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and that there is a species more intoxi- ern coasts of Kamtschatka as far as lat. cating than wine. He says, further, that, 67° 18' N., and proved that Asia is not in Spain, it is called celia and ceria; but, united to America. It remained, however, in Gaul and in other provinces of the to be determined whether the land oppoRoman empire, cerevisia ; that it was in site to Kamtschatka was, in reality, the general use among the ancient Germans, coast of the American continent, or merewho also called it cerevisia (from Ceres, ly islands lying between Asia and Amerthe goddess of grain, and vis, power.) ica. June 4, 1741, he sailed, with two The Egyptians, as the first promoters of ships, from Ochotsk, and touched the agriculture, are said to have invented beer, north-western coast of America, between and to have prepared a kind, in later times, lat. 35o and 69° N. Tempests and sickat Pelusium, which was called by the ness prevented him from pursuing his name of that city, and was much cele- discoveries: he was cast on a desolate islbrated. Beer was afterwards unknown and, covered with snow and ice, where in Egypt, until the French army intro- he grew dangerously sick, and died Dec. duced it anew, since which it is said that 8, 1741. The straits between Asia and beer is still brewed there. We are igno- America have received the name of Beerrant how far the beer of the ancients ing's straits (also called Anian), and the resembled the modern article. The word island on which he died that of Beering's beer may most naturally be derived from island. (See Müller's Voyages et Découv. bibere, to drink.
faites par les Russes, Amsterdam, 1766). BEER, Michael, sometimes called Mi- BEERING'S ISLAND; an island in N. Pachael Berr, a learned Jew in Paris, born at cific ocean, about 90 miles long, and 25 to Nancy, in 1784, was the first of his reli- 30 wide; lon. 163° 12 to 164° 12 E.; lat. gion who pursued the profession of an 54° 45' to 56° 10' N. Neither thunder nor advocate in France. His success in this the aurora borealis have ever been observcareer was brilliant; but he soon gave ed here. The island has springs of excelhimself up exclusively to literature, and lent water, and beautiful cataracts. No received the honor, never before confer- animals are found here but ice-foxes, seals, red on a Jew, of being admitted into the sea-bears, sea-lions, sea-cows, &c. No learned academies of France. He was wood grows here, but several kinds of elected a member of the royal society of plants are seen. The island is uninhabantiquaries, of the philotechnic society, ited. It was discovered by Vitus Beering of the academies of Nancy, Strasburg, (q. v.) in 1741. It is sometimes classed Nantes and Göttingen. Napoleon in- with the Aleutian chain. . vited him, in 1807, to the assembly of BEERING'S STRAITS; the narrow sea Jews, who were to advise concerning between the north-west coast of N. Amerthe amelioration of the condition of that ica and the north-east coast of Asia; 39 people; and the general sanhedrim for miles wide in the narrowest part; lon. France and Italy chose him their secre- 1680 15 to 169° 20' W.; lat. 65° 46' to 650 tary. At the erection of the kingdom of 52 N. There is a remarkable similarity Westphalia, on account of his knowledge in the portions of both continents north of the language of the country, he receiv- of the strait: both are without wood; the ed an appointment in the ministry of the coasts are low, but, farther from the sea, interior, and, afterwards, was appointed to they rise and form considerable mouna corresponding office in the French min- tains. The depth, in the middle of the istry: he also delivered a course of lec- straits, is from 29 to 30 fathoms; towards tures on German literature in the athenæ- the land, the water on the Asiatic side is um of Paris. Among his numerous works deeper. Captain Vancouver, who visited is an Eloge de Charles Villers.
