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his guilty nephews. The people con- means of this instrument, Antony sucdemned them all, and chose Valerius ceeded in exciting the popular indignation consul in place of Collatinus. In the against the murderers of Cæsar, and they mean time, Tarquin, supported by Por- were compelled to flee from Rome. B. senna, collected an army, and marched went to Athens, and endeavored to form against Rome. The consuls advanced to a party there among the Roman nobility; meet him. B. led the cavalry; Aruns, he gained over, also, the troops in Maceson of Tarquin, commanded the body donia. He then began to levy soldiers opposed to him. They pierced each openly, which was the easier for him, as other with their spears at the same mo- the remainder of Pompey's troops, since ment, and both fell, A. C. 509. The Ro- the defeat of their general, had been mans came off conquerors, and B. was roving about in Thessaly. Hortensius, buried with great splendor. The women the governor of Macedonia, aided him; lamented him a whole year, as the avenger and thus B., master of all Greece and of the honor of their sex.
Macedonia, in a short time stood at the BRUTUS, Marcus Junius. This repub- head of a powerful army. He went now lican resembled in spirit, as well as in to Asia, and joined Cassius, whose efforts name, the expeller of Tarquin. He was had been equally successful. In Rome, at first an enemy of Pompey, who had on the contrary, the triumvirs prevailed. slain his father in Galatia, but forgot his All the conspirators had been condemned, private enmity, and was reconciled to and the people had taken up arms against him, when he undertook the defence of them. B. and Cassius, having with diffifreedom. He did not, however, assume culty subdued the Lycians and Rhodians, any public station, and, after the unfortu- returned to Europe to oppose the triumnate battle of Pharsalia, surrendered him- viri. (Plutarch informs us, that a spirit self to Cæsar, who received him with the appeared to B., on his march from tenderest friendship, as he had always Sardis to Abydos, in Asia Minor.) The loved him, and regarded him almost like army passed over the Hellespont, and 19 his own son, because the mother of Bru- legions and 20,000 cavalry were assemtus, sister of the rigid Cato, had been the bled on the plains of Philippi, in Macedoobject of his affection. In the distribu- nia, whither, also, the triumvirs Antony tion of the offices of state, the dictator and Octavianus marched with their leappointed B. to the government of Mace- gions. Although the Roman historians donia. Notwithstanding these benefits, do not agree in their accounts of the batB. was the head of the conspiracy against tle of Philippi, so much as this appears Cæsar, deeming the sacrifice of private certain, that Cassius was beaten by Anfriendship necessary for the welfare of tony, and caused himself to be killed by his country. He was led into the con- a slave ; that B. fought with greater sucspiracy by Cassius, who, impelled by cess against the division of the army comhatred against Cæsar, as well as by the manded by Octavianus, who was hindered love of fireedom, sought, at first, by writ- by indisposition from conducting the bating, and then by means of his wife, Junia, tle in person ; that B., after the engagesister of B., to gain his favor; and, when ment, took possession of an advantageous he thought him prepared for the propo- situation, where it was difficult for an sal, disclosed to him, verbally, the plan of attack to be made upon him ; that he was a conspiracy against Cæsar, who was then induced, by the ardor of his soldiers, to aiming at the supreme power. B. agreed renew the contest, and was a second time to the design, and his influence led many unsuccessful. He was totally defeated, of the most distinguished Romans to em- escaped with only a few friends, passed brace it also. Cæsar was assassinated in the night in a cave, and, as he saw his the senate-house. In public speeches, B. cause irretrievably ruined, ordered Strato, explained the reasons of this deed, but one of his confidants, to kill him. Strato he could not appease the dissatisfaction of refused, a long time, to perform the comthe people, and retired, with his party, to mand; but, seeing B. resolved, he turned the capitol. He soon after took courage, away his face, and held his sword, while when the consul P. Cornelius Dolabella, B. fell upon it. Thus died B. (A. C. 42), and the prætor L. Cornelius Cinna, Cæ- in the 43d year of his age. sar's brother-in-law, declared themselves'. BRUYÈRE, John de la, the famous auin his favor. But Antony, whom B. had thor of the Characters and Manners of his generously spared, was reconciled to him age, was born, 1639, in a village near only in appearance, and obtained his leave Dourdan, not far from Paris. He pur to read Cæsar's will to the people. By chased the place of treasurer at Caen,
