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even in foreign countries. B., the capital, tion was early kindled by the achieveis the centre of trade. The country is ments of Frederic II. The seven years provided with good roads.

war afforded him the first opportunity of BRUNSWICK, capital of the duchy of the cultivating his military talents. He comsame name, is situated on the Ocker, and manded the Brunswick troops in the allicontains 3041 houses, with 32,500 inhab- ed army, and, in the fatal battle at Hasitants. It was formerly one of the free tenbeck, July 28th, 1757, in which he cities of Germany, but it is now subject recaptured a battery that had been taken to the duke, and has been the ducal resi- by the French in the centre of the allied dence since 1754. The principal build- army, " he showed” (such was the exings are the ducal palace, the mint, the pression of Frederic) “ that nature had house in which the diet assembles, the destined him for a hero." June 23d, town-house, the arsenal and the cathedral, 1758, he decided the victory of Crefeld. the public wine-cellars. The collegium He took the most active part in all the Carolinum was founded in 1745, and in- enterprises of his uncle Ferdinand; and tended as a medium between the com- Frederic's esteem for him continued to mon schools and the universities. It has increase, as appears from his Geschichte enjoyed a high reputation even in foreign des Siebenjährigen Kriegs (History of the countries, particularly in England and Seven Years' War), and his Ode auf den Russia. The principal manufactures are Erbprinzen von Braunschweig (Ode on the wool, yarn, linen, porcelain, pasteboard, hereditary Prince of Brunswick). In 1764, paper hangings and chemical prepara- he married the princess Augusta of Engtions. The traffic in home produce, and land. Having early become acquainted the carrying trade, are of some conse- with the real situation of his native counquence, and the great Brunswick fairs try, and drawn salutary instruction from rank next to those of Leipsic and Frank- the constant embarrassments of his father, fort. Lat. 52° 16 N.; lon. 10° 29' 30" E. before he entered upon the government,

BRUNSWICK; a post-town of Maine, in he practised the greatest economy, living Cumberland county, on the south-West mostly retired from public business, and side of the Androscoggin, 26 miles N. E. devoted to the arts and sciences. In of Portland ; lat. 43° 53' N.; lon. 69° 55' 1773, he entered the Prussian service, and W.; population, 2931. The falls of the became general of infantry, but had no Androscoggin, at this place, afford excel- opportunity of cultivating his military lent seats for several mills and manufac- talents. After the death of his father in tories. Bowdoin college, in this town, 1780), he entered upon the government was incorporated in 1794, and went into with zeal and activity. Anxious above operation in 1802. It is pleasantly situ- all for the improvement of the finances, ated on an elevated plain, about half a he diminished his household, discharged mile from the Androscoggin, is a well the debts of the state, encouraged agriendowed and flourishing institution, and culture, extended the liberty of commerce, has a medical school connected with it. undertook or assisted in the erection of The officers, in 1829, consisted of a presi- considerable buildings, and, by causing dent, a professor of mathematics, natural Italian operas, masquerades, &c. to be philosophy, chemistry and mineralogy, a exhibited gratis, provided also for the professor of the learned languages, a pro- amusement of the public. Yet, with the fessor of moral and intellectual philos- best intentions, he was often unsuccessful. ophy.

This was the case with his plans for the BRUNSWICK, NEw. (See New Bruns, improvement of public education. He wick.)

invited men of learning into the country BRUNSWICK, Charles William Ferdi- at great expense, but, the projected refornand, duke of, was born in 1735. He mation having met with innumerable was the eldest son of the reigning duke obstacles, they became a burthen to the Charles of Brunswick and a sister of state. In 1787, he was obliged to place Frederic the Great. At the age of 7, his himself at the head of a Prussian army education was committed to the abbé Je- for the support of the stadtholder of Holrusalem, then chaplain to the court at land. The facility with which this camWolfenbüttel. At the age of 12, he en- paign was terminated procured the duke tered, under the superintendence of Jeru- more reputation than he perhaps deserved. salem, the collegium Carolinum, then re- High expectations were entertained of cently established. His tutor was the him when the wars of the French revo. chamberlain von Wittorf--a man of tal- lution broke out. The duke received the ents, but without principle. His ambi- chief command of the Austrian and Prus

