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Leyden and Heidelberg to Berlin. With well-cultivated country, is connected with what industry and talent he collected lit- Lough Neagh by a canal, and is the prinerary treasures, in all these places, can be cipal seaport in the north of Ireland. The but imperfectly conceived from any thing bay is a spacious estuary, affording safe he has yet publislied. It is sufficient to anchorage. Vessels drawing 13 feet of cite here the Anecdota Græca, 3 vols., of a water can come up to the wharves at full grammatical character; editions of Apollo- tide. It is well built, chiefly of brick ; nius Dyscolus De Pronomine (never before the streets are broad, straight, well paved printed) and De Syntaxi of Theognis (aug- and lighted. It contains 13 houses of mented with 150 verses); of Coluthus, public worship. Belonging to the port Demosthenes, and other Attic orators; of are above 50 vessels, amounting to more the Bibliotheca of Photius; of the Scholice than 8,330 tons. The principal exports to the Iliad, &c.
are linen, butter, beef, pork and oatmeal: BEL. (See Baal.)
total value, in 1810, £2,904,520. The BELEM (properly Bethlehem); a quar- duties have, of late, amounted to £400,000 ter of Lisbon, formerly a market-town, per annum. The manufactures consist, situated on the spot where, after Vasco chiefly, of linens and cottons; the former da Gama's first return from India, in 1499, employing 723 looms. It sends one memking Emanuel built a church in honor of ber to parliament. the nativity of Christ, and founded the BELFAST; a seaport and post-town in celebrated monastery belonging to the or- Waldo county, Maine, 12 miles N. W. der of St. Jerome, whose walls enclose Castine, 224 N. E. Boston. Lon. 69° 1 the magnificent burying-vault of the royal W.; lat. 44° 25' N. Population in 1810, family, adorned with white marble. Af- 1,274; in 1820, 2,026. It is delightfully ter the earthquake of 1755, the burial- situated on Belfast bay, at the mouth of a church, so called, was rebuilt in the Gothic small river of the same name, and at the style. B., at that time, became the resi- N. W. part of Penobscot bay. It has a dence of the royal family ; but after the good harbor and great maritime advanpalace there had been consumed by fire, tages, and is a flourishing town. they resided in the castle of Quelus, two BELGIANS; a collection of German and leagues distant, in a retired situation, until Celtic tribes, who inhabited the country their departure for Rio Janeiro. The extending from the Atlantic ocean to the new royal palace in B. is not yet finished. Rhine, and from the Marne and Seine to It has a beautiful situation, with a view the southern mouth of the Rhine, which of the harbor and the sea. Many persons is united with the Meuse. From time to of distinction, and the greater part of the time, until the period of Cæsar, German important officers of state, reside at B. nations pushed forward beyond the Rhine, Here is also the church of Nossa Senhora partly expelling the Celts from their seats, da juda, in the neighborhood of which partly uniting with them; and from this lies the botanical garden, with a chemical union sprung a mixed nation, which, in laboratory, and a cabinet of natural curi- its language as well as in its manners, reosities. The latter contains some curious sembled the Germans more than the specimens of native copper from Brazil, Celts. According to the testimony of and a large piece of elastic sand-stone, Cæsar, they were the most valiant of the interspersed with crystals of calcarious Gauls, particularly that portion which respar. In B., the royal garden (a quinta da sided on the northern frontiers of Gerraynha), with a menagerie, and many avi- many. aries for rare birds, must likewise be no- BELGIUM ; the name of that part of the ticed, as well as the great royal park, and, Netherlands which formerly belonged to above all, the old tower, Torre de Belem, Austria, but now makes a part of the which rises out of the river Tajo, and is kingdom of the Netherlands.Belgium, provided with batteries. No ship is per- a part of ancient Gaul, was originally the mitted to pass by it without being vis- land of the Bellovaci and Atrebates, who ited.
