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merly a very strong place, and has sus. Louis XVI and the establishment of a tained several sieges.-New B. is in the republican constitution were demanded. department of the Upper Rhine, in France, He constantly displayed a hostile dispoon the west side of the river. Vauban sition towards foreign powers, and the fortified it in 1699, and it is considered first declaration of war against Austria one of his master-pieces. It is 30 miles was owing to him. On the 10th of Ausouth of Strasburg.
gust, the new ministry was almost entirely BRISEIS. (See Achilles.)
composed of his partisans. In the conBRISGAU, also BREISGAU, with the dis- vention, he was at the head of the diplotrict of Ortenau, formerly constituted a matic committee, in the name of which landgraviate in the south-western part of he made a motion for war against EngSuabia, between the Schwartzwald and land and Holland. On the trial of Louis the Rhine. This is one of the most fer- XVI, he endeavored to refer the sentence tile parts of Germany, containing 1,272 to the decision of the people, and voted square miles, and 140,000 inhabitants. for the king's death, proposing, at the Though chiefly in possession of Austria same time, that the execution should be since the 15th century, it was governed deferred till the constitution should be by its own laws. At the peace of Lune- sanctioned by the whole people in priville, 1801, Austria ceded B., one of the mary assemblies. In the midst of the oldest possessions of the house of Haps- revolutionary ferment, the ground whereburg, to the duke of Modena, after whose on his party stood was insensibly underdeath it fell to his son-in-law, the arch- mined. After several charges had been duke Ferdinand of Austria, as duke of brought against him, Robespierre accused Brisgau. By the peace of Presburg, him, May 28, 1793, of favoring a federa1805, it was assigned to Baden, with the tive constitution, with two parliaments, exception of a small part, and still be- &C., and demanded that he should be longs to the grand-duchy.
brought before the revolutionary tribunal. BRISSAC. (See Cosse.)
The 31st of May completed his ruin. BRISSOT DE WARVILLE, Jean Pierre; He endeavored to reach Switzerland in born in 1754, at Quarville, a village in the disguise of a merchant of Neufchatel, the vicinity of Chartres, where his father, but was arrested at Moulins, and led to a pastry-cook, and keeper of an ordinary, the guillotine, in Paris, October 31, at the possessed a small estate. This circum- age of 39. He was a great admirer of stance led him to assume the surname the Americans, assumed the habits of d'Ouarville, which he afterwards, while the Quakers, and introduced the fashion in England, changed into de Warville. of wearing the hair without powder. His At the age of 20, he had already publish- personal qualities were below his fame : ed several works, for one of which he he was indeed a leader among the Girondwas thrown into the Bastile, in 1784. ists, but many others of this party were Madame de Genlis, in her memoirs, says, far superior to him in courage and talents. that she procured his liberty through herB RISSOTINS, or BRISSOTISTS; a name influence with the duke of Chartres. He sometimes given to the Girondists (q.v.), married one of the household of madame from the subject of the preceding article. d'Orleans, and went to England, where BRISTOL; a city and county of England, he was in the pay of the lieutenant of situated on the Avon. The river is here the police in Paris. At the same time, he deep and rapid, and the tide flows to the was engaged in literary pursuits, and at- height of 40 feet, so that a vessel of 1000 tempted to establish a lyceum in London; tons can come up to the city. It was but, being disappointed in his plans, he constituted a bishop's see by Henry VIII, returned to France. In 1788, he travel and part of a monastery founded by Steled in America, as it is asserted, to study phen, in 1140, has been converted into a he principles of democracy. After his cathedral. The church of St. Mary's, eturn, he published, in 1791, a work on Redcliffe, is one of the finest Gothic the United States. On the convocation structures in the kingdom. The city has of the states general, he published several long been distinguished for its well conpamphlets in Paris, and afterwards a ducted and extensive charities, and is journal-the French Patriot. When the adorned with many handsome public municipal government of Paris was es- buildings. Manufactories of glass and tablished, July, 1789, he was one of the sugar, distilleries and brass-works, the members, and was one of the principal largest in England, give employment to instigators of the revolt of the Champ many of its inhabitants. Its foreign trade de Mars, where the dethronement of is also considerable, principally to t!**
