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printer, and had made himself known by of Sweden. This monarch invited the some small pieces of his own composition. marshal to a personal interview, in which He now devoted himself ardently to poli- he endeavored to convert him to the tics, became a member of the club des Cor- cause of Louis XVIII. B. refused every deliers, was connected with Danton, and proposal. He may, however, have drawn played an active part in the tempests of upon himself the indignation of Napoleon

engaged in publishing a daily newspaper. favoring the English contraband trade in Afterwards, he went as a commissary to Hamburg. At any rate, he was recalled, Belgium. In 1793, he entered the mili- and suffered to remain without employtary service in the revolutionary army, in ment. After the revolution of 1814, he the Gironde. Oct. 10, 1795, he aided recognised Louis XVIII, and received the Barras to put down the Jacobins, who cross of Louis, but no appointment. This had assaulted the camp of Grenelle. Af- was the cause of his declaring himself for terwards, he distinguished himself as gen- Napoleon, immediately upon his return. eral of brigade in the Italian army, in He received the chief command of an 1797, in the attack of Verona, and in the important army in the south of France, battle of Arcoli. When the directory of and was made a peer. When circumSwitzerland declared war, B. received the stances changed again, he delayed a long chief command of an army, entered the time before he gave up Toulon, which country, without much opposition, in Jan- was in his possession in 1815, to the troops uary, 1798, and effected a new organiza- of Louis XVIII, and sent in his resignation of the government. In 1799, he tion to the king. This circumstance, and received the chief command in Holland, the severities exercised by his command, defeated the English in the north of Hol- might well have excited against him the land, Sept. 19, near Bergen, and compel- rage of the people. While retiring from led the duke of York to agree to the Toulon to Paris, he was recognised, at treaty of Alcmaer, Oct. 18, by which the Avignon, by the people who favored the English and Russians were to evacuate king; and they immediately collected to

he was made a counsellor of state, and tered. The excited populace were heated

the west. The restoration of tranquillity among them, that B. was the murderer of to the provinces, torn by civil war, was, the princess Lamballe. The marshal was in a great degree, effected by him. Aug. permitted, however, to go away quietly. 13, he was appointed commander-in-chief But scarcely had his carriage left the city of the Italian army. Towards the end before a mob of the rabble which had of December, he led his troops over the followed compelled the driver to turn Mincio, conquered the Austrians, passed back to the hotel. When the marshal the Adige, Jan. 8, 1801, took possession had alighted, and retired, with his two adof Vicenza and Roveredo, and concluded jutants, to his former chamber, the doors an armistice, Jan. 16, at Treviso, with the of the house were locked. The insurAustrian general Bellegarde, by which gents had, in the mean time, gained a several fortified places in Italy were sur- powerful accession to their numbers, and, rendered to the French troops. When with loud shouts, demanded the death of peace recalled him to the council of state, the marshal. In vain did the prefect and towards the end of November, 1802, he the mayor strive to defend him (as there laid before the legislative body for con- were no troops in the city) for the space firmation the treaty of peace with the of four hours and a half, at the peril of court of Naples. The next year, he went their lives. The door was at last broken as ambassador to the court of Constanti- open, a crowd of murderers rushed into nople. He prevailed there at first over the chamber, and the unhappy marshal the English party, and received from the fell under a shower of balls, after a fruitTurkish ministry, the highest marks of less attempt to defend himself and justify honor; but, when new dissensions arose his conduct. His body was exposed to between the two powers, he left Turkey. the most shameful insults, and then dragDuring his absence, May 19, 1804, he was ged from the hotel to the bridge over the appointed marshal of the empire. At the Rhone, from which it was thrown into end of 1806, Napoleon appointed him the river. governor-general of the Hanseatic towns, BRUNEHAUT. (See Brunehild.) and, soon after, commander of the troops BRUNEHILD, Brunichild; married to in Swedish Pomerania, against the king Siegbert I, king of Austrasia, in 568, a

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BRUNEHILD-BRUNINGS.