lived in the neighborhood of the city of BELFAST; a royal borough and seaport Amiens, and perhaps of Senlis. in Ireland, in Antrim, at the entrance of BELGRADE (the ancient Alba Græcorum; the river Lagan into Carrickfergus bay; in German, Griechisch Weissenburg, which 50 miles E. S. E. Londonderry, 76 N. name, however, is seldom used); a TurkDublin. Lon. 5° 46' W.; lat. 54° 35' N. ish commercial city and fortress in SerPopulation in 1821, including the suburbs, via, at the confluence of the Save and the 35,084; houses, 5,754. It is commodi- Danube, with 30,000 inhabitants, consistously situated for trade, in a populous and ing of four parts, the citadel in the centre,
which commands the Danube, is well commanded the expedition sent against fortified, is the residence of the pacha of Paraguay, which, after advancing into the Servia, and contains the chief mosque. heart of that province, was compelled, The whole number of mosques in B. is by the skill of Ķedros and Francia, to re14. Between the citadel and the other turn to Buenos Ayres, without an engage3 parts of the city there is an empty ment, and leave the Paraguayans unmospace, 400 yards wide. B. is badly lested. B.'s next enterprise was more built; the streets are not paved. At the successful. September 24, 1812, he gainmouth of the Save lies the island of the ed a complete victory over the royalist Gipsies. B., on account of its important general D. Pio Tristan, at Tucuman, and situation, plays a conspicuous part in al- thus defeated the intended expedition of most every war between Austria and the latter against Buenos Ayres. On the Turkey. After having been, at different 13th of February following, he obtained times, in the possession of the Greeks, another signal victory over Tristan at Hungarians, Bulgarians, Bosnians, Servi- Salta. But these brilliant advantages ans and Austrians, it was, in 1442 and were soon followed by equally striking 1456, besieged by the Turks, and, in 1521, reverses. B. imprudently released Trisconquered by Solyman II. In 1688, the tan and his troops upon their parole, Austrians reconquered it, but lost it again which the Spaniards, with that profligate in 1690. Prince Eugene took it in 1717, disregard of all conventions and engageand the peace of Passarowitz, in 1718, ments, which has characterized their polileft it in the hands of Austria, but it was cy in the contest with the South Ameriagain lost in 1739. The Porte retained it cans, dishonorably violated. The conseby the terms of the peace of Belgrade, in quence was, that general Pezuela, with 1739, on condition that the fortifications the very same troops, added to others colwhich Austria had erected should be de- lected in Peru, attacked and defeated B. molishedma work which required almost at Vilcapugio, Oct. 1, 1813, and again at nine months. General Laudon took B. Ayoma, Nov. 14, of the same year; and in 1789, but it was restored to the Porte San Martin was appointed to succeed him at the peace of Szistowe, in 1791. In in command. In 1816, B. was reappoint1806, it was taken by the revolutionary ed to the command of the troops in TuServians, but, with their suppression, it cuman, and was making the most judicame again into the hands of the Turks. cious arrangements for acting against the Formerly, a bishop resided here, but his Spaniards in Upper Peru, when the spirit seat is now in Semendria.
of anarchy seized upon the army, and le BELGRANO, Manuel, was born at Bue- was deposed, and the troops dispersed. nos Ayres, of wealthy parents, who emi- B. was liberal, upright and disinterested grated from Italy. After completing his to a degree not exceeded by any of his education at the university of Salamanca, compatriots, and faithful and exact in the he was appointed secretary of the consu- discharge of all his duties. He displayed lado at Buenos Ayres, and thus came in considerable ardor as an officer, and apcontact, continually with the mercantile plied himself closely to the study of tacclasses, the most enlightened and im- tics; but had neither the experience nor portant portion of the population of the military capacity necessary to constithat city. His polished and amiable ran- tute a great general. Regardless of his ners, and his taste for letters and the fine occasional reverses of fortune, and of the arts, enabled him to improve the oppor- persecution which he underwent from tunity afforded him by his situation, so as some of the transitory factions of the day, to acquire extensive popularity. When he continued to labor unremittingly for the the political troubles in America com- welfare of his country until his death, in menced, B. was at first disposed to favor 1820, which was very justly deplored. the princess Carlota, sister of Ferdinand, (See Memoirs of General Miller, in the Serand establish an independent monarchyvice of the Republic of Peru, London, 1828. in Buenos Ayres. But he soon adopt- BELIAL was, with the Hebrews, what ed the plan of erecting a perfectly Pluto was with the Greeks—the ruler of free government, and entered with zeal the infernal regions. The word itself sig. and ability into the measures which pre- nifies the bad, the destructive. pared and followed the deposition of the BELISARIUS; one of the greatest gener viceroy Cisneros, in May, 1810. In the als of his time, to whom the emperor new order of things, B. entered on a mili- Justinian chiefly owed the splendor of his tary career, and was speedily raised to the reign. Sprung from an obscure family rank of general, in which capacity he in Thrace, B. first served in the body