but, a short time after, through the influ- tron, a lucrative post in the ordnance, ence of Bossuet, he was employed in the which gave him leisure for his researches education of the duke of Burgundy, with into Biblical, Roman and Grecian antiquia pension of 3000 livres, and was attached ties. His most important work is the to his person during the remainder of his New System of Ancient Mythology, life. În 1687, he translated the Charac- which appeared in 3 vols. 4to., 1773 to ters of Theophrastus into French, with 1776. Whatever may be the ingenuity much elegance, and accompanied them and the learning of the author, it is justly with a succession of characters, in which objected, that he has taken conjectures he represented the manners of his time for proofs, and, in particular, that he has with great accuracy, and in a style epi- trusted too much to the deceptive conclugrammatical, ingenious and witty. B. sions of etymology. He was engaged in often took his characters from living per- a famous dispute on the veracity of Hosons, although he denied it, and seems, mer and the existence of Troy, in which by this means, to have gained many ene- he endeavored to show, that there never mies. He was a man of pleasant man- was such a city as Troy, and that the ners and amiable disposition. In 1693, whole expedition of the Greeks was a he was elected a member of the French mere fiction of Homer's. The object of academy, with some opposition, and died one of his earlier treatises, which appearin 1696.
ed in 1767, is to show, that the island MeBRUYN, Corneille le, a painter and lita, on which Paul was wrecked, was not traveller, born at the Hague in 1652, Malta, but situated in the Adriatic. He went, in 1674, to Rome, where he studied endeavored to illustrate the Scriptures by his art for two years and a half. He then explanations drawn from Josephus, from followed his inclination for travelling, vis- Philo the Jew, and from Justin Martyr; ited Naples, and other cities of Italy, em- but in this, as in all his writings, his barked for Smyrna, travelled through learning and his ingenuity are misled by Asia Minor, Egypt, and the islands of the his love of controversy and paradox. Archipelago, noting down and drawing BUBNA, count of, descended from ar all that he found worthy of his attention. old family in Bohemia, was, early in life He afterwards settled in Venice, and be- the chamberlain of the emperor of Aus came a disciple of Carlo Lotti. In 1693, tria, afterwards entered the military ser
published his travels in 1698. The favor- shal-lieutenant. At the end of 1812, he able reception of this work excited in him was sent, by his court, with extraordinary the desire to travel anew. He visited, in commissions, to Napoleon, at Paris, and, 1701, and the following years, Russia, in May, 1813, was sent again to him at Persia, India, Ceylon and other Asiatic Dresden. In the war of 1813, he comislands. In Russia, he painted Peter the manded an Austrian division with much Great, and different princes of his family; honor, and, in 1814, received the chief in 1706, in Batavia, some of the prin- command of the Austrian army which cipal men. In 1708, he returned to his was to pass through Geneva to the south country, where he published an account of France. Here he showed as much of his second journey, the value of which, caution in his movements as forbearance like that of the first, consists more in the and humanity towards the inhabitants. beauty and correctness of the drawings He advanced upon Lyons, which was dethan in the trustworthiness of the state- fended by marshal Augereau, but was ments. During the rest of his life, Le B. unsuccessful in his attacks upon the city, was occupied exclusively with his art, till the corps of Bianchi and Hessen-Hompassed his time alternately at the Hague berg came to his assistance, upon which and at Amsterdam, and died at Utrecht, the prince of Hessen-Homberg took the in the house of his friend and protector chief command. B. remained at Lyons van Mollem.