Visigothic princess, of powerful mind, ings on the dome itself, and by that means enterprising spirit, heroic resolution, deep saved the laborers the time thus spent. political knowledge, and unrestrained Aided only by his own genius, he accomambition. She involved her husband in plished the work, which remains one of a war with his brother Chilperic, in the the boldest creations of the human mind. course of which he was murdered, A. D. But the ingenious lantern, which formed 575; but she continued to live and rage the upper part of the dome, was not fintill 613, when she fell into the hands of ished when he died, in 1444, aged 67. It Clothaire II, king of Soissons, who put was completed, however, according to his her to a most terrible death, as having first design. No monument of ancient been the murderess of 10 kings and royal architecture is so noble as this wonderful princes. (See Fredegonde.)

building. Only the dome of St. Peter's BRUNELLESCHI, Philip, born 1377, at at Rome, which was built since, excels it Florence, devoted himself to the study of in height, but is inferior to it in lightness the works of Dante, to natural philosophy and grandeur of style. Michael Angelo and perspective, the rules of which were said it was difficult to imitate B., and imthen scarcely known. He formed various possible to excel him. B. is the author figures, and invented ingenious machines. of a great number of other masterpieces He devoted himself particularly, however, of architecture. to architecture, and learned the art of BRUNET, James Charles, bookseller at drawing, to make his architectural plans; Paris, began his bibliographical career by statuary, to adorn them; and mechanics, the preparation of several auction catathat he might be able to raise the materi- logues, of which the most interesting is als. He was also profoundly versed in that of the count d'Ourches (Paris, 1811), mathematics and geometry. He is said and of a supplementary volume to Cailto have drawn views of the finest monu- leau's and Duclos's Dictionnaire Biblioments in Florence in perspective-an art graphique (Paris, 1802). In 1810 was pubwhich then excited much astonishment. lished the first edition of his Manuel du This various knowledge prepared him for Libraire et de l'Amateur de Livres, in 3 bold and difficult undertakings, and gain- vols., which gained such universal aped him the name of the restorer of archi- plause, that, in 1814, a second, and, in tecture. As a statuary, he was much 1820, a third edition, of four volumes each, indebted to his intimate connexion with were demanded. This work showed him Donatello, who was then very young, but the worthy successor of the meritorious very able. Both went to Rome. Here B. Debure (from whose works those of B. conceived the idea of restoring architect- are distinguished only by the alphabetical ure to the principles of the Greeks and form.) An attempt to unite the plan of Romans. When the architects assembled, his work with the considerations which in 1407, at Florence, to consult upon the must guide the man of learning in his building of the dome of the cathedral, studies and labors, is contained in the Bibthe plan which B. proposed received but liographical Lexicon, by Ebert, since little attention, and he went back to published. Rome. It was found necessary, however, BRUNET. (See Paris, Theatre of.) to have recourse to him, as the under- BRUNHILDIS. (See Nibelungen.) taking far surpassed the powers of the BRUNI. (See Bruno, Giordano.) other architects. He engaged to erect a BRÜNINGS, Christian; one of the great-, dome, which, by its own weight, and by est hydraulic architects of Holland; born

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hang suspended. This proposal seemed his childhood, he devoted himself to the so wonderful, that the author was regard- sciences connected with hydraulic archied as insane. As all other plans, howev- tecture. In 1769, the states of Holland er, failed to answer the expectations of appointed him general inspector of rivers. the magistrates, B. was again recalled, and This introduced him to a share in several ordered to explain the mode in which he important commissions; for instance, that intended to execute his plan. This he for the improvement of the dike system, refused to do, but built two small in 1796; that for draining the tracts bechapels according to his new system, tween Niewskogs and Zevenhoven, in upon which the charge of erecting the 1797, &c. His most important watercome was committed to him. As he ob- works are his improvements in the diking served that the higher the building was of the lake of Haerlem, the improved raised the more time was lost in going up diking and deepening of the Oberwasser, and down, he erected some small lodg- so called, in the Netherlands, which, at