these shores in 1740, gave this name to BEERING, Vitus, captain in the Russian the straits in honor of Vitus Beering navy, born at Horsens, in Jutland, being a (q.v.), because he thinks that he anchored skilful seaman, was employed by Peter there. Some have also called these straits the Great in the navy which he had Cook's straits. newly established at Cronstadt. His tal- BEET (beta vulgaris) is a well-known
ed by him in the naval wars against the vated in our kitchen gardens, and grows Swedes, procured him the honor of being wild in several countries of the south of chosen to command a voyage of discovery Europe. There are two principal vari in the sea of Kamtschatka. He set out eties of beet, one of which is of a deep from Petersburg, Feb. 5, 1725, for Siberia. red or purple color, and the other is white, In the year 1728, he examined the north- crossed with bands of red.Red beet is
principally used at table, in salad, boiled, its production be encouraged by bounties and cut into slices, as a pickle, and some- and prohibitions. times stewed with onions; but, if eaten in BEETHOVEN, Louis von, born in Bonn, great quantity, it is said to be injurious to 1772, was the son of a man who had been the stomach. The beet may be taken out a tenor singer in that place (according to of the ground for use about the end of another account, in Fayolle’s Dictionary August, but it does not attain its full size of Musicians, a natural son of Frederic and perfection till the month of October. William II, king of Prussia). His great When good, it is large, and of a deep red talent for music was early cultivated. He color, and, when boiled, is tender, sweet astonished, in his eighth year, all who and palatable. It has lately been ascer- heard him, by his execution on the violin, tained, that beet roots may be substituted on which he was in the habit of performfor malt, if deprived of the greater part of ing, with great diligence, in a little garret. their juice by pressure, then dried, and In his 11th year, he played Bach's Wohl treated in the same manner as the grain Temperirtes clavier, and, in his 13th, intended for brewing. The beer made composed some sonatas. These promisfrom the beet has been found perfectly ing appearances of great talent induced wholesome and palatable, and little infe- the then reigning elector of Cologne to rior to that prepared from malt.- From send him, in 1792, in the character of his the white beet the French, during the organist, and at his expense, to Vienna, late wars in Europe, endeavored to pre- that he might accomplish himself there pare sugar, that article, as British colo- in composition, under the instruction of nial produce, having been prohibited in Haydn. Under Haydn and AlbrechtsberFrance. For this purpose, the roots were ger he made rapid progress, and became, boiled as soon as possible after they were likewise, a great player on the piano forte, taken from the earth. When cold, they astonishing every one by his extempore were sliced, and afterwards the juice was performances. In 1809, he was invited pressed out, and evaporated to the con- to the new court of the king of Westphasistence of sirup. The sugar was obtain- lia, at which several men of distinction, ed from this sirup by crystallization. 110 and among them his pupil in music the pounds weight of the roots yielded 41} archduke Rodolph, now bishop of Olmütz, pounds of juice, which, on further evap- persuaded him to remain, by the promise oration, afforded somewhat more than 43 of a yearly salary. He composed his pounds of brown sugar; and these, by a principal works after 1801. A few years subsequent operation, produced 4 pounds before his death, a cold, which he had of well-grained white powder sugar. The caught by composing in the open air, residuum, together with the sirup or mo- produced a deafness, which became, by lasses which remained, produced, after degrees, very great. He lived, afterwards, distillation, 3.1 quarts of rectified spirit, very much retired, in the village of Módsomewhat similar to rum. But many lingen, near Vienna. Instrumental music subsequent experiments, both in France has received from his compositions a new and in Prussia, have tended to prove, that character. Beethoven united the humor sugar can never be advantageously man- of Haydn with the melancholy of Mozart, ufactured from the beet upon a large and the character of his music most scale, it yielding, upon a fair average, resembles Cherubini's. His boldness is barely enough to defray the expenses of remarkable. Reichhardt, in a comparison making. The leaves of the beet, when of Beethoven with Haydn and Mozart, raised in richly-manured soil, have been says, “ The Quartett of Haydn was the offfound to yield a considerable quantity of spring of his amiable and original characpure nitre, proceeding, in all probability, ter. In naivete and good humor he is from the decomposition of the animal unrivalled. The more powerful nature matter contained in the manure; but this, and richer imagination of Mozart embralike the sugar of the root, will probably ced a wider field, and many of his comnever pay the expenses of cultivation, positions express the whole height and which will also increase rather than depth of his character. He placed more diminish; so that it may be considered value also on exquisite finish. Beethoven, valuable, at present, only as an esculent early acquainted with Mozart's composiplant. The French, however, and other tions, gave a still bolder cast to his ideas." European nations, still persevere in man- Besides his great symphonies and over. ufacturing beet sugar, and make great tures, his quintetts, quartetts, and trios quantities of it, although it can never for stringed instruments, his numerous supersede the use of common sugar, unless sonatas, variations, and other pieces for
the piano forte, in which he shows the various species prove excee-lingly injuri great richness of his imagination, he also ous to farmers, from their great numbers composed vocal music, but with less suc- and voracity. When about to undergo cess. To this department belongs his their change of form, they make an eggopera Leonore (in its altered state, called shaped cover or cocoon from fragments Fidelio), some masses, an oratorio (Christ gnawed off wood, &c., which are stuck on the Mount of Olives), and songs for together by a peculiar glutinous fluid furthe piano forte, among which the compo- nished by their bodies. The larves have sition of Matthison's Adelaide, called, by a cylindric stomach, surrounded by three the English, Rosalie, and some songs of ranges of minute cæca, a very short, small Goethe are celebrated. B. died March intestine, an exceedingly large colon, and 26th, 1827, near Vienna, in the greatest moderate-sized rectum. In the perfect poverty.