till the return of the allied forces, and BRYANT, Jacob, a philologist and anti- then retired to Vienna. After the landquary, born at Plymouth in 1715, died, in ing of Napoleon in 1815, he again led a 1804, at his country-seat, near Windsor. corps, under Frimont, against Lyons, and He studied at Eton and Cambridge, be- in Savoy opposed marshal Suchet, till came afterwards tutor of the sons of the Paris was conquered, and the marshal famous duke of Marlborough, the eldest retreated beyond Lyons. He then took of whom he also accompanied to the con-. possession of Lyons without opposition, tinent as his secretary. After his return, established a court-martial to punish the lie received, by the influence of his pa- disturbers of public order, and proceeded
with greater severity than on his former men on board. To escape was impossicampaign. In September, he marched ble, and the pirates could not think of back to Austria, and received, for his ser- surrender. Their captain, Laurent, made vices, valuable estates in Bohemia, from a short speech to them, sent one of his his emperor. In the insurrection of Pied- men to the powder-room with orders to mont (q. v.), 1821, the count de B. receiv- set fire to it upon the first sign which he ed the chief command of the Austrian should give him, and then placed his troops destined to restore the ancient men in order of battle on each side. “We government. After the accomplishment must sail between the enemy's ships," of this commission, he was appointed cried he to his crew, "and fire upon them general commandant of Lombardy. He to the right and left.” This manœuvre died at Milan, June 6, 1825, in the 56th was executed with extraordinary rapidity. year of his age.
The fire of the pirate killed so many peoBUCCANEERS; a band of English and ple, on board both ships, that the SpanFrench freebooters in America, whose iards were struck with a panic, and let exploits form one of the most remarkable him escape. The Spanish commander parts of the history of the 17th century. was afterwards put to death on account After the assassination of Henry IV, in of the disgrace which he had brought France, in 1610, several Frenchmen upon his nation. Their frequent losses sought a residence on the island of St. greatly reduced the trade of the Spaniards Christopher, one of the Antilles. Driven with America. The buccaneers now bethence in 1630, some of them fled to the gan to land on the coast, and to plunder western coast of St. Domingo, others to the cities. Their manner of dividing the small island of Tortugas, in the vicin- their booty was remarkable. Every one ity. Several Englishmen, led by a simi- who had a share in the expedition swore lar disposition, associated themselves with that he had reserved nothing of the plunthe latter. The fugitives at St. Domingo der. A false oath was of extremely rare employed themselves especially in the occurrence, and was punished by banishchase of wild cattle, of which there were ment to an uninhabited island. The large herds on the island. They sold the wounded first received their share, which hides to the mariners who landed on the was greater according to the severity of coast, and, because they did not boil the their wounds. The remainder was diflesh, but roasted it before the fire, like vided into equal parts, and distributed by the American savages, they were called lot. The leader received more than the buccaneers. Without a captain, without others only when he had particularly dislaws, without the society of women, these tinguished himself. Those who had perhunters lived in the rudest state of nature, ished in the expedition were not forgotten. associating two by two, and enjoying in Their part was given to their relations or common all that they had taken in the friends, and, in default of them, to the chase or acquired by robbery. The poor and to the church. Religion was Spaniards, who could not conquer them, strangely blended with their vices, and determined to extirpate all the cattle on they always began their enterprises with the island, and thus obliged the bucca- a prayer. The wealth which they acneers either to cultivate the land as hus. quired was spent in gambling and debandmen, or to join the other freebooters bauchery, for it was the principle of these on the island of Tortugas. These bold adventurers to enjoy the present and not adventurers attacked, in small numbers, care for the future. The climate and and with small means, but with an intre- their mode of life gradually diminished pidity which bade defiance to danger, not their number, and the vigorous measures only single merchant vessels, but several of the English and French governments of them together, and sometimes armed at last put an end to their outrages, which ships. Their common mode of attack had, perhaps, been purposely tolerated. was by boarding. They directed their From this band of pirates arose the efforts especially against the Spanish French settlements on the western half ships which sailed for Europe laden with of St. Domingo. In the beginning of the the treasures of America. By the repeat- 18th century, the piracies of the buccaed losses which they suffered, the Span- peers had entirely ceased. An account iards were at last so discouraged, that of their mode of life, and of many of their they seldom offered a serious resistance. deeds, is to be found in the 10th volume It happened once that a ship of the buc- of Raynal's History of the two Indies, caneers fell in with two Spanish galleons, and in the 2d volume of Archenholz's cach of which had 60 cannon and 1500 Historical Writings.