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high tides, often inundated vast extents where he distinguished himself to such a of country, together with the change in degree, that Gervais, the bishop, appointthe course of the Waal-stream and the ed him to superintend all the schools of canal of Pannerde, by which the beds of the district. He attracted many distinthe Rhine, the Waal and tu Leck were guished scholars, and, among others, Odo, improved. He introduced into his de- afterwards pope Urban II. The immopartment the use of the stream measure, rality of his times induced him to go into so called. His many official duties per- solitude. He retired, therefore, with six mitted this worthy officer but seldom to friends of the same disposition, to the resappear as an author. Yet we find scien- idence of St. Hugo, bishop of Grenoble, tific essays written by him in the 14th, who, in 1084, led them to a desert, four 19th and 20th volumes of the Memoirs of or five leagues distant from the city, callthe Haerlem Society of Sciences, and ed Chartreuse, whence the order of monks some other pieces. He died in 1805. received its name. Here, in a narrow The directory of the then republic wish- valley, overshadowed by two steep rocks, ed to erect a monument to him in the covered with snow and thorns, B. and his cathedral church at Haerlem; but it has companions built an oratory, and small, never been compieted, on account of the separate cells to dwell in, and founded, in political disturbances that occurred soon 1086, one of the severest orders of monks. after his death.

In the mean time, Urban II became pope, BRŰNN; the capital of Moravia, and of and, in 1089, invited his former instructer a circle of the same name, which contains to his court. B. reluctantly obeyed, but a population of 300,000, and is fertile in refused every spiritual dignity, and, in corn and flax. The population of the 1094, received permission to found a city, with the suburbs, is 33,300. It con- second Carthusian establishment in the tains the government offices, the house solitude of della Torre, in Calabria. Here for the meeting of the states, the palace he lived in his former mode, ruled his of prince Lichtenstein, a gymnasium, new colony with wisdom, and died in the many fine houses, &c. There are at B. arms of his scholars, A. D. 1101. Leo X, several flourishing manufactures of fine in 1514, permitted the Carthusians to celwoollen cloths and kerseymeres, one of ebrate a mass in honor of him; and Gregwhich employs 5000 individuals. It is ory XV, in 1623, extended it to the whole the centre of the Moravian commerce, a Catholic church. He was afterwards great part of which is carried on by fairs canonized. B. gave his scholars no parheld at B. every three months. On a hill ticular laws. A complete set of regulanear it is the fortress of Spielberg, now tions for the Carthusians was first formed used as a prison. Lat. 49° 11' N.; lon. A. D. 1581, and confirmed by Inno16° 35' E.

cent XI. BRUNO THE GREAT, archbishop of Co- BRUNO, or BRUNI (Brunus, Leonardo), logne and duke of Lorraine, third son of of Arezzo, whence his name Aretino Henry the Fowler, and brother of the (Aretinus), was one of the most famous emperor Otho I, had a great share in the of the literati at the period of the revival events of his time, and surpassed all the of classic literature in Italy. He was contemporary bishops in talents and born in 1370, and, in his childhood, was knowledge. A numerous train of learn- excited by the character of Petrarch, to the ed men from all countries, even from pursuit of those studies to which he conGreece, continually followed him, and secrated his life. He first studied law at his excellent example was initated by Florence and Ravenna; but the arrival of many prelates. He died at Rheims, Oct. Emanuel Chrysoloras at Florence gave 11,965. Commentaries on the five books him a decided turn for classical learning, of Moses, and the. biographies of some He afterwards filled many offices in the saints, are ascribed to him.

Roman Catholic church, and accompaniBRUNO, St. Among several individualsed pope John XXIII to Constance, where of this name, the most famous is the one the latter was deposed, and B. escaped to who established the order of Carthusian Florence. Here he wrote his Florentine monks. He was born at Cologne, about History, received, in consequence, the 1030, of an old and noble family, which rights of citizenship, and afterwards, by still flourished in the middle of the 18th the favor of the Medici, became secretary century; was educated in the school of to the republic. In this important post the collegiate church of St. Cunibert; in he died, A. D. 1444. Florence and Arezwhich, also, he afterwards received a zo vied with each other in honoring his canonship, and then studied at Rheims, memory by splendid obsequies and mon