guard of the emperor, soon after obtained to have let down a bag fastened to a rope, the chief command of an army of 25,000 and to have addressed the passengers in men, stationed on the Persian frontiers, these words :--Date Belisario obolum, and, in the year 530, gained a complete quem virtus evexit, invidia depressit (Give victory over a Persian army of not less an obolus to Belisarius, whom virtue exthan 40,000 soldiers. The next year, how- alted, and envy has oppressed). Of this, ever, he lost a battle against the same en- however, no contemporary writer makes emy, who had forced his way into Syria any mention. Tzetzes, a slightly-esteemed the only battle which he lost during his writer of the 12th century, was the first whole career. He was recalled from the who related this fable. Certain it is, that, army, and soon became, at home, the sup- through too great indulgence towards his port of his master. In the year 532, civil wife Antonina, B. was impelled to many commotions, proceeding from two rival acts of injustice, and that he evinced å parties, who called themselves the green servile submissiveness to the detestable and the blue, and who caused great disor- Theodora, the wife of Justin'an. ders in Constantinople, brought the life BELKNAP, Jeremy; an American clerand reign of Justinian in the utmost peril, gyman and author, of considerable repuand Hypatius was already chosen empe- tation. He was born in June, 1744, ror, when B., with a small body of faith- graduated at Harvard college in 1762 ful adherents, restored order. Justinian, and ordained pastor of the church in Dowith a view of conquering the dominions ver, New Hampshire, in 1767. Here he of Gelimer, king of the Vandals, sent B., spent 20 years in the diligent performance with an army of 15,000 men, to Africa. of his clerical duties, and the cultivation After two victories, he secured the person of literature. It was during this period and treasures of the Vandal king. Geli- that he composed his History of New mer was led in triumph through the Hampshire, å work by which he estabstreets of Constantinople, and Justinian lished himself as an author in the good ordered a medal to be struck, with the in- opinion of his countrymen. In 1787, he scription Belisarius gloria Romanorum, took charge of a church in Boston, where which has descended to our times. By he continued to officiate until his death, the dissentions existing in the royal fami- in 1798. Besides his History, he publishly of the Ostrogoths (see Goths) in Italy, ed two volumes of his unfinished AmeriJustinian was induced to attempt to bring can Biography, and a number of political, Italy and Rome under his sceptre. B. religious and literary tracts. Doctor B. vanquished Vitiges, king of the Goths, wrote with ease and correctness, though made him prisoner at Ravenna (540), and not with elegance: he was more remarkconducted him, together with many other able for research and extensive informaGoths, to Constantinople. - The war in tion, than for brilliancy or originality of Italy against the Goths continued ; but talents. The History of New Hampshire B., not being sufficiently supplied with and the American Biography, above men money and troops by the emperor, de- tioned, are often consulted. His sermons, manded his recall (548). He afterwards and many dissertations, are but little commanded in the war against the Bulga- known. As a public preacher and citirians, whom he conquered in the year 559. zen, he enjoyed the highest estimation. Upon his return to Constantinople, he He was one of the founders of the Maswas accused of having taken part in a sachusetts historical society, whose Colconspiracy. But Justinian was convinced lections are important to the public anof his innocence, and is said to have re- nals. stored to him his property and dignities, BELL. Church bells originated in Itaof which he had been deprived. B. died ly, being formed, by degrees, out of the in the year 565. His history has been cymbals, small tinkling bells and handinuch colored by the poets, and particu- bells of the East, used, in religious cerelarly by Marmontel, in his otherwise ad- monies, as a means of honoring the gods, mirable politico-philosophical romance, or of summoning them to the feast. The According to his narrative, the emperor feast of Osiris, particularly, is known to caused the eyes of the hero to be struck have been announced by bells, and, in out, and B. was compelled to beg his Athens, the priests of Cybele made use bread in the streets of Constantinople. of them at their sacrifices. Pliny says Other writers say, that Justinian had him that bells were invented long before his ihrown into a prison, which is still shown time. They were called tintinnabula; under the appellation of the tower of Bel- and Suetonius tells us that Augustus sarius. From this tower he is reported caused one to be hung before the temple BELL-BELLA.