BUCENTAUR, in mythology; a monster, many, through Scandinavia to the North half man and half ox or ass. The splen- cape, through parts of Great Britain, did galley in which the doge of Venice France, Italy and the Canaries. In the annually sailed over the Adriatic on As- possession of a happy independence, he cension-Day also bore this name. Drop- sets out every spring, from Berlin, where ping a ring into the sea, he espoused it in he usually passes the winter, on his scithe name of the republic, with the words entific travels. Simple in his habits, fruDesponsamus te, mare, in signum veri per- gal, accustomed to hardships, he travels petuique dominii. The custom originated in the carriage, on horseback, on foot, as in 1176, when the doge, having refused his purpose requires. He was the first to deliver up the pope, who had taken geologist who clearly explained the difrefuge in Venice, to the emperor, encoun- ferent volcanic phenomena, particularly tered and defeated the imperial fleet their effects on the elevation of the surwhich was sent to reduce the Venetians. face and the nature of the soil. He di
BUCEPHALUS ; the horse of Alexander vides volcanoes into central volcanoes the Great, which he bought for 13 talents and volcanic chains. The latter appear (about 10 or 11,000 dollars). Philonicus, to him to follow the direction of great a Thessalian, offered to sell him to king clefts in the earth, which, in turn, correPhilip; but Philip, who considered the spond with the direction of the primitive price too great, commanded the unman- mountains. His central volcanoes are, ageable steed to be led away, when the Etna, the isles of Lipari, Iceland, the young Alexander offered to mount him. Azores, the Canaries, &c. The results He leaped up, in fact, and, to the aston- of his geological labors are contained in ishment of all, the horse obeyed him, his Geognostical Observations on Travels and willingly submitted to his guidance, through Germany and Italy (1802), and though he had never before obeyed a his Physical Description of the Canaries, rider. Alexander, from this circumstance, where he lived, in 1815, for several conceived such an affection for him, that months. He was afterwards accompahe never rode upon any other horse; and nied by the Norwegian botanist ChrisBucephalus, also, when caparisoned for tian Smith, who, some years later, was battle, endured no other rider. He died among the victims of the unhappy expeof a wound, and Alexander caused him dition of captain Tuckey in the Congo to be buried near the Hydaspes, and built, river. Buch's Travels through Norway over his grave, a city, which he called and Lapland (2 vols., Berlin, 1810, with Bucephala.
copperplates) is one of the best works on BUCER, Martin; born, 1491, at Schlett- the structure of the earth in the high stadt, in Alsace. He died in the office of northern regions. professor of theology at Cambridge, 1551. BUCHANAN, George, an eminent poet At the time of the reformation, he left the and historian, and one of the great masDominican order, and became a convert ters of modern Latinity, was born in to Lutheranism. He was, at first, preach- Scotland, in 1506. His parents were iner at the court of Frederic, the elector digent, and he owed his education to an of the Palatinate, afterwards in Strasburg, uncle, who sent him to Paris. He af. and at the same time professor in the uni- terwards repaired to St. Andrew's. He versity there for 20 years, till king Ed- became tutor or companion of the earl of ward VI of England, at the suggestion Cassilis, with whom he lived five years, of archbishop Cranmer, invited him to and obtained the notice of James V, who Cambridge. In 1557, queen Mary caus- appointed him tutor to his natural son, ed his bones to be burned, to show her afterwards the famous regent, earl of detestation of Protestantism. The cardi- Murray. His satires against the monks nal Contarini called him the most learned exposed him to the vengeance of the divine among the heretics. He wrote a clergy, and he was imprisoned for herecommentary on the Psalms, under the sy; but, contriving to escape, he withname of Aretius Filinus. His first wife drew to Bourdeaux, where he taught had heen a nun in her youth. After her three years, and composed his tragedies rleath, he married again.
of Baptistes and Jepthes, and his translaBuch, Leopold von; born in 1777, in tions of the Medea and Alcestes of EuripPrussia; one of the most distinguished ides. In 1543, he quitted Bourdeaux on geologists of Germany. He has studied account of the pestilence, and became, for the structure of the earth, by personal ob- a while, domestic tutor to the celebrated servation, for more than 30 years, in his Montaigne, who records the fact in his travels through all the provinces of Ger- essays. In 1544, he went to Paris, and, BUCHANAN-BUCHAREST.