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uments. The merits of B., in spreading ecutioners. His philosophical writings, and advancing the study of Greek litera- which have become very rare, display a ture, consist particularly in his literal Latin classical cultivation of mind, a deep intranslations of the classics ; for instance, sight into the spirit of ancient philosophy, the writings of Aristotle, the orations of wit and satire, as well as a profound Demosthenes, the biographies of Plutarch, knowledge of mathematics and natural &c. The other works on which his fame philosophy. Most of them were publishrests are, his Florentine History, also a ed between 1584 and 1591, as appears history of his times, from 1378 to 1440, from the enumeration of the oldest ediand his speeches. His collection of let- tions in the Bibliographical Lexicon of ters, also, is valuable. His writings are Ebert (Lps., 1821, quarto, vol. i, p. 238 in the Latin language, with the exception et seq.). In 1584 appeared, at Paris, his of two biographies of Dante and Petrarch. famous Spaccio della Bestia trionfante (a His chief work is Historic Florentina (12 moral allegory, with many satirical strokes books, Strasb., 1610, folio), with which is on his own times), also his work De la connected the Commentarius Rerum suo Causa, Principio et Uno (Venice and Tempore Gestarum, published in Italian, London, 1584), besides De l'Infinito, at Venice, 1476, folio.

Universo, et Mondi. The former conBRUNO, Giordano; a philosopher of the tains the foundation, the latter the appli16th century, distinguished by the origin- cation, of metaphysics to the natural world. ality and poetical boldness of his specula- The doctrine is a pure Pantheism, contions; born at Nola, in the Neapolitan ter- nected with truly dignified notions of ritory ; entered the order of Dominicans; God-a more complete Pantheistical systook refuge, probably, from the persecu- tem than had been previously exhibited, tions which he drew upon himself by his and which, since his time, Spinoza only, religious doubts and his satires on the life who, like Descartes, borrowed his ideas, of the monks, at Geneva, in 1582, where, has carried to a greater perfection. The however, he was soon persecuted, by the notion that God is the soul of the uniCalvinists, for his paradoxes and his vio- verse, and the world endowed with orlenice; stood forth, in 1583, at Paris, as the ganization and life, might have been forantagonist of the Aristotelian philosophy, given by his contemporaries; but his inand as teacher of the ars Lulliana. Here ference that the world is infinite and he found many opponents, went to Lon- immeasurable, and his doctrine of the don, returned to Paris, and, from 1586 to plurality of worlds, at the moment when 1588, taught his philosophy at Witten- the new system of Copernicus was atberg. Why he left Wittenberg is not tacked from all quarters, could not but be known; but it is certain that he went, in looked upon as a crime. His writings 1588, to Helmstadt, and he seems to have are mostly in the form of dialogues, withvisited Prague before that year. Protect- out any methodical order. His language ed by duke Julius of Wolfenbüttel, he is a strange mixture of Italian and Latin. remained in Helmstadt till his protector His style is violent and fiery. The origdied, in 1589. He was then engaged, at inality and loftiness of his ideas take a Frankfort on the Maine, with the public powerful hold on those who can undercation of some works, but left this city, stand him. His logical writings, in which also, in 1592, and returned (it is not he boldly and skilfully applies Raymond known for what purpose) to Italy. He Lully's art of topical memory, are more remained for some time at Padua in tran- obscure and less interesting. His belief quillity, until the inquisition of Venice ar- in magic and astrology, notwithstanding rested him, in 1598, and transferred him his enlightened views of the nature of to Rome. After an imprisonment of two things, is to be attributed to the spirit of years, that he might have opportunity to his age. He has also written poems, Heretract his doctrines, he was burnt, Feb. roici Furori, and, among others, a come16th, 1600, for apostasy, heresy, and vio- dy, Il Candelajo. The most eminent philation of his monastic vows. He suffered losophers since his time have borrowed death, which he might have averted, even much from him. Among recent writers, eight days before, by a recantation, with Schelling resembles him the most in his fortitude. Whilst his violent attacks on metaphysics and his philosophical views che prevailing doctrines of the Aristotelian of nature, and has given his name to one philosophy, and on the narrow-minded of his philosophical writings (Bruno,

created him enemies, his rashness and Princip der Dinge, Berl., 1802). On pride threw him into the hands of his ex- Bruno and his writings, see Sieber's

BRUNO-BRUNSWICK.

297 and Thanner's Lehrmeinungen berühmter tions. (See the articles George, Hanover, Physiker (5 vols., Sulzb., 1824.)