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sian army, and issued at Coblentz, July senburg, and his attempt to draw nearer 15, 1792, the famous manifesto, drawn to Landau. In order to gain another up in a very harsh and haughty style by strong point of support, he ventured, on a Frenchman, De Limon. It certainly the night of Nov. 16, to make an assault did more injury to the allied forces than upon the mountain-fortress of Bitsch, a hostile army could have done. It in- which is the key of the Vosges, as the flamed the French nation almost to fury roads from Landau, Pirmasens, Weissenagainst the insolent conquerors, who in- burg and Strasburg unite at that place. tended “to make every city, that dared to This attempt miscarried. Between the resist, level with the ground, and to cut 28th and the 30th of November, however, their way to Paris." The emperor Fran- he defeated a division of the army of the cis approved it, and so did the king of Moselle, at Lautern, which was pressing Prussia ; but the duke considered the ex- through the mountains, under the compressions too strong. The severest pas mand of Hoche, with the intention of resages were expunged; but its tone was lieving Landau. But the daily attacks of still very insolent. The duke designed to Hoche and Pichegru, without regard to press forward from Lorraine to Paris, to the sacrifice of men, and the successful cut off its supplies, and thus to force it to attempt of the latter to break the Austrian surrender by famine. Aug. 23, 1792, lines near Froschweiler, Dec. 22, forced Longwy was taken, and, Sept. 2, Ver- the Austrians to retreat beyond the Rhine, dun. But, in Champagne, a country of and occasioned the retreat of the duke itself unproductive, the transport of pro- also. As some difficulties had already visions for the army from the frontiers risen between Austria and Prussia, he was rendered difficult by mountains and laid down the chief command of the forests. Dumouriez was encamped in army in the beginning of the year 1794. the vicinity of St. Menehould, and skir- Möllendorf was his successor. The mishes took place daily ; but Dumouriez, duke continued to labor for the welfare not willing to hazard the fate of France, of his country until the fatal year 1806. and foreseeing that the Germans would Although he was now of such an age that be forced to retreat by want and disease, he might have retired without reproach avoided a decisive action, notwithstand- from public life, yet he assumed burthens ing the efforts of the enemy to provoke beyond his powers. At the beginning of him to it. The Germans were, therefore, the year 1806, commissioned by the king obliged to conclude an armistice, and to of Prussia, he made a journey to Petersevacuate Champagne. Custines took burg relative to the war that soon broke Worms and Spire during this retreat, out with France. He was then placed at and, Oct. 21, captured the fortress of the head of the Prussian army. But his Mentz, and soon afterwards Frankfort, physical strength was not equal to his which latter city, however, was retaken moral energy, as was proved by the batby the Prussians and Hessians Dec. 2. tles of Jena and Auerstädt. (q. v.) He

The endeavors of the Germans, therefore, was mortally wounded, and closed his were principally directed to the recapture life at Ottensen, near Altona, Nov. 10, of those places. To this end the duke, in 1806. As a civil ruler, he was distinconjunction with the Austrians, opened guished for good intentions; yet the want the campaign on the Upper Rhine in of consistency, which is evident in most 1793, took the fortress of Königstein actions of his life, may have been the March 7, conquered Mentz July 22, cause of the many failures of his benevoand prepared to attack the strong fortress lent purposes. The duke's subjects were of Landau, then in the power of the also offended by his foreign partialities, French. The French, on the other particularly his fatal inclination for the hand, Sept. 14, made a general attack French nation, which had been instilled on the duke and Wurmser, from Stras- into him by Frederic II. burg to Saarbrück. On that day, the BRUNSWICK, Ferdinand, duke of, born duke had a sanguinary engagement with at Brunswick, Jan. 11th, 1721, fourth son Moreau, in the vicinity of Pirmasens, à of duke Ferdinand Albert, was educated town belonging to the landgraviate of for the military profession. In 1739, he Hesse-Darmstadt. The French were entered into the Prussian service, was driven from their camp near the village engaged in the Silesian wars, and became of Hornbach, as far as to the Saar. A one of the mos, eminent generals in the month later, the duke, having formed a seven years' war. He commanded the union with Wurmser, succeeded, Oct. allied army in Westphalia, where, always 13th, in his attack on the lines of Weis- opposed to superior forces, he displayeri