West Indies. It returns 2 members to The trade is chiefly to the West Indies parliament, and is governed by a mayor, and to Europe. It contains a court2 sheriffs, 12 aldermen, and 28 common house, a jail, a market-house, a masonic councilmen. Here the famous Chatterton hall, an academy, a public library, conwas born : his father was sexton of St. taining about 1400 volumes, and four Mary's. About a mile from B. stands the houses of public worship. Great quantivillage of the Hot-Wells, famous for its ties of onions are raised here for exportamedicinal spring, the temperature of tion. Mount Hope, which lies two miles which is from 720 to 76°: it discharges 60 N. E. of Bristol, within the township, is a gallons a minute. The Hot-Wells, and pleasant hill of a conical form, and is fathe village of Clifton, on the hill above, mous for having been the residence of the are fashionable resorts. At the time of Indian king Philip. the earthquake at Lisbon, in 1755, the BRISTOL CHANNEL ; an arm of the Irish water of the spring became red and tur- sea, extending between the southern shores bid, the tide of the Avon flowed back, of Wales and the western peninsula of and the water in the vicinity turned black, England, and terminating in the estuary and was unfit for use for a fortnight. The of the Severn. It is about 30 miles long, extensive commerce and fine harbor of and from 15 to 50 miles wide. It is reB. rendered it desirable to obviate the in- markable for its high tides and the rapidconvenience attending ships lying aground ity with which they rise. (See Bridgeat every tide. By constructing extensive water.) works, and opening a new channel for the BRITAIN, according to Aristotle, was Ayon, the flux and reflux of the tide at the name which the Romans gave to the quays have been prevented, and mer- modern England and Scotland. This chant-ships of any burden may now con- appellation is, perhaps, derived from the stantly lie afloat. B. is very ancient. old word brit, party-colored, it having been Gildas mentions it, in 430, as a fortified customary with the inhabitants to paint city. By the Britons it was called Caer their bodies with various colors. ACBrito, and by the Saxons Brightstowe, or cording to the testimony of Pliny and Pleasant Place. It was erected into an Aristotle, the island, in the remotest times, independent county by Edward III, in also bore the name of Albion. (q.v.) The 1372, and has since been endowed with sea, by which B. is surrounded, was genvarious privileges. All persons are free erally called the Western, the Atlantic, or to trade here, and the markets are un- the Hesperian ocean. Until the time of equalled in plenty and variety by any in Cæsar, B. was totally unknown to the England. Many of the houses in the Romans. But the Phænicians, Greeks older part of the town are built of wood, and Carthaginians, especially the first, and crowded together in narrow streets, were acquainted with it from the earliest but those of more recent erection are of period, being accustomed to obtain tin brick and stone, and disposed in spacious there. On this account, they called it streets and squares. The common sew- Tin island, as Herodotus informs us. ers, which run through the town, render Cæsar undertook two expeditions to B. it remarkably clean. Carts are not ad- He defeated the inhabitants, whom he mitted into the city for fear of damaging found entirely savage, and continued a the arches of vaults and gutters under the short time on the island. It was not, streets, and every thing is conveyed by however, until the time of Claudius, that sledges. The population, in 1821, includ- the Romans gained a firm footing there. ing the suburbs, was 52,889. It is 117 At that period, they extended their posmiles west from London; lon. 2° 46' W.; sessions in the country, and called the lat. 51° 30' N.
territory under their dominion Britannia BRISTOL (Indian names, Pocanocket Romand. The most important acquisiand Sowam); a seaport town, and capital tions were afterwards made under Adrian of a county of the same name in Rhode and Constantine. At last, the inhabitants Island, on the continent; 15 miles S. assumed the manners of their conquerors. Providence, 15 N. Newport, 56 S. S. W. The country was very populous in the Boston ; lon. 71° 12' W.; lat. 41° 38' N.; time of Cæsar, and, according to the tespopulation, in 1820, 3197. It is a very timony of Tacitus, fertile. It was divided pleasant town, finely situated, and hand- into Britannia Romana and B. Barbara. somely built, has a safe and commodious The Romans, from the time of Adrian, harbor, and is a place of considerable anxiously endeavored to secure the fortrade. The shipping belonging to this mer against the invasions of the barbariport in 1820 amounted to 10,701 tons. ans, by a wall or rampart of earth fortified BRITAIN-BRITANNICUS CÆSAR.
