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thus nearly all the knowledge possessed Edinburgh. In his 26th year, he took of the early state of Christianity in his his doctor's degree, afterwards visited country is due to B. There have been Paris, and formed an acquaintance with several editions of the original Latin, Lavoisier. On his return, he was appointwhich is easy, although not elegant. The ed professor of chemistry at Oxford. latest and best is that of Dr. Smith, Cam- There he published some excellent chembridge, 1722. There is a translation into ical treatises, and Observations on the English by Thomas Stapylton, D.D., Ant- Calculus, Sea-Scurvy, Consumption, Cawerp, 1505, besides the Saxon version of tarrh and Fever. But, dazzled by the Alfred. B. was also the author of many splendid promises of the French revoluother works, a catalogue of which he sub- tion, he offended some of his former adjoined to his history. Several of these mirers, and excited such a clamor against were printed early; but the first general him by the publication of his political collection of his works was that of Paris, opinions, that he determined to resign his 1554, 3 vols. fol. Some of his treatises professorship, and retired to the house of have been published by Mr. Wharton, his friend Mr. Reynolds, in Shropshire. from MSS. in the library at Lambeth pal- There he composed his observations on ace, London, 4to, 1693. While the num- the nature of demonstrative evidence, in ber and variety of the writings of B. show which he endeavors to prove, that mathethe extent of his erudition, his probity, matical reasoning proceeds on the evimoderation and modesty insured him dence of the senses, and that geometry is general respect; and his disinterestedness founded on experiment. He also pubis proved by the fact, that he was never lished the History of Isaac Jenkins, which any thing but an unbeneficed priest. A was intended to impress useful moral letter of advice, which he wrote, late in lessons on the laboring classes in an atlife, to Egbert, archbishop of York, proves, tractive manner. Above 40,000 copies of at once, the purity of his morals, the lib- this popular work were sold in a short erality of his sentiments, and the excel- time. After he had married, in 1794, he lence of his discernment; his wish being formed the plan of a pneumatic instituto curtail the number of monasteries, and tion, for curing diseases, particularly conto increase the efficacy and respectability sumption, by means of factitious airs or of the secular clergy. Notwithstanding gases. He succeeded, with the assistance the veneration with which he was regard- of the celebrated Wedgewood, in opening ed, not a single miracle is recorded of this institution, in 1798. He engaged, as him; and, as monks were the great mira- superintendent of the whole, a young man, cle mongers, and his views of monastic Humphrey Davy, the foundation of whose reforin such as we have mentioned, this future fame was laid here. The chief is not surprising. The manner of the purpose of the institution, however, was death of this virtuous ecclesiastic was never realized, and B.'s zeal gradually restriking and characteristic. He was dic- laxed, so that he relinquished it one year tating a translation of the gospel of St. before his death, after having published a John to an amanuensis. The young man number of valuable works upon the apwho wrote for him said, “ There is now, plication of factitious airs. In the last master, but one sentence wanting ;" upon years of his life, he acquired the reputawhich he bade him write quickly; and, tion of the best medical writer in Great when the scribe said, " It is now done, Britain, particularly by his Hygeia, in 3 the dying sage ejaculated, " It is now vols., a popular work, which contains done," and a few minutes afterwards ex- passages of extraordinary eloquence. pired, in the act of prayer, on the floor of His political pamphlets, from 1795–97, his cell, in the 63d year of his age, in the are forgotten. inonth of May, A. D. 735.
BEDFORD, John, duke of; one of the BEDDOES, Thomas; a physician and younger sons of Henry IV, king of Engauthor; born, 1760, at Shiffnal in Shrop- land ; famous as a statesman and a warshire; died 1808. He was educated by rior. Shakspeare, who calls him prince his grandfather. He made great progress John of Lancaster, introduces him, in his at school, in classical studies, and dis- plays of Henry IV, as distinguishing himtinguished himself at Oxford by his self by his youthful courage in the battle knowledge of ancient and modern lan- of Shrewsbury, in 1403, and forming a guages and literature. The great discoy- kind of moral contrast to his more dissieries in physics, chemistry and physiology, pated brother, the prince of Wales. Duirresistibly attracted him. He continued ring the reign of Henry V, he participated his studies with success in London and in the fame acquired by the conquest of BEDFORD-BEDOUINS.
