the flour or meal of grain used as horses. Bread is found wherever civilifood. The inconvenience attending the zation has extended. It is made of wheat, use of the grain in its natural state, and, rye, maize, barley, oats, spelt, &c. The perhaps, the accidental observation, that, want of bread has often occasioned public when bruised, and softened in water, commotions, particularly in Paris and anit formed a paste, and, when dried cient Rome. again, a more compact, mealy substance, BREAD-FRUIT. The bread-fruit is a led, by degrees, to the artificial prepara- large, globular berry, of a pale-green color, tion of bread. Easy as it seems to us, it about the size of a child's head, marked must have been a long time before it was on the surface with irregular six-sided completely successful. The grain was depressions, and containing a white and first bruised between stones, and, from the somewhat fibrous pulp, which, when ripe, meal mixed with milk and water, a dry, becomes juicy and yellow. The tree that tough and indigestible paste was made produces it (artocarpus incisa) grows wild into balls. This is yet the chief food of in Otaheite and other islands of the South the caravans in the deserts of Northern seas, is about 40 feet high, with large and Africa. The Carthaginians, also, ate no spreading branches, and has large, brightbread, and hence were called, in derision, green leaves, deeply divided into 7 or 9 by the Romans, pultiphagi (pottage-eaters). spear-shaped lobes.-We are informed, in After many attempts, or, perhaps, acci- captain Cook's first voyage round the dentally, it was observed that, by bring world, that the eatable part of this fruit ing the paste into a state of fermentation, lies between the skin and the core; and its tenacity is almost entirely destroyed, that it is as white as snow, and somewhat and the mass becomes bread, porous, of the consistence of new bread. When agreeable to the taste, digestible, and, gathered, it is generally used immediateconsequently, healthy. The process pur- ly: if it be kept more than 24 hours, it sued is the following :-Some old dough, becomes hard and choky. The inhabitcalled leaven, which, by a peculiar spirit- ants of the South sea islands prepare it as uous fermentation, has swelled up, be- food by dividing the fruit into three or come spongy, and acquired an acid and four parts, and roasting it in hot embers. spirituous smell, is kneaded with the new Its taste is insipid, with a slight tartness, dough, and produces, though in an infe- somewhat resembling that of the crumb rior degree, a similar fermentation in the of wheaten bread mixed with Jerusalem whole mass. The whole thus becomes artichoke. Of this fruit, the Otaheitans spongy; a quantity of air or gas is devel- make various messes by mixing it with oped, which, being prevented from es- water or the milk of the cocoa-nut, then caping by the tenacity of the dough, beating it to a paste with a stone pestle, heaves and swells it, and gives it a porous and afterwards mingling with it ripe consistency. This is called the working plantains, bananas, or a sour paste made of the dough. In this state, the dough is from the bread-fruit itself, called mahie. put into the heated oven, where the air It continues in season eight months, and contained in it, and the spirituous sub- so great is its utility in the island of Otastance, are still more expanded by heat, heite, “that,” observes captain Cook, "if, and increase the porosity of the bread, in those parts where it is not spontanemaking it materially different from the un- ously produced, a man plant but 10 trees baked dough. The best and most whole- in his whole lifetime, he will as comsome bread is baked in some parts of pletely fulfil his duty to his own and to France, and on the Rhine. In England, future generations, as the native of our the flour is adulterated with too many less temperate climate can do by ploughforeign substances, in order to make the ing in the cold of winter, and reaping in bread whiter. In some parts of Sweden, the summer's heat, as often as these seathe bread is composed, in part, of the bark sons return; even if, after he has procured of trees, during the winter. In Westpha- bread for his present household, he should lia, a kind of very coarse, black bread is convert the surplus into money, and lay made, of which the peasants bake one it up for his children.” Not only does 252

BREAD-FRUIT-BREATH.

this tree supply food, but clothing, and BREAKWATER. (See Cherbourg, Plynnumerous other conveniences of life. outh and Delaware.) The inner bark, which is white, and BREAST. (See Chest.) composed of a net-like series of fibres, is BREAST-PLATE; a piece of defensive formed into a kind of cloth. The wood armor, covering the breast, originally is soft, smooth, and of a yellowish color, made of thongs, cords, leather, &c. (hence and is used for the building of boats and lorica, cuirass), but afterwards of brass, houses. In whatever part the tree is iron, or other metals. It may be considwounded, a glutinous, milky juice issues, ered as an improvement of the shield or which, when boiled with cocoa-nut oil, is buckler, which was borne on the left arm, employed for making bird-lime, and as a and moved so as to protect, successively, cement for filling up cracks in such ves- all parts of the body. It being perceived sels as are intended for holding water. that the free use of both hands in the Some parts of the flowers serve as tinder, employment of offensive weapons was and the leaves are used for wrapping up important, the defensive armor was atfood, and other purposes. As the climate tached to the body, and received different

very different from that of the West In- instance, breast-plate, cuisses, greaves. dies, it was, about 42 years ago, thought These different species of defensive ardesirable, that some of the trees should mor are of little use against fire-arms, and be transferred, in a growing state, to the have, therefore, generally fallen into disEnglish islands there. His majesty's ship use in modern war. (See Cuirass.) the Bounty sailed, in 1787, for this pur- Breast-plate, in Jewish antiquity, was a pose, to the South seas, under the com- folded piece of rich, embroidered stuff, mand of lieutenant, afterwards admiral, worn by the high-priest. It was set with Bligh. But a fatal mutiny of the crew 12 precious stones, bearing the names of at that time prevented the accomplish- the tribes. It was also called the breastment of this benevolent design. The plate of judgment, because it contained the commander of the vessel, however, re- Urim and Thummim. turned in safety to his country, and a BREAST-WHEEL ; a water-wheel which second expedition, under the same person, receives the water at about half its height, and for the same purpose, was fitted out or at the level of its axis. In England, in the year 1791." He arrived in safety float-boards are employed, which are fitat Otaheite, and, after an absence from ted accurately to the mill-course, so that England of about 18 months, landed in the water, after acting on the floats by its Jamaica, with 332 bread-fruit-trees, in a impulse, is detained in the course, and living state, having left many others at acts by its weight. In the U. States, they different places in his passage thither. are often constructed with buckets, and From Jamaica, these trees were transfer- with a part of the circumference fitted to red to other islands; but, the Negroes the mill-course. naving a general and long-established BREAST-WORK. In the military art, predilection for the plaintain, the bread- every elevation made for protection fruit is not much relished by them. against the shot of the enemy. Wood Where, however, it has not been gener- and stone are not suitable for breastally introduced as an article of food, it is works, on account of their liability to used as a delicacy; and, whether em- splinter. The best are made of earth; in ployed as bread, or in the form of pud- some circumstances, of fascines, dung, ding, it is considered highly palatable by gabions, bags of sand and of wool. The the European inhabitants.

thickness of the work must be in proporBREAKERS ; billows which break vio- tion to the artillery of the enemy. In lently over rocks lying under the surface general, it ought not to be less than 10, of the sea. They are readily distinguish nor more than 18, or, at most, 24 feet ed by the foam which they produce, and thick. The rule of Cugnot is, that the by a peculiar hoarse roaring, very differ- breast-work should be so high, that nothent from that of waves in deep water. ing but the sky and the tops of trees can When a ship is driven among breakers, it be seen within cannon shot from the inis hardly possible to save her, as every terior of the intrenchments. If this rule

dash her down with additional force height of neighboring mountains, the in

BREAKING BULK; the act of beginning terior of the fortification ought to be seto unlade a ship, or of discharging the cured by traverses. first part of the cargo.

BREATH. The air which issues from

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