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superior talents. He drove the French Dresden and Leipsic, with his black h s. from Lower Saxony, Hesse and West- sars. The duke, in conjunction with the phalia, and was victorious in the two Austrian general Am Ende, forced his great battles of Crefeld and Minden. way from Dresden to Franconia, whither (See Seven Years' War.)--After the peace, the Austrians, under Kienmayer, had penhe resigned his commission, on account etrated from Bohemia. After the armisof a misunderstanding between him and tice of Znaim (July 12), the Austrians the king. From that time he lived at again evacuated Dresden, which they had Brunswick, the patron of art and litera- occupied for the second time, and retreatture. He died in 1792. !

ed behind the frontiers of Bohemia. But BRUNSWICK, Frederic William, duke the duke, renouncing his alliance with of; fourth and youngest son of duke the emperor of Austria, advanced with Charles William Ferdinand of Bruns- his corps, consisting of 1500 men, among wick. He was born in 1771, and receiv- whom were 700 horse, from Altenburg, ed the same education with his second towards Leipsic. After a slight skirmish and third brothers, who were a few years with the garrison there, he continued his older, till the military career, to which he march to Halle, where he arrived July was destined, gave his studies a particular 27, and immediately pushed on to Haldirection. He was loved by his father berstadt, where he arrived July 30. with great tenderness, but very strictly The Westphalian colonel Wellingerode, treated. In 1786, he was appointed, by with the fifth regiment of infantry, had the king of Prussia, successor of his uncle, entered the place the same morning. Frederic Augustus, duke of Oels and Although this regiment made a gallant Bernstadt. ' He then went to Lausanne, resistance, it was overpowered, and its remained two years in Switzerland, and, commander taken prisoner. The duke upon his return, was made captain in a then proceeded to Brunswick, his native Prussian regiment of foot. During the city, where he arrived July 31, and bivwar against France, in 1792, and the fol- ouacked on the ramparts. He did not allowing year, he fought in the Prussian low himself any rest, for he was closely armies, and was twice wounded. After pursued on all sides. The Westphalian the peace of Bâle, he received a regiment, general Reubel assembled 4000 men of and, in 1804, married the princess Maria his division at Ohof, in the vicinity of Elisabeth Wilhelmina of Baden. The Brunswick ; general Gratien, with a Dutch offspring of this marriage were two prin- division, had set out from Erfurt; and the cesses, born in 1804 and 1806, who are Danish general Ewald, marching from still living. In 1805, his uncle died, and Glückstadt into the territories of Hanohe became duke of Oels and Bernstadt. ver, crossed the Elbe in order to cover In 1806, he took part in the war against that river. Aug. 1, Reubel met the duke France, with all the fire which the op- not far from Brunswick, near the village pression of Germany and his father's un- of Oelper, and an action ensued (the 11th happy fate had kindled in him. He finally since he had left Saxony), in which a joined the corps of Blücher, and was made corps of 4000 men not only retreated beprisoner with him at Lübeck. By the fore 1500, but also opened to them the death of his eldest brother, the hereditary only way by which they could escape. prince, who died in September of the Aug. 2, the duke left Brunswick. From same year, without leaving any children, the road he took, it was conjectured that and by an agreement adjusted by his he would march towards Celle, whither father between him and his elder broth- he was pursued, therefore, by the Westers, who, on account of their blindness, phalian troops. Instead, however, of dowere unfit to govern, and were unmarri- ing this, he took his way through Hanoed, he would have succeeded his father in ver immediately to Nienburg, crossed the the government of Brunswick, had not Weser, and, having destroyed the bridges the peace of Tilsit and Napoleon's will belrind him, marched down the river. prevented. After that time, he lived at He reached Hoya Aug. 4, and hastened Bruchsal, where, in April, 1808, his wife his march upon the left bank of the died. In 1809, at the breaking out of the Weser, while part of his corps, to make war between Austria and France, he rais- a demonstration, turned towards Bremen, ed a body of volunteers in Bohemia. Here the black hussars entered on the schill had already perished in Stralsund, 5th, and occupied the gates, but on the when the duke made an invasion into next day continued their march. MeanSaxony. He was, however, compelled, time the duke advanced through the teiby the king of Westphalia, to evacuate ritory of Oldenburg. He passed the nigli BRUNSWICK-BRUSSELS.