with turrets and bulwarks. Lollius Urbi- called St. George's channel. These islands cus, in the reign of Antoninus, extended have been also visited by d'Entrecasteaux, this wall; but Šeptimius Severus restored Bougainville, Hunter, &c. (See Labilits former limits. In his time, the Ro- lardière's Voyage, 2 vols., 4to., 1798.) man province was divided into the east- BRITAIN, New; a vast country of North ern (prima, or inferior) and the western America, lying round Hudson's bay, north part (secunda, or superior). Two prov- and north-west of Upper and Lower Caninces were added by Constantine. The ada, comprehending Labrador, New North inliabitants of ancient B. derived their Wales and New South Wales, attached to origin partly from an original colony of the government of Lower Canada, and Celtæ, partly from a mixed body of Gauls belonging to Great Britain.--The face of and Germans. The Celtic colonists, or the country is various. On the souththe Britons, properly so called, living in west of Hudson's bay, from Moose river the interior of the country, had less inter- to Churchill's river, in some parts, for the course with foreign merchants than the distance of 600 miles inland, the country Gauls, who lived along the coasts. They is flat, marshy, and wooded, in many are therefore represented by the Romans parts, with pines, birch, larch and wilas less civilized. The Gallic inhabitants, lows. North of Churchill's river, and on who had settled nearer the sea-coast, pos- the eastern coast, it is high, rocky and sessed some property, and were therefore barren, every where unfit for cultivation, more easily intimidated than those tribes covered with masses of rock of amazing that were dispersed through the forests. size, composed of fruitless valleys and None of them cultivated the ground: frightful mountains, some of them of they all lived by raising cattle and hunt- great height. The valleys are full of ing. Their dress consisted of skins. lakes formed by rain and snow, and are Their habitations were huts made of covered with stunted trees, pines, fir, birch wicker-work and covered with rushes. and cedar, or juniper. The mountains Their priests, the Druids, together with have here and there a blighted shrub, or the sacred women, exercised a kind of a little moss. The climate is extremely authority over them. (For the modern severe, and, in lat. 60., on the coast, vegkingdom of Great Britain, see Great etation ceases.—The principal rivers are
Mackenzie's river, Copper-Mine river. BRITAIN, New; a group of islands be- Nelson's, Churchill's, Albany, Moose, longing to Australia (q. v.), and separated Seal, Severn, Rupert and Pokerekesko. by Dampier's strait from New Guinea. The most considerable lakes are WinniThe situation of these islands has not peg, Slave lake, Great Bear lake, and been very exactly ascertained; but they Athapescow.-The principal article of stretch from about 1° 30' to 6° S. lat., and trade is fur. The trade is carried on by from 148° to 153° E. lon. Their extent two companies, who have several forts, is equally uncertain. Some geographers viz. forts Prince of Wales, Chippeyan, include in this group the island of the Alexandria, Churchill, Albany, Nelson, same name, New Ireland, New Hanover, Severn, &c.—The wild animals are nuAdmiralty islands, and some smaller ones. merous, such as bears, beavers, deer, Some of the group are volcanic. The raccoons, &c. The Esquiinaux Indians natives are Papuas, and manage their ca- occupy the coasts of Labrador: the intenoes, some of which are 80 feet long, rior is inhabited by various tribes of a diwith great skill. They are black; their minutive and miserable race. hair is curled and woolly; but they have BRITANNICUS CÆSAR (Tiberius Claudineither the thick lips nor the flat noses of us Germanicus), son of the emperor the Negroes. Those of the Admiralty Claudius and Messalina, was born a few islands are gentle and peaceful; those of days after the accession of Claudius to New Holland are warlike. The islands the throne. After the return of the emcontain some high mountains, covered peror from his expedition to Britain, the with lofty trees to their summits. The surname Britannicus was bestowed on bread-fruit-tree, the fig-tree, pepper, aloes, the father and son. As the eldest son of nutmeg, &c., are found here. The seas the emperor, B. was the legitimate heir abound in coral reefs, which often render to the throne; but Claudius was prevailed the navigation dangerous. Dampier first upon by his second wife, the ambitious discovered that this archipelago was sep- Agrippina, to adopt Domitius Nero, her arate from New Guinea. Carteret first son by a former marriage, who was three showed that New Ireland was separated years older than B., and declare him his from New Britain by the strait which he successor. The venal senate gave its