England, &c.) BRUNONIAN SYSTEM. (See Excitement.) BRUNSWICK ; the duchy of Brunswick

BRUNSWICK, FAMILY OF. The true Wolfenbüttel, in Germany, situated in the founder of this ancient house was Azo II, former circle of Lower Saxony, and bormarquis of Tuscany, who, in the 11th dering upon Luneburg on the north and century, married Cunigunda, heiress of Westphalia on the west. The duke holds the counts of Altorf, and thus united the the 12th rank among the members of the two houses of Este and Guelph. The German confederation. The duchy comprevious history of the Este family is un- prises 1500 square miles, and 232,000 incertain. Guelph, the son of Azo, was habitants. It is divided into six districts, created duke of Bavaria in 1071. He besides the two cities of Brunswick and married Judith of Flanders, who was de- Wolfenbüttel, which are also considered scended from Alfred the Great of Eng- as districts. The family of B. (q. v.) is land. His posterity acquired Brunswick one of the most ancient in Europe. In and Luneburg, and William, or his son 1806, the duchy was annexed, by NapoOtho (1235), was the first who bore the leor, to the kingdom of Westphalia, but title of duke of B. John, eldest son of its native prince, Frederic William (q. v.), Otho, founded the house of Luneburg. was restored by the peace of Leipsic, Albert the Great, a younger son of Otho, 1813. The reigning duke, Charles, born conquered Wolfenbüttel, and, on his death Oct. 30th, 1804, succeeded to the govern(1278), his three sons divided his domin- ment in 1824. The revenue, exclusive ions. Henry founded the house of Gru- of Oels (q. v.), is 2,000,000 florins. The benhagen; Albert became duke of Bruns- circumstances and manners of the inhabwick, and William duke of Brunswick- itants resemble those of the adjacent Wolfenbüttel. Henry Julius, of this last countries. Most of the people are Lutherbranch, inherited Grubenhagen (1596). ans. The whole number of Catholics Ernest of Zell, of the second branch, and Calvinists does not probably exceed who succeeded (1532), conquered the 4000. The ducal house is Lutheran. territories of Wolfenbüttel, and left two (For the form of government, see Constisons, by whom the family was divided into tutions. B. has, with Nassau, one vote the two branches of Brunswick-Wolfen- in the diet of the German states; and has, büttel (II) and Brunswick-Hanover; from by itself, two votes in the general assemthe latter of which comes the present bly. Its contingent of troops to the army royal family of England. The former is of the confederacy is 2096 men. The the German family, now in possession of most important articles of trade and manthe duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. ufacture are corn, rape-seed, flax, tobac(q. v.) Charles William married Au- co, chicory, hops, madder and wood. gusta, sister of George III of England The country affords sheep, swine, goats, (1764). His descendants are presumptive poultry and bees in sufficient quantities heirs to the throne of Great Britain in to supply the inhabitants. Some fat catcase of a failure of the direct line. Er- tle and horses are imported. In the fornest Augustus, of the Brunswick-Hano- ests there are wild boars, deer, hares, ver house, was created elector of Hanover heath-cocks, black-cocks, partridges and in 1692. He married Sophia, daughter hazel grouse; but, as no attempts are made of Elizabeth, the daughter of James I of to preserve the game, the quantity graduEngland. George Louis, son of Ernest ally decreases. The mountainous tracts Augustus and Sophia, succeeded his fa- yield iron, copper, salt, marble, coal, porther, as elector of Hanover, in 1698, and celain earth and other minerals. In the was called to the throne of Great Britain Rammelsberg are found silver, copper, in 1714, by act of parliament passed in lead, arsenic, vitriol and sulphur, and the reign of queen Anne, which vested small quantities of gold. Large tracts the succession in the Protestant line of are covered with peat, in the sandy James I. George IV, the present king regions in the northern districts. The of Great Britain and Ireland, and of Han- breweries and distilleries of spirit, the over (made a kingdom in 1815), is the spinning of linen yarn (the most exten23d of the family of Brunswick by lineal sive branch of industry), the manufacture descent from Azo; the 53d king of Eng- of linen and leather, the preparation of land from Egbert, and is descended from paper, soap, tobacco, sal-ammoniac, madWoden, the head of the ancient Saxon der and chicory afford the principal emfamily, from which so many sovereigns ployment of the people. The lackered of Europe have sprung, by 52 genera- wares and porcelain of B. are famous

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