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of the 5th of August at Delmenhorst, and errors, he was obliged to leave the stadtappeared to be directing his course to holder in 1772. He died in 1788. East Friesland, in order to embark there. BRUNSWICK (M. J. Leopold), prince of, But, contrary to expectation, he crossed, major-general in the Prussian service, at Huntebrück, the small river Hunte, youngest son of duke Charles of Brunswhich falls into the Weser, seized the wick, born at Wolfenbüttel in 1752, was merchant ships which were lying at Els- instructed by the abbé Jerusalem. He fleth, principally unloaded, embarked his studied in Strasburg military science and troops in the night of the 6th, leaving be- other branches of knowledge, travelled hind the horses, and procuring, in that through Italy under the care of Lessing, country, which is inhabited by seamen, and entered the Prussian service, in 1776, the necessary sailors by force. On the as commander of a regiment of foot, at 7th, in the morning, the duke himself, Frankfort on the Oder. In this city, having the English flag hoisted, set sail, where he resided after his return from and, on the 8th, landed at Heligoland, the Bavarian war of succession in 1779, whence he sailed, on the 11th, with his he gained universal esteem by his amiacorps, for England. In England, the duke ble character, his talents, and his zeal for was received with great distinction. His literature. In 1780, Frankfort was precorps immediately entered the English served, by his activity, from an inundaservice, and was afterwards employed in tion which threatened to overthrow the Portugal and Spain. The parliament dikes and deluge the suburbs. He disgranted him a pension of £6000, until he played the same vigilance on the occareturned to his hereditary dominions, sion of several conflagrations, with which Dec. 22, 1813. He was a prince of an this city was afflicted. He visited the uncommonly open character. In his he- poor in their most miserable haunts, and reditary states, he acted with the best his life was devoted to works of benevointentions; but his frequent errors disap- lence. He fell a sacrifice to his humanity pointed the great expectations which had in the inundation of 1785, in which he been formed of him, and narrow-minded was drowned while hastening to the ascounsellors contributed to lead him astray. sistance of the suburbs. The monuments He wished to sow and reap at the same that have been erected to him will bear time. His military spirit and penetrating witness to future generations of the esmind led him to foresee new dangers teem of his contemporaries. from the great oppressor of Europe. His BRUSH-WHEELS. In light machinery, great preparations must be explained from wheels sometimes turn each other by this view of circumstances in 1814 and means of bristles or brushes fixed to their 1815. His finances were thrown into circumference. They may, also, comgreat disorder by his maintaining so many municate circular motion by friction only. troops; and even the interest of the pub- The surface brought in contact is then lic debt was not paid. Thus he became formed of the end grain of wood, or is unpopular as the sovereign of a country covered with an elastic substance, and which had been prosperous under his the wheels are pressed together to infather's sceptre. The events of 1815 crease the friction. called him again to arms, and he fell BRUSSELS, formerly the capital of the June 16, 1815. (See Quatrebras, and Austrian Netherlands, with 75,000 inhabLigny.)

itants, principally Catholics, and, after BRUNSWICK, Louis Ernest, duke of; Amsterdam, the second city of the kingthird son of Ferdinand Albert, duke of dom of the Netherlands, is a handsome Brunswick-Lüneburg ; born in 1718; en- city of South Brabant. During 20 years, tered the imperial service in 1750; be- from 1794 to 1814, it was in the possescame field-marshal of the republic of sion of the French, and the chief town in Holland; during seven years from 1759, the department of the Dyle. It is now, was captain-general of the United Prov- alternately with the Hague, the royal resinces; was regent during the minority of idence, and the place of meeting of the the stadtholder, and had previously pre- states-general of the kingdom. It is a served the neutrality of the republic dur- favorite resort of the English, many of ing the long war of the neighboring whom have resided here since the peace powers from 1754. After the stadtholder of 1814. The gloomy forest of Soignies, became of age, B. was made counsellor so memorable since the battle of Waterby the states-general. Having, however, loo, lies on the south and south-west of incurred the hatred of the people by his the town. It was formerly surrounded partiality for the nobility, and some other by a wall, which has been demolished,