consent. In the mean time, Agrippina, of £20,000 to his heirs. Montague-house, under the pretext of motherly tenderness, one of the largest mansions in the mestrove to keep B., as much as possible, tropolis, was appropriated to its recep in a state of imbecility. She removed tion, and it has since been gradually inhis servants, and substituted her own creased by gifts, bequests, and purchases creatures. Sosibius, his tutor, was mur- of every species of curiosity-animals, dered by her contrivance. She did not vegetables, minerals, sculptures, books, permit him to appear beyond the pre- MSS., &c. The main building is 216 cincts of the palace, and even kept him feet long and 57 high; the wings are ocout of his father's sight, under the pre- cupied by the officers of the establishtence that he was insane and epileptic. ment. The library of printed books ocAlthough the weak emperor showed that cupies 16 rooms. The upper floor is he penetrated the artifices of Agrippina, composed of 11 rooms, 2 of which conyet his death, of which she was the au- tain miscellaneous collections, 4 contain thor, prevented him from retrieving his collections of natural history, and 5 the error. Nero was proclaimed emperor, library of MSS., which is extremely valwhile B. continued in close confinement. uable, besides the saloon, containing the In a dispute with Nero, Agrippina threat- minerals. The Lansdowne library of ened to place B., who was then 14 years MSS. consists of 1245 volumes, exclusive old, on the throne, upon which Nero of rolls and charters, and contains the caused him to be poisoned.
Burleigh, Cæsar and Kennet papers. BRITINIANS ; a body of monks of the (Catalogue of Lansdowne MSS., folio, order of St. Augustine, who received their 1819.) The Sloane and Birch MSS., name from Britini, in Ancona, which was consisting of 4437 volumes, are valuable. the place of their institution. Their man- (See Ayscough's Undescribed MSS., 2 ner of living was very austere. They ab- vols., 4to., 1782.) The Harleian MSS. stained from all kinds of ineat, and fasted were collected by Harley, lord Oxford, from the festival of the Exaltation of the and form 7639 volumes, containing 40,000 Cross to Easter, besides observing the documents. (Catalogue of Harleian MSS., fasts prescribed by the church, which 4 vols., folio, 1809.) The Cottonian colthey were strictly enjoined to do by the lection was injured by fire in 1751. The rules of their order. Their dress was number of articles is upwards of 20,000, gray; and, to distinguish themselves among which is the original of the Magna from the Minorites, they wore no girdle. Charta, and original documents connected When Alexander IV, in 1256, effected with it. (Catalogue, folio, 1802.) There the union of the different congregations are many other very valuable collections, of the order of St. Augustine, the Britini- which we cannot enumerate. The galleans became members of this union. ry, or department of antiquities, is dis
BRITISH AMERICA. Under the general tributed in 15 rooms; 6 of which contain name of British America is comprehend- Greek and Roman sculptures and antiquied all that part of the continent of North ties, and 2 are occupied with Egyptian America which lies to the north of the U. sculptures and antiquities, many of which States, with the exception of the Russian were collected by the French, and fell possessions in the north-west, and Green- into the hands of the English at the capland in the north-east. It consists of four ture of Alexandria, September, 1801. provinces : 1. Lower Canada, to which is Salt's Egyptian antiquities have also annexed New Britain ; 2. Upper Canada; been lately added. The famous Rosetta 3. New Brunswick ; 4. Nova Scotia ; to- stone belongs to the collection. Other gether with the island of Newfoundland. rooms are occupied by terracottas, the The whole country is under a governor- Hamilton vases, coins and medals, prints general, whose residence is at Quebec. and drawings, the Phigalian marbles, and Each of the four provinces has also a the Elgin marbles. The anteroom colllieutenant-governor; and Newfoundland tains the famous Barberini vase, or, as it is governed by an admiral.
is generally called, the Portland vase. BRITISH CHANNEL. (See English Chan- BRITTANY, or BRETAGNE ; formerly one nel.)
of the largest provinces of France, being BRITISH MUSEUM was founded by sir a peninsula washed by the Atlantic on all Hans Sloane, who, in 1753, bequeathed sides except the east, where it joined his collection of natural and artificial çu- Poitou, Anjou, Maine and Normandy. riosities, and his library, consisting of It now forms five departments (q. v.), 50,000 volumes of books and MSS., to containing 2,532,500 inhabitants, on 1775 the nation, on condition of the payment square miles. It is supposed to have BRITTANY-BROEKHUIZEN.