for some time, taught in the college of conduct, as a party man, exceedingly virBourbon. In 1547, he accompanied his ulent. As a writer, he has obtained high friend Govea to Portugal. He had not applause from all parties; and as a Latin been there a year before Govea died, and, poet, in particular, he stands among the the freedom of B.'s opinions giving of first of the moderns. His Psalms are in fence, he was thrown into prison, where all kinds of measure, and some of them he began his translations of the Psalms are extremely beautiful. As a historian, into Latin verse. He obtained his liberty he is considered to have united the beauin 1551, and spent four years at Paris, as ties of Livy and Sallust as to style ; but tutor to the son of the marshal de Brissac. he discovered a great lack of judgment In 1560, he returned to Scotland, where and investigative spirit, taking up all the he openly embraced Protestantism, yet tales of the chronicles as he found them, was well received at court, and assisted and affording to their legendary absurdi
employed in regulating the universities, embellishment. On the whole, however, and was made principal of St. Leonard's B. may justly be deemed an honor to his college, St Andrew's. He even obtained country, as a man whose genius burst a pension from Mary, which did not pre- through all disadvantages to the attain
the party of Murray. Though a layman, tinction. Of his different works in verse he was made, in 1567, moderator of the and prose, various editions have been general assembly, which appointed him given; and a valuable edition of the whole preceptor to James VI, who acquired, was published at Edinburgh, in 2 vols. under his tuition, the scholastic knowl- folio, 1714, and reprinted at Leyden, in 2 edge on which he so much prided him- vols. 4to., 1725. self. It is said that Buchanan, on being BUCHAREST (i. e. city of joy), the chief subsequently told that he had made the city of Walachia, the residence of the king a pedant, replied, that" it was the best hospodar and of a Greek bishop, contains he could make of him." He next accom- 10,000 meanly built houses, and 60,000 panied Murray to England, in order to pre- inhabitants, including Greeks, Jews and fer charges against Mary, and, in 1571, Armenians. The streets are not paved, published his Detectio Marice Reginæ, à but covered with logs. The Greeks forvirulent attack upon the character and merly had an academy here with 12 inconduct of that unhappy queen; and, al- structers, which, in 1810, contained 244 though his patron Murray had been assas- students. It has declined since the pressinated in 1570, he continued in favor ent hospodar Ghika, à native of Walawith the prevalent party, who made him chia, took possession of its funds in 1825. one of the lords of the council and lord The trade in wine, skins, and other proof the privy seal. He likewise received a ducts of the country, is very brisk. May pension of £100 per annum from queen 28, 1812, a peace was concluded here Elizabeth. In 1579, he published his between Russia and the Porte. celebrated De Jure Regni, a work which Bucharest, Peace of, May 28, 1812, bewill ever rank him among the spirited tween Russia and the Porte. In Novemdefenders of the rights of the people to ber, 1806, the emperor Alexander took up judge of the conduct of their governors. arms for the protection of Moldavia and He spent the last 12 or 13 years of his Walachia, and on account of the violalife in composing his great work, entitled tion of the free navigation of the BosphoRerum Scoticarum Historia, in 90 books, rus. He occupied Moldavia, upon which which was published at Edinburgh, in the Porte declared war against Russia, 1582. He died the same year, at the age Jan. 7, 1807. An armistice, however, of 76, in very poor circumstances; and the was agreed upon at Slobosia, Aug. 24, city of Edinburgh interred him at the 1807, in consequence of the peace of public expense.—The moral character of Tilsit, by which the Russians evacuated B. has been the subject of much obloquy the principality. After the expiration of with his enemies; and the charge of early the truce, in April, 1808, it was tacitly licentiousness seems countenanced by continued ; but when Napoleon, in the several of his poems. Conscious of his congress at Erfurt, had agreed to the great abilities, he was also querulous and union of the two principalities with Rusdiscontented with his circumstances, and sia, the Russian court opened a congress, by no means scrupulous in his attempts to deliberate upon peace at Jassy, in Feb, to amend them ; added to which, his 1809, and demanded the cession of both temper was harsh and unamiable, and his principalities by the Turks, and the re