France; but his talents were fully dis- atta, regularly laid out, and built on an emplayed when, after the death of that king, inence enveloped by mountains. Will's he became regent of France, having been mountain, on the west side of the town, appointed to this post by Henry, in his is 1300 feet high, and Dunning's mounwill. At Verneuil, in 1424, he displayed tain, on the east side, is 1100 feet high, his military talents; and the difficulties, A mile and a half south of the town, which, from various causes, he experi- there are mineral springs, which were enced in endeavoring to maintain pos- discovered in 1804, and are much resortsession of the conquered provinces in ed to, and found useful in cutaneous France, afforded frequent occasion for complaints, ulcers, rheumatisms, chronic the manifestation of his ability. The complaints, &c.--There are several other greatest blemish in his character is his towns and counties of the same name in cruel execution of the maid of Orleans, the U. States : as, B. in the state of New 'n 1431. He survived this event about York, Westchester county, population four years, and dying, in 1435, at Rouen, nearly 2500; B. county in the south of was buried in the cathedral of that city. Virginia; and another in West Tennessee. The duke deserves notice also for his BEDFORD LEVEL ; a large tract of land patronage of the arts. A curious monu- in England, in the counties of Cambridge, ment of his taste still exists--the Bedford Norfolk, Suffolk, Huntingdon, NorthampMissal. Mr. Dibdin, in his Bibliomania, ton and Lincoln, formerly full of fens and p. 253, gives an account of it. It was marshes, and, in rainy seasons, for the made for the duke and duchess, and con- most part under water; but drained, at tains 59 large, and more than 1000 small the expense of £400,000, by the noble miniature paintings. In 1786, it was family of Russell, earls and dukes of purchased, by Mr. Edwards, for 215 guin- Bedford, and others; by which means eas, from the collection of the duchess 100,000 acres of good land have been of Portland; and, a few years after, 500 brought into use. guineas were offered for it. In a histori- BEDFORD, NEw; a seaport in Massacal point of view, it is interesting on ac- chusetts. (See New Bedford.) count of several portraits of eminent per- BEDOUINS, or BEDOWEENS (that is, insons; some of which have been engraved habitants of the desert); a numerous Mohy Vertue, for his portraits to illustrate hammedan race, which dwells in the the history of England. For the anti- deserts of Arabia, Egypt and Northern quarian and the student of the fine arts, Africa. It is still doubtful whether they it is one of the most interesting monu- belong to the same race with the Arabs, ments of that age. Gough, the antiqua- or differ from them in their descent, as rian, published a work in 8vo., describing they do in their manner of living. The the Bedford Missal.
Bedouins live at a distance from cities BEDFORD; a town in England, and and villages, in families, under sheiks, or capital of the county of Bedford, to which in tribes, under emirs. Their dwellings it gives name, situated on the Ouse ; 22 are tents, húts, caverns and ruins. With miles S. E. of Northampton, 50 N. of their herds and beasts of burden, which London; lon. 0° 27' W., lat. 52° 8 N.; carry their little property, they wander in pop. 4605. It contains 5 churches, 3 on quest of fresh water and pasture. They the north and 2 on the south side of the are all good horsemen, and are generally river, 3 independent meeting-houses, and fond of hunting. The peaceful tribes a free grammar school liberally endowed. exchange horses (which they raise with The principal manufacture is lace. It is great care) and fat cattle, for arms and a place of considerable trade, which is cloth, with the neighboring nations. much assisted by the river, navigable to Other hordes are such open robbers, that Lynn, and is the only market-town of it is dangerous to travel through their the county, on the north side of the Ouse. country without a guard or a passport, The soil about it is fertile, particularly in which the different chiefs sell. They not excellent wheat. It sends two repre- only plunder, but murder, even when the sentatives to parliament. It has two travellers offer no resistance. Notwithmarkets weekly.