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and the ramparts laid out in public walks. Locrine had England, Camber Wales, The upper part of the city is magnificent. and Albanact Scotland. The park is a spacious square, laid out BRUTUS, Lucius Junius, son of Marcus with shaded walks, and surrounded by Junius and the daughter of the elder the palaces, public offices and principal Tarquin, saved his life from the perseprivate houses. In the lower part, lying cutions of Tarquin the Proud by feignon a plain watered by the Senne, the ing himself insane, on which account he streets are narrow and crowded, but the received the surname Brutus (stupid). great market-place is very beautiful. During a plague that broke out at Rome, This part of the city is intersected by he accompanied the son of Tarquin to several canals, connected with the Senne, the oracle in Delphi. When Lucretia, and the great Scheldt canal. The other the wife of Collatinus, plunged a dagger principal squares are Oorlogo plaats, Mi- into her bosom, that she might not outchael's plaats and Sands plaats. The live the insult which she had suffered principal churches are St. Michael's and from Sextus, the son of Tarquin, B., being the church of St. Gudule. B. also con- present, threw off the mask. He drew tains an academy of arts and sciences, a the dagger, all bloody, from the wound, foundling hospital, and a central school and swore vengeance against the Tarwith a library of 100,000 volumes, a valu- quins, explaining to the astonished specable gallery of paintings and a cabinet of tators the reason of his pretended imbenatural history. The school of medicine cility, and persuading all who were presand that of botany have also apartments, ent to take the same oath. The people and there is a public botanic garden. submitted to his guidance, and he caused The town is ornamented with 20 public the gates to be shut, the inhabitants to be fountains, all embellished with sculpture. assembled, and the body to be publicly The manufactures of B. are celebrated exposed. He then urged the banishment throughout Europe and America, partic- of the Tarquins. After this had been ularly its lace, camlets and carpets; the resolved on, B. proposed to abolish first alone employs 10,000 individuals. the regal dignity, and introduce a free Its carriages surpass even those of Lon- government. It was then determined don and Paris. The other articles made that two consuls should exercise supreme here are ticking, various kinds of cotton power for a year, and Junius Brutus and and woollen stuffs, silk stockings, gal- Tarquinius Collatinus were chosen for loons, earthenware, &c. It carries on the first term. Tarquin, who had seen considerable trade with the interior of the the gates shut against him, and found Netherlands, and also with foreign coun- himself deserted by his army, sent ambastries, by means of its canals. The prin- sadors to Rome to demand a restoration cipal of these was constructed in 1560 of his private property, and, at the same and 1561, and leads to Antwerp: it is 110 time, to promise that he would make no feet above the level of the sea. The city attempt against the republic. His request owes its origin to St. Gery, who, in the was granted. The ambassadors, however, 7th century, built a chapel on an island set on foot a conspiracy, and drew into it in the Senne, and preached to the peas- many young men, among whom were the ants. As the numbers collected here be- two sons of B. and the nephews of Col. came great, it was surrounded with a wall latinus. But a slave named Vindex disin 1044, and became, in process of time, covered the plot. The criminals were the residence of the dukes of Brabant, imprisoned, and the consuls caused the and of the Austrian governors. It was people the next morning to be called to several times captured by the French, and, the comitia. All were deeply shocked in 1789--90, took the lead in the troubles to see the sons of B. among the prisoners, which broke out in the Netherlands. and their father on the judgment-seat to

BRUTUS, or BRUTE, in the fabulous his- condemn them. Collatinus wept, and tory of Britain, was the first king of the even the stern Valerius sat silent. But island, according to Geoffrey of Mon- B. arose firmly, and, after their crime had mouth. lle is said to have been the son been proved beyond a doubt, ordered the of Sylvius, and grandson of Ascanius, the lictors to execute the law. Neither the son of Æneas, and to have been born in entreaties of the people nor of his sons Italy. He landed at Totness, in Devon- could alter his resolution. He witnessed shire, destroyed the giants who then in- the horrible spectacle without emotion, habited Albion, and called the island and did not leave the assembly until after from his own name. At his death, the the execution. He was called back, island was divided among his three sons: however, when Collatinus wished to save

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