insect, none of these inequalities exist, as BEETLE (scarabæus, L.); a tribe of co- there is but one long intestine, of equal leopterous insects, belonging to the family size throughout. All of the beetle tribe lamellicornua, C. The beetle tribe com- are not destructive or injurious in their prises a large number of insects, among inceptive state, as many of them breed in which some are very remarkable for pro- the dung-heap, or feed upon the excrejections or horns growing from the head ment of animals, which they serve to and corselet. The species found in warm prepare more completely as manure. The climates are generally of large size and tumble-bug, which is well known, forms formidable appearance, though by no a ball of dung, in the centre of which the means noxious. They all are winged, fly- egg is deposited, rolls it off to a distance, ing with much rapidity and force; when and buries it in the ground. Great numon the ground, their movements are slow bers, uniting in this work, speedily clear
is oval, or nearly so, and the antennæ are otherwise soon prove offensive. Among composed of eight or ten pieces, inserted the ancient Egyptians, a species of beetle into a cavity under the border of the head. was held in great veneration, and EuseFrom the arrangement of the antenne, bius informs us (De Præp. Evang.) that it which is peculiar to this family, its essen- was regarded as the animated image of tial or distinctive character is formed. the sun. We find it generally embalmed The extremities of the antenna are club- with the Egyptian mummies, placed imshaped, and composed of plates or joints, mediately upon the root of the nose. A
arranged perpendicularly to the axis, like and stone, have been found in the places the teeth of a comb. The two first legs already explored in the ancient dominof beetles, and even the others, in some ion of the Pharaohs. Linnæus bestowed instances, are dentated externally, and the name of scarabæus sacer on this suited for burrowing. The trachere are all species, which is found in Africa and vesicular.-The larves or young are soft, Europe. flexible, whitish, semi-cylindric worms, BEFANA (Ital.; from Befania, which sighaving the body divided into 12 rings, nifies Epiphany) is a figure, generally repreand having a scaly head, armed with senting an old woman, which is exhibited, strong jaws. They have nine stigmata, or in Italy, on the day of Epiphany, by chilbreathing holes, on each side; and the feet, dren, or in shops, &c., where things for which are six, are scaly. The body is children are sold. In Germany, presents thicker at the posterior than at the ante- are given to children on Christmas-eve, rior extremity, rounded, and almost uni- and in France, on new-year's evening, but formly curved downwards, so that the in Italy, on the day of Épiphany, and it is larve moves with difficulty over an even said that the befana brings them to good surface, and frequently tumbles down. children. Generally, a little bag is hung The period during which the larves in the chimney, and, next morning, the
varies in different species; those of some BEG (prince, or lord); the title of certain kinds becoming nymphs at the end of Turkish officers, several of whom are several months, and of others, not sooner subject to a beglerbeg. (See Bey.), than in three or four years. During this BEGGARY. (See Pauperism.) period, they live in the earth, where they BEGLERBEG (prince of princes, or lord feed upon the roots of vegetables, animal of lords) is the title of a high officer among matter in a state of decomposition, &c. the Turks, the governor of a province, It is in this stage of their existence that called a beglerbeglic, who has under hin
BEGLERBEG-BEHN. several sangiacs, begs, agas, &c. The he gave to his friend Columbus the idea governors of Sophia, Kintaha and Damas- of another hemisphere. Robertson (in his cus, in particular, have this title.