standing this barbarous custom, the BedBEDFORD; à borough town, and capi- ouins hold the rights of hospitality sa.. tal of Bedford county, Pennsylvania ; 91 cred; and the most defenceless enemy is miles E. by S. of Pittsburg, 190 W. of sure of their protection, if they have once Philadelphia: population of the borough, allowed him shelter. But the Bedouin 789; including the township, 2116. It is considers every one his enemy who is finely situated on a branch of the Juni- not his brother, kinsman or ally. Always
careful of his own safety, he attacks no shorter anterior feet, the two first of caravan or camp without being sure of which are arched. They have no aurichis superiority. To superior numbers, and ular dilatation nor silky brush on the a bold resistance, he yields, and saves square part of the posterior tarsi, and are himself by a speedy flight. A terror to destitute of stings. The genitals consist the neighboring nations, the rapacious of two horn-shaped bodies of a reddishBedouin lives in a state of continual yellow color, with a broad-ended penis.watchfulness; poor, ignorant, wild and When we examine the internal structure rude, but free, and proud of his liberty of this insect, we find at the superior base
in regard to food, amounting almost to a considerable aperture, shut by a small, abstinence.
triangular piece, which has been called
wymenopterous insect, belonging to the receives the food, which is thence contamily apiaria.-The honey-bee is uni- veyed by a delicate æsophagus, through versally celebrated for its singular instincts, the corselet, to the anterior stomach, and highly prized for the valuable prod- which contains the honey; the second ucts of its industry. A vast number of stomach receives the pollen of flowers, interesting facts have consequently been and has, on its internal surface, a number collected in relation to the economy of of transverse and annular wrinkles. The the species, for the detail of whose history abdominal cavity of the queen and worka volume of considerable size would be ing bees also contains the little bag of required. We shall therefore be able to poison communicating with the sting In present nothing inore than a sketch of the queen, there are, moreover, two large the most striking generalities, obtained ovaries, consisting of a great number of from the admirable works of Huber, Cu- small cavities, each containing 16 or 17 vier, &c., and to these authentic sources eggs. These ovaries open near the anus, must refer the reader desirous of more previous to which they dilate into pouchample information.--Three sorts of indi- es, where the egg is delayed to receive a viduals are found to form a community viscous coating from an adjacent gland. of honey-bees; the female, mother, or, as The inferior half-circles, except the first she is commonly called, queen ; the males, and last, on the abdomens of working or drones; and the working bees, improp- bees, have each on their inner surface erly termed neuters, as they are actually two cavities, where the wax is formed in females, though, in a peculiar respect, layers, and comes out from between the imperfect. A hive commonly consists abdominal rings. Below these cavities of one mother, or queen, from 6 to 800 is a particular membrane, formed of a males, and from 15 to 20,000 working very small, hexagonally-meshed network, bees. The last mentioned are the small- which is connected with the niembrane est, have 12 joints to their antenne, and lining the walls of the abdominal cavity. 6 abdominal rings: the first joint or --Wax, of which the combs are formed, square portion of the posterior tarsi is is elaborated from honey. The pollen enlarged at the posterior angle of its base, collected from flowers, mixed with a and shaped like a pointed auricle, having small quantity of wax, constitutes the its internal surface covered with a fine, food of bees and their larves; and this short, close, silky down. They are pro- food appears to be modified in its comvided with stings. The mandibles are position, according to the sort of indispoon-shaped, and not dentated. There is, viduals it is intended for. Another subon the outside of the hind legs, a smooth stance collected by bees from the opening hollow, edged with hairs, called the bas- buds of poplar and other trees, and used ket : the silky brush of the first joint of by them for lining their hives, stopping the posterior tarsi has 7 or 8 transverse holes, &c., is called propolis.-Besides striæ. The mother, or queen, has the the distinctions remarked in the female, same characteristics, but is of larger size, male and working bees, Huber regards especially in the abdomen: she has a the working bees as of two sorts; one shorter sucker or trunk, and the mandi- devoted to the collection of provisions, bles grooved and velvet-like beneath the and all the materials necessary to the tip. The males, or drones, differ from comb, as well as to its construction; these both the preceding by having 13 joints to he calls ciriéres. The others are inore the antennæ ; a rounded head, with larger delicate, small and feeble, and employed eyes, elongated and united at the summit; exclusively within the hive, in feeding smaller and inore velvety mandibles, and and taking care of the young.-The e
