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physicians. They may rather be called it; and hence, when left to itself, it is two states or stages of the same disease. certainly mortal. Internal remedies do One of these, and the first, is carcinoma, little more than palliate symptoms, or scirrhus, or concealed cancer, of some prevent the rapid progress to ulceration, writers. The second is the open, or ul- which belongs to the disease. The only cerated cancer--ulcerated carcinoma, as remedy is the knife ; and, in cases in it is designated by writers. Under proper which the constitution and neighboring internal treatřent, the second stage may parts are not contaminated, extirpation by be kept off for some time; and, in favor- the knife has removed the disease enable cases, the extirpation of the tumor tirely. There are parts of the body which by the knife may effect a cure. The are liable to carcinoma, in which extirpadisease is kept in check, in the first case, tion cannot be practised, and some in but is not removed, and is very prone to which, though an operation has been perpass into the ulcerative stage. The fact formed, death has, nevertheless, followed. that this can be deferred, by proper treat- In cases of this sort, especially those of ment, is an important one. The suffer- the first class, palliatives only can be reings of the patient are thus made less, sorted to; such remedies, namely, as especially during the first stage; and, even mitigate suffering, and retard the progress in the last, their severity is much miti- of the disease. gated. One very early symptom of car- CANCER-Root, or BEECH-DROP (orocinoma is pain. This pain differs from banche virginiana, L.); a parasitic plant, that which ordinarily accompanies local indigenous in America, growing almost diseases of a different kind. It is de- exclusively on the exposed root of the

what in paroxysms, and resembling the ly astringent, and the root of a brownish suffering which the sudden passage of a color, spongy, and of a very nauseous, sharp and pointed instrument would pro- bitter taste. It has been applied more duce in the part. Besides this, there is externally than internally to the cure of always more or less dull pain present. cancer. The one-flowered cancer-root (oroThe progress of the disease, and the oc- banche uniflora) is used in the same mancurrence of the second stage, are marked ner. All parts of the plants are used in by increased pain of both kinds; by in- medicine. crease in the size of the tumor, augment- CANDELABRA. Torches and lamps were ed heat, greater inequality in the surface, the means used by the ancients for obtaina darker color, and increased tenderness ing artificial light. The latter were either on pressure. When ulceration is just suspended from the ceilings of their established, and even a little before, the rooms, with chains, or placed upon small, patient complains of general irritation of movable tables (lampadaria, candelabra, the skin; the stomach is disturbed ; and and candelabri). The candelabra were symptoms of constitutional irritation, originally made of cane, with one plate more strongly marked, make their ap- fixed above and another underneath, or pearance. Ulceration begins on the sur- with feet, for supporters. The Greeks face of the tumor, and parts are destroyed, called these luxvovyou. The Grecian artin succession, from without, until the ists produced, in ornamenting these lampwhole texture presents a mass of disease. stands, the richest forms, which always Instead of this destructive ulceration, we however, had reference to the original have, in many cases, fungous masses pro- cane, and were encircled with an infinite jecting from the diseased surface; and variety of beautiful ornaments. Somethese, at times, attain considerable size. times they were shafts in the shapes of But it is not a character of carcinoma to columns, which could be shortened or grow, and become as large as other dis- drawn out; sometimes the luxuriant acan eases of some of the organs in which it thus, with its leaves turned over; some appears. This is especially true of it times they represented trunks of trees when seated in the womb. An offensive, entwined with ivy and flowers, and tersanious discharge proceeds from the ulcer. minated by vases or bell-flowers at the Bleeding often takes place from it, es- top, for the reception of the lamps. Expecially when fungous, either from me- amples of these forms may be found in chanical irritation, though slight, or from the British museum and the Louvre, but accidental excitement of the arterial sys- particularly at the Vatican, where a galtem only.Carcinoma is a malignant dis- lery is filled with marble candelabra. ease. Its tendency is to death. The Candelabra of yet more delicate forms, of constitution has not power to overcome bronze, inlaid with silver and other met