History of America) and others contradict BEGUARDS, or BEGHARDS. (See Be- this statement. It is also rejected by guines.)
Irving. BEGUINES (begutta); females who, with BEHEADING ; a capital punishment, out having taken the monastic vows, or wherein the head is severed from the bound themselves to obey the rules of an body by the stroke of an axe, sword, or order, unite for the purpose of devotion other cutting instrument. Decollatio, or and charity, and form societies, living beheading, was a military punishment together in houses called beguinages among the Romans. In early times, it (which have been frequently enriched was performed with an axe, and afterby donations), distir.guishing themselves, wards with a sword. It is worth remarkabove others of the laity, by their industry, ing, that, in all countries where beheading their retired life, and their attention to the and hanging are used as capital punisheducation of children. These societies ments, the former is always considered originate 1, towards the end of the 11th less ignominious. Thus, in England, century, in Germany and the Netherlands, beheading is often the punishment of and were very flourishing in the 12th and nobles, when commoners, for the same 13th centuries. They still exist in con- crime, are hanged. The crime of high siderable numbers in the Netherlands. In treason is there punished with beheading. imitation of them, males formed similar Commoners, however, are hanged before societies, under the name of beghards. the head is cut off, and nobles also, unless These societies, whose names signify sup- the king remits that part of the punishpliants, or beggars, underwent many per- ment. In Prussia, formerly, a nobleman secutions from the jealousy of the clerical could not be hanged, and, if his crime was orders, and were sometimes confounded such that the law required this punishwith the Lollards. (See Brotherhoods.) ment, he was degraded before the execuThere are, in some places of Germany, be- tion. At present, hanging is not used in guinages, which are, however, only elee- that country, and, since so many instances mosynary institutions, where unmarried have occurred of extreme suffering, on females, of the lower class of people, have the part of the criminal, caused by the a lodging free of expense, and enjoy some unskilfulness of the executioner in beheadother advantages.
ing with the sword, this mode of execuBEHAIM, Martin, born at Nuremberg, tion has been abolished. Beheading, in about 1430, is distinguished as one of the Prussia, is now always performed with a most learned mathernaticians and astron- heavy axe, the sufferer being previomers of his age. He was engaged in ously tied to a block. In France, during commerce, and travelled, for the purpose the revolutionary government, beheading of carrying on his business, from 1455 by means of a machine, the guillotine to 1479; but he also devoted himself to (q. v.), came into use, and still prevails the study of the mathematical and nauti- there, to the exclusion of all other modes cal sciences, in which Regiomontanus is of capital punishment. A person who said to have been his master. He went has murdered his father or mother, howfrom Antwerp to Lisbon, in 1480, where ever, has his right arm cut off the moment he was received with marks of distinction. before he is guillotined. In the middle He sailed in the fleet of Diego Can, on a ages, it was, in some states, the duty of voyage of discovery, and explored the the youngest magistrate to perform the islands on the coast of Africa as far as the executions with the sword. In China, it river Zaire. He is also said to have dis- is well known that beheading is practised, covered, or, at least, to have colonized, the sometimes accompanied with the most island of Fayal, where he remained for studied torments. In the U. States of several years, and assisted in the discovery America, beheading is unknown, the halof the other Azores. He was afterwards ter being the only instrument of capital knighted, and returned to his native coun- punishment. Respecting the bad or good try, where he constructed a terrestrial consequences of public beheading, the globe, in 1492, which bears the marks of same remarks may be made, which are the imperfect acquaintance of that age applicable to public executions in general. with the true dimensions of the earth. B. In many European countries, beheading died, after many voyages, in Lisbon, 1506. with the sword still prevails. Some ancient Spanish historians assert BEHN, Aphara, a lady of some celebrity that he made many discoveries, and that as a writer of plays and novels, was de