of Jupiter. Among Christians, they were 358 cwt. The famous bell at Erfurt, in first employed to call together religious Germany, which is considered to be of congregations, for which purpose runners the finest bell-metal, having the largest had been employed before. Afterwards, proportion of silver in it, and is baptized the people were assembled by the sound Susanne, weighs 275 cwt., is more than of little pieces of board struck together; 24 feet in circumference, and has a claphence called sacred boards. To the pres- per of 4 feet, weighing 11 cwt. Great ent day, the Catholics use such boards in Tom, of Christ church, Oxford, weighs Passion-week and Lent, because the noise 17,000 lbs.; of Lincoln, 9894 lbs.; the bell of bells seems to them unsuited to the so- of St. Paul's, London, 8400 lbs.; a bell at lemnity of the season. On the first day of Nankin, in China, is said to weigh 50,000 Easter, the bells ring again, and the return lbs.; and seven at Pekin, 120,000 lbs. of the accustomed sound produces a very each. The inscriptions on old bells are cheerful effect. Paulinus, bishop of Nola, curious, and, in some cases, have even in Campania, is said to have first intro- historical value; and, at this time, when duced church bells, in the fourth century, curiosities of all kinds are eagerly sought and thence the Latin names of the bell, for, a collection of these inscriptions would campana and nola, are said to have origi- not be uninteresting. The different uses nated. In the sixth century, bells were of bells have given rise to many poems, used in the convents; they were suspend- some of which are inscribed on the bells ed on the roof of the church in a frame. themselves. One of the most common is Towards the end of this century, bells the following: were placed on some churches at the Funera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata pango expense of certain cities. About 550, they. Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, páco cruentos. were introduced into France. Pope Se- Perhaps the finest poem which has ever bastian, who died in 605, first ordered that been written on bells is Schiller's poem, the hours of the day should be announced Die Glocke (The Bell), in which he deby striking the bell, that people might scribes the casting of the bell, and all its better attend to the horæ canonicæ, that is, uses, in a highly poetical manner. This to the hours for singing and praying. In has been translated into many lan610, Clothair besieged Sens, when Lupus, guages, and lately into Greek and Latin, bishop of Orleans, ordered the bells of St. by a professor at Liege. (For the metal Stephen to be rung. The sound so fright- of which bells are made, called bellened Clothair, that he gave up the siege. metal, see Copper.) A bell is divided into In the eighth century, the custom of bap- the body or barrel, the clapper, and the tizing and naming bells began. (See ear or cannon.-The word bell is used in Baptism.) Church bells were probably many arts and sciences for instruments introduced into England soon after their similar in form to church bells. invention. They are first mentioned by BELL. (See Lancaster.) Bede, about the close of the seventh cen- BELL-METAL. (See Copper.) tury. In the East, they came into use in BELL-ROCK, sometimes called Inch cape; the ninth century; in Switzerland, in a dangerous rock of Scotland, about 12 1020; at what period they were brought miles from Arbroath, nearly opposite the into Germany is uncertain. In the 11th mouth of the river Tay; lon. 2° 22 W.; century, the cathedral at Augsburg had lat. 56° 29 N. A light-house has been two bells. The same spirit which induced erected on it, finished in 1811, 115 feet people to build immense minsters, and to high. During high tides, the rock is enapply their wealth in ornamenting the tirely covered. It is said that, in former places of Worship, made them vie with ages, the monks of Aberbrothock caused each other in the size of their bells. The a bell to be suspended on this rock, which great bell of Moscow, cast in 1653, in the was rung by the waves, and warned the reign of the empress Anne, is said, by Mr. mariners of this highly dangerous place. Clarke, to be computed to weigh 443,772 The Bell-rock light-house is famous for its lbs. A bell in the church of St. Ivan, in construction. the same city, weighs 127,836 lbs.; anoth- BELLA, Stefano de la; an engraver, born er, 356 cwt.; and the one cast in 1819 at Florence, in 1610. He followed, at weighs 1600 cwt., the clapper alone weigh- first, Callot's manner, but soon adopted ing 18 cwt. On the cathedral of Paris a one of his own. In 1642, he went to bell was placed, in 1680, which weighed Paris, where he was employed by cardi340 cwt., and measured 25 feet in circum- nal Richelieu. He returned to Florence, ference. In Vienna, a bell was cast, in and became the teacher, in drawing, of 1711, of 354 cwt. In Olmütz is one of Cosmo, the son of the great duke, and
died in 1664. It is said that he engraved with the court of Rome, of supporting her 1400 plates.