semblance existing between the working task of subsequently arranging thein. and female bees first led to the idea that The eggs laid at the commencement of they were of the saine sex, and the in- fine weather all belong to the working genious experiments and accurate obser- sort, and hatch at the end of 4 days. The vations of Huber enabled him to estab- larves are regularly fed by the workers lish this fact in the most satisfactory for 6 or 7 days, when they are enclosed manner. Having deprived a hive of the in their cell, spin a cocoon, and become mother or queen, he found that the work- ' nymphs, and in about 12 days acquire ing bees immediately began to prepare a their perfect state. The cells are then larve of their own class to occupy this immediately fitted up for the reception important station. This was effected by of new eggs. The eggs for producing enlarging the cell to the dimensions of a males are laid two months later, and maternal or royal chamber, and feeding those for the females immediately afterthe selected individual on food exclu- wards. This succession of generations sively destined for the nourishment of forms so many particular communities, the royal larves. If inerely fed upon this which, when increased beyond a certain food, without an accompanying enlarge- degree, leave the parent hive to found a ment of the cell, the maternal faculties new colony elsewhere. Three or four were but imperfectly acquired, as the swarms sometimes leave a hive in a seafemale did not attain the proper size, and son. A good swarm is said to weigh at was incapable of laying any eggs but least six or eight pounds. The life of the those which produced males.--The cells bee, like that of all the other insects of of the comb compose two opposite ranges its class, does not continue long after the of horizontal hexagons, with pyramidal great business of providing for the conbases : each layer of the comb is perpen- tinuance of the species is completed.-dicular, and attached by the summit, and The history of the bee, as already stated, separated from the rest by a space suffi- is too extensive to allow us to attempt cient for the bees to pass in and out more than this brief sketch. But to such The comb is always built from above as have leisure, and are desirous of indownward. The cells, with the excep- structive amusement, we know of no tion of those for the female larve and study which promises a greater degree nymph, are nearly of equal size, some of satisfaction; and there is no book betcontaining the progeny, and others the ter adapted for this purpose, than the honey and pollen of flowers. Some excellent treatise of Huber, which may honey cells are left open, others are almost be regarded as the ne plus ultra of closed for future use by a flat or slightly its kind. A beautiful little poem, called convex covering of wax. The maternal The Bees, written by the Florentine Gior regal cells vary from 2 to 40 in num- ovanni Rucellai, appeared in 1539. ber, are greatly superior in size, nearly BEECH. The beech (fagus sylvatica), cylindrical, and somewhat larger at the one of our handsomest forest-trees, is extremity. They have small cavities on known by its waved and somewhat oval the outside, and commonly depend from leaves, and its triangular fruit, consisting the comb like stalactites, so that the larve of three cells, and enclosed, by pairs, in a has its head downwards.The season of husk, which is covered with simple fecundation occurs about the beginning prickles.-Beech woods are very comof summer, and the meeting between the mon in almost all the New England and females and males takes place high in Middle States, in the states of Maine, the air, whence the female returns with Pennsylvania, Ohio, &c. They are very the sexual parts of the male attached to luxuriant in their growth. These woods, the extremity of the abdomen. This one it has been observed, are peculiarly dry, fecundation is thought to be sufficient to and pleasant to walk in, and, under their vivify the eggs which the mother may shade, afford to the botanist many interlay in the course of two years. The lay- esting plants, such as the bird's nest ing begins immediately afterwards, and (monoiropa), winter-green (pyrola), and continues until autumn. Réaumur states some rare orchideæ. Beech-trees bear that the female, in the spring, lays as lopping well, and may be trained so as to many as 12,000 eggs in the lapse of 24 form lofty hedges, which are valuable for days. Each sort of egg is deposited in shelter, since the leaves, though faded, the appropriate cell, unless a sufficient remain through the winter, and the number of cells have not been prepared : twisted branches may be formed into a in this case, she places several eggs in very strong fence. The wood is hard one, and leaves to the working bees the and brittle, and, if exposed to the air, is