received its name from the Britons, who from her line of course with such rapidwere expelled from England, and took ity as to bring her side to windward, and refuge here in the fifth century. It form- expose her to the danger of oversetting. ed one of the duchies of France, till it The masts act like levers on the ship, was united to the crown by Francis 1, in sideways, so as to overturn her, unless 1532. The province was divided into she is relieved by the rending of the sails, Upper and Lower B. Agriculture, in or the carrying away of the masts. this territory, is very backward, and it is BROAD PIECE; a denomination that has estimated, that about one half of the sur- been given to some English gold pieces face lies waste. Corn and wine are pro- broader than a guinea, particularly Caroduced in small quantities. Flax and luses and Jacobuses. hemp, apples and pears, are abundant, BROADSIDE, in a naval engagement ; and of good quality. Cider is the prin- the whole discharge of the artillery on one cipal drink. Salt is made on the coast, side of a ship of war, above and below.-A and coals, lead and iron are found in va- squall of wind is said to throw a ship on rious parts. There are manufactures of her broadside, when it presses her down hemp, flax and iron. The fisheries, also, in the water, so as nearly to overset her. employ many of the inhabitants. The BROAD-Sword; a sword with a broad Bas-Bretons speak a dialect of the Celtic. blade, designed chiefly for cutting, used There is also a patois among them, called by some regiments of cavalry and HighLueache, of which the words are princi- land infantry in the British service. It pally Greek. The lower classes are poor has, in general, given place to the sabre, and ignorant.
among the cavalry. The claymore or BRIZARD. (See French Theatre.) broad-sword was formerly the national
Broach; a large, ruinous town in Gu- weapon of the Highlanders. zerat, Hindostan, on the Nerbuddah. It BROCADE ; a stuff of gold, silver or contains a Hindoo hospital for sick and silk, raised and enriched with flowers, infirm beasts, birds and insects, which has foliage and other ornaments. Formerly, considerable endowments in land, and it signified only a stuff wove all of gold accommodates not only animals consid- or silver, or in which silk was mixed ; at ered sacred by the Hindoos, such as present, all stuffs, grograms, satins, taffemonkeys, peacocks, &c., but horses, dogs tas and lustrings are so called, if they are and cats: it has, also, in little boxes, an worked with flowers or other figures. assortment of lice and fleas. These ani- BROCKEN. (See Hartz.) mals are fed only on vegetable food, and Brody, a town in Austrian Gallicia, are, generally, in a miserable condition. situated in the circle of Zloczow, borderNear B. is the celebrated banian-tree, ing on the Russian frontier, includes 2600 which has been renowned ever since the houses, and 16,500 inhabitants, half of first arrival of the Portuguese in India, whom are Jews, who have a college and and which, according to the natives, was a school for the instruction of artists and capable of sheltering 10,000 horsemen mechanics. The commerce, carried on under its shade. Part of it has been principally by Jews, is important, the washed away by the river, but enough town being very favorably situated for the yet remains to make it one of the noblest exchange of the products of Poland for groves in the world. B. was captured by the horses, black cattle, wax, honey, talthe English in 1803. Lon. 73° 6 E.; lat. low, skins, furs, anise, preserved fruits, 21° 41' N.
&c., of Walachia, the Crimea, &c. B. BROACH; any thing which will pierce belongs to count Potocki. through; a pin ; that part of certain orna- BROEKHUIZEN, Jan van (better known ments by which they are stuck on; the as Janus Broukhusius); born at Amsterornament itself. Among the Highlanders dam in 1649. When young, he lost his of Scotland, there are preserved, in sev- father, a hatter, and was put under the eral families, ancient broaches of rich guardianship of one of his relations, who workmanship, and highly ornamented placed him with an apothecary, though Some of them are inscribed with charac- he desired to study a learned profession. ters to which particular virtues were at- While in this situation, he wrote verses, tributed, and seem to have been used as and was encouraged by the applause of a sort of amulet or talisman.
the public. He subsequently entered the BROACH-TO; to incline suddenly to military service of his native country. In windward of the ship's course when she 1674, he embarked under the command sails with a large wind ; or, when she of the famous admiral de Ruyter, as a sails directly before the wind, to deviate marine, on an expedition to the West