temporal power and spiritual supremacy BELLAMY, James, a Flemish poet, was to the utmost, and of strenuously opposing born at Flushing, in the year 1757, and the Reformers. The talent he displayed died in 1796. He was 25 years old, and in the latter controversy called forth following the trade of a baker, when, in all the similar ability on the Protestant the year 1772, the second secular festival, side; and, for a number of years, no emin commemoration of the foundation of inent divine among the Reformers failed the republic, was celebrated throughout to make his arguments a particular subHolland. His genius, suddenly inflamed ject of refutation. The great work which by the love of his native land, rendered he composed in this warfare is entitled him a poet, and his first productions met A Body of Controversy, written in Latin, with success. He studied Latin, made the style of which is perspicuous and prehimself better acquainted with his mother cise, without any pretension to purity or tongue, and composed several pieces of elegance. He displays a vast amount of merit sufficient to induce the society of arts Scriptural learning, and is deeply versed at the Hague to incorporate them in their in the doctrine and practice of the church collections. He published his patriotic in all ages, as becomes one who detersongs under the title Vaderlandse-Gezengen, mines every point by authority. To his which secure him a place among the first credit, he exhibits none of the lax moralpoets of his nation. B. sung, likewise, the ity of his order, and, in respect to the praise of love. The later works of this doctrines of predestination and efficacious poet betray a certain melancholy, which grace, is more a follower of St. Augustine renders them still more interesting. A than a Jesuit. His maxims on the right biographical account of him has been of pontiffs to depose princes caused his written by G. Kniper. He may be placed work on the temporal power of the popes by the side of Bilderdyk, Helmers, Loots, to be condemned at Paris. On the other R. Feyth, &c., as one of the restorers of hand, it did not satisfy the court of Rome, modern Dutch poetry.
because it asserted, not a direct, but an · BELLARMIN, Robert, a cardinal, and indirect, power in the popes in temporal celebrated controversialist of the Roman matters; which reservation so offended church, was born at Monte Pulciano, in Sixtus V, that he placed it among the list Tuscany, in 1542. At the age of 18, he of prohibited books. These differences entered into the college of Jesuits, where among the Catholics necessarily gave he soon distinguished himself; and his strength to the Protestant side, and proreputation caused him to be sent into the duced a work from Mayer in exposition Low Countries, to oppose the progress of of them. In the rancor of controversy, the Reformers. He was ordained a priest, some malignant calumnies were uttered in 1569, by Jansenius, bishop of Ghent, against the morals of B.; but it is evident, and placed in the theological chair of the that he inclined to superstition in faith, university of Louvain. After a residence and scrupulosity in practice. At his death, of seven years, he returned to Italy, and he bequeathed one half of his soul to the was sent by Sixtus V to France, as com Virgin, and the other to Jesus Christ. His panion to the legate. He was made a society thought so highly of his sanctity, cardinal, on account of his learning, by that proofs were collected to entitle him Clement VIII, and, in 1602, created arch- to canonization; but the fear of giving bishop of Capua. At the elections of offence to the sovereigns, whose rights he Leo XI and Paul V, he was thought of oppugned, has always prevented a comfor the pontificate, and might have been pliance with the ardent wishes of the chosen, had he not been a Jesuit. Paul Jesuits. The best edition of his controV recalled him to Rome, on which he versial works is that of Prague, 1721, 4 resigned his archbishopric without retain- vols., folio. ing any pension on it, as he might have BELLE ALLIANCE. (See Waterloo.) done. In 1621, he left his apartments in BELLE-ISLE, or BELLE-ISLE-EN-MER the Vatican, and returned to a house of (ai ciently Vindilis); an island in the bay his order, where he died the same year, of Biscay, 115 miles from the west coast at the age of 71. So impressed were the of France, about nine miles long, and people with the idea of his sanctity, that from two to four broad, surrounded by it was necessary to place guards to keep sharp rocks, which leave only three off the crowd, which pressed round to fortified passages to the island. The touch his body, or procure some relics of soil is diverse, consisting of rock, salt liis garments. B. had the double merit, marsh, and fertile grounds. Palais is the