liable soon to decay. It is, however, pe- The population is estimated at 4,000,000 : culiarly useful to cabinet-makers and one twentieth Mohammedans, the rest tumers : carpenters' planes, &c. are made Hindoos. The province is divided into of it. When split into thin layers, it is 15 territorial divisions. In the southern used to make scabbards, for swords. part of Concan, one of these divisions. Chairs, bedsteads and other furniture are Goa (Gowah, or, more properly, Govay). occasionally formed of beech. The fruit the capital of the Portuguese settlements of this tree, which has the name of beech- in the East, is situated. (See Goa.) The mast, and falls in September, is very pal- productions of B. are, in general, similar atable, but, if eaten in great quantity, to those of the rest of the Deccan. One it occasions giddiness and headaches ; part-the neighborhood of the Beemahwhen, however, it is dried and powdered, is celebrated for its breed of horses, and it may be made into a wholesome bread. supplies the best cavalry in the Mahratta The inhabitants of Scio, one of the Ionian armies. islands, were once enabled to endure a Beejapoor; the former capital of the memorable siege by the beech-mast above province. (See Bija-pur.) which their island supplied. This fruit BEEK, David, a portrait-painter of conhas occasionally been roasted, and used siderable merit, was born in 1621, at Arnas a substitute for coffee. When sub- heim, in Guelderland ; became a pupil of jected to pressure, it yields a sweet and Vandyck; resided, for some time, at the palatable oil, which is equal in quality to court of Sweden, and died in 1656. It is the best olive-oil, and has the advantage related of him, that, on a journey through of continuing longer than that without Germany, he fell sick, and became, to becoming rancid. Beech-oil is manufac- appearance, dead; when one of his sertured in several parts of France, and is vants pouring a glass of wine into his used by the lower classes of Silesia in- throat, to amuse his companions, B. stead of butter. The cakes which remain opened his eyes, and, after a while, reafter the oil is extracted are a wholesome covered his health. food, and may be also advantageously B EELZEBUB (in Hebrew, the god of employed for the fattening of swine, flies); an idol of the Moabites or Syrians. poultry and oxen. In some countries, This term is applied, in the Scriptures, to the leaves of the beech-tree are collected the chief of the evil spirits. We must in the autumn, before they have been remember what a terrible torment insects injured by the frost, and are used instead often are in the East, in order to conceive of feathers, for beds; and mattresses how this name came to be given to one formed of them are said to be preferable of the greatest of the imaginary spirits of to those either of straw or chaff.
evil. We find that alınost all nations, BEEF-EATERS (a corruption from the who believe in evil spirits, represent them French buffetiers, from buffet, sideboard) as the rulers of disgusting, torinenting or are yeomen of the guard of the king of poisonous animals-flies, rats, mice, repGreat Britain. They are stationed by the tiles, &c. The Greeks worshipped sevsideboard at great royal dinners. There eral of their chief deities under the charare now 100 in service and 70 supernu- acter of protectors against these animals; meraries. They are dressed after the for instance, Apollo Zuivoɛvs, the destroyer fashion of the time of Henry VIII. of rats. Every one knows, that Christ
BEEJAPOOR (Bija-pur, a corruption of was charged by the Jews with driving Vijaya-puri, the city of victory, the orig- out demons by the power of Beelzebub. inal name of the capital); a large proy- (Matt. xii. 24.) ince of Deccan, between the 15th and BEER. (See Ale and Brewing.) We 18th degrees of N. lat. ; bounded N. and have evidence of the use of this liquor for E. by Aurungabad and Beder, S. by more than 2000 years. The Grecian poet North Canara and the river Toombudra, and satirist Archilochus, who lived about and W. by the sea; about 350 miles long, 700 B. C., and the Grecian tragedians and 200 broad. It is watered by the Æschylus and Sophocles, who lived more Crishna, Toombudra, Beemah and Gat- than 400 B. C., call it wine of barley. Diopurba ; and is traversed by the Ghaut dorus of Sicily, who lived about the time mountains. The soil is generally fertile, of Julius Cæsar, about 50 B. C., mentions and provisions plentiful. The chief cities beer in his History (lib. i. chap. 20). Pliny are Beejapoor, Boonah (the capital of the also, about the middle of the first century Mahrattas, St. Kuttany and Nubely. after Chirist, speaks of this beverage in Four fifths of the country are subject to several places of his Natural History. He the. Mahrattas, the rest to the Nizam says that it is prepared in different ways,