scended from a good family in Canter- which is about 82 persons to a square bury, of the name of Johnson, and was mile, or rather less than the average numborn in the reign of Charles I. Her father, ber for the whole kingdom. B. contains through the interest of his relation, lord ay episcopal cities, and about 230 other Willoughby, being appointed lieutenant- towns: the chief one is Coimbra. (q. v.) general of Surinam, embarked with his It is mountainous and well watered. The family for the West Indies, taking with produce of wine and olives is considerahim Aphara, who was then very young. ble. (See Portugal.) The father died at sea; but his family B EIRAM. (See Bairam.) arrived safely at Surinam, and remain BEKKER, Èlizabeth; an ornament of ed there some years, during which time Dutch literature in the department of the Aphara became acquainted with the belles-lettres. Few female authors have American prince Oroonoko, whom she united with so great talents so much digmade the subject of a novel, subsequently nity and purity of morals. The influence dramatized by Southern. On her return of her numerous works was much into England, she married Mr. Behn, a mer- creased by her character, and several of chant of London, of Dutch extraction; them are considered classics in Dutch but was probably a widow when selected literature, particularly her romances Wilby Charles II as a proper person to ac- lem Leevend, in 8 vols.; Letters of A. quire intelligence on the continent during Blankart to C. Wildschut, and the Histhe Dutch war. She accordingly took up tory of Sara Bürgerhart. She wrote her her residence at Antwerp, where she en- most important works in conjunction with gaged in gallantries for the good of her her friend Agatha Deken (q. v.), and the country; and it is said that, by means of share of each in the composition of them one of her admirers, she obtained advice is unknown. Elizabeth was born at of the intention of the Dutch to sail up Flushing, in 1738, and died at the Hague, the Thames, which she transmitted to in 1804. Her inseparable friend in life England. This intelligence, although true, followed her nine days later in death. being discredited, she gave up politics, BEKKER, Immanuel, member of the returned to England, and devoted herself academy of sciences, and professor in the to intrigue and writing for support; and, university of Berlin, is known for his as she had a good person and much con- learning in the ancient languages, particversational talent, she became fashionable ularly the Greek, displayed in many valamong the men of wit and pleasure of uable works. He was born at Berlin, in the time. She published three volumes 1785. He was a pupil of the famous phiof poems, by Rochester, Etherege, Crisp lologer Wolf, at Halle, who declared him and others, with some poetry of her own; the person most capable of continuing and wrote 17 plays, the heartless licen- his researches in philology. B. was aptiousness of which was disgraceful both pointed professor in the new academy of to her sex and to the age which tolerated Berlin, and set out, May, 1810, for Paris, the performance of them. She was also where he remained until Dec., 1812, and the author of a couple of volumes of made use of the manuscripts of the library, novels, and of the celebrated love-letters principally collating those of Plato, and between a nobleman and his sister-in- some rhetorical and grammatical writers. law (lord Gray and lady Henrietta Berke- The academy of sciences of Berlin elected ley). Pope, in his character of women, him a member in 1815, and sent him back alludes to Mrs. Behn, under her poetical to Paris to examine the papers of Fourname of Astrea:
mont, for the sake of a Corpus InscriptioThe stage how loosely does Astrea tread, num Græcarum, which they intended to
Who fairly puts all characters to bed. publish. He returned the same year. In She died in 1689, between 40 and 50 1817, he was sent to Italy, to examine, years of age, and was buried in the clois- with his colleague Göschen, the Instituters of Westminster abbey.
tions of Gaius at Verona, discovered by BEHRING, BEHRING'S STRAITS, BEHR- Niebuhr in a Codex rescriptus, and to preING'S ISLAND. (See Beering.)
pare an edition of Aristotle, which the BEIRA; a province of Portugal, bounded academy had in view. He spent two chiefly by the river Douro on the north, winters in Rome, particularly favored in by Spain on the east, by the Tagus and the use of the libraries by means of his Portuguese Estremadura on the south, friend Niebuhr. In 1819, he went through and by the Atlantic on the west. Its Turin to Paris; spent the summer of 1820 extent is computed at 11,000 square miles, in England, principally in Oxford, Cam. and the population at nearly 900,000, bridge and London; and returned througlı