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als, have been found in Herculaneum. to most of the valleys, in which, and on In ancient times, Tarentum and Ægina the declivities of the mountains, is seen a were famous for their elegant candelabra. luxuriant vegetation. The air is mild ; the The graceful and expressive form of this summer is cooled by the north winds; utensil was made use of for colossal the winter is distinguished only by showworks of art, particularly on account of ers of rain. The island would, therefore, its resemblance to the holy torches em- be a most delightful residence, and supply ployed in the worship of Æsculapius. its inhabitants, as formerly, with grain, The largest and grandest of those monu- wine and oil, wool, flax, silk and cotton, ments was the Pharos, at the harbor of fish, honey, game, cattle, the noblest fruits Alexandria. In modern times, this an- of the south, and even with metals, in cient form has been used for an ingenious abundance, did not the oppressions and Christian monument. At the place where cruelties of the Turks prevent all cultiva(721) the first church in Thuringia was tion, and render it impossible for the disfounded by Boniface, the apostle of the couraged inhabitants (who, instead of beGermans, only a few relics remaining of ing 1,200,000, as in the time of the Greeks, the building, which had served for more or 900,000, as in the time of the Venetians, than 10 centuries as a Christian temple, a amount only to 300,000, half Greeks, half candelabrum, 30 feet high, formed of Turks) to attain more than the most insand-stone, was erected (Sept. 1,1811), às dispensable necessaries of life. Manufaca symbol of the light which spread from tures, trade, navigation, the arts and scithis spot.

ences, are not to be thought of. All the CANDI, or CANDY (anciently Maagram- harbors, with the exception of that of mum); a city of Ceylon, and capital of a Canea, are filled with sand, and the cities country to which it gives name; 80 miles are mere aggregations of rubbish. The from Columbo; lon. 80° 44' E.; lat. 7° 36' capital, Candia, the seat of the pacha, has N. The town is a poor, miserable place, 15,000 inhabitants; Retimo, 6000; Canea surrounded by a mud wall. The king- (the ancient Cydonia), the most important dom is fertile, intersected with rivers, and place of trade on the island, 12,000. Acwell furnished with woods. It was an- cording to Homer, king Idomeneus sailed nexed to the British dominions in 1816. from this island to Ilium, with 80 vessels. (See bishop Heber's Narrative of a Jour- The Greek mythology made Crete the ney through the Upper Provinces of India, scene of many of the adventures of the &c., with Notes upon Ceylon, vol. ii, p. 188 gods and heroes. Here Saturn reigned, et seq.)

and afterwards Minos, 1300 years before CANDIA (in the Turkish language, Kirid, Christ. After the banishment of the kings, called, in the most ancient times, Idæd, Crete became a republic, and then a seat from mount Ida, afterwards Crete), one of of the Cilician pirates, till it was conquerthe most important islands of the Turkish ed by the Romans. In the year 823, it empire, situated in the Mediterranean (lon. passed from the hands of the Roman 230 401-26° 40' E., and lat. 34° 50—350 emperors in the East into those of the 55' N., 81 miles from the southern extrem Saracens, who built the capital, Candia, ity of the Morea, 92 from Rhodes, and 230 on the ruins of Heraclea, but were expelfrom the African coast), is 160 miles long, led again, in 962, by the Greeks. Against 14—50 broad, and contains 4026 square the will of the inhabitants, the Byzantine miles. A high chain of mountains, coy- sovereign sold the island to the Venetians ered with forests, runs through the whole in 1204, who, aware of its importance, length of the island, in two ranges, the fortified most of the cities, won the good western part of which is called by the will of their new subjects by a mild goyVenetians Monte di Sphachia (formerly ernment, and repelled all the assaults of Leuce); the eastern part, Lasthi or Sethia the Genoese and Turks, till the middle of (formerly Dicte). On the north side, it the 17th century. About this time, the declines moderately to a fertile coast, pro- attacks of the Turks became more viovided with good harbors; on the south lent, on account of a prize taken by the side, steeply to a rocky shore, with few Maltese, on board of which was the aga roadsteads; and reaches its greatest height of the eunuchs, and, according to a rein the lofty Psiloriti (the ancient Ida), port then very generally spread through7670 feet high, and always covered with out Europe, the favorite wife and son of snow. Mountain torrents, which are the sultan Ibrahim, but probably only a swollen in the winter and spring, but al- slave of the aga, who had been employed most dry in summer, conduct the waters in the seraglio as a nurse, with her son, to to the sea. Numerous springs give fertility whom, however, the sultan was much at


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CANDIA. tached. This vessel was carried, for a Rimpler and Vauban were together here. short time, into Calismene, a harbor of The pope sent troops and money; the Candia, without, however, the consent Maltese, knights and soldiers. The duk of the Venetians, who had no garrison de la Feuillade led hither 600 Frenchmen, there. The sultan was highly incensed, some of them of the noblest families, ascribed all the fault to the Venetians, and who, with French thoughtlessness, rushed landed a large force in Candia, in June into needless danger, and were, for the 1645, which soon took Canea and Retimo, most part, destroyed. The count of Waland besieged the capital with vigor. The deck subsequently came with 3 regiattack was bravely repelled, but repeated ments of Lüneberg troops, so that the in 1649; and was this time also unsuccess- garrison was always kept from 8000 to ful. In 1656, the Turks made a third ef- 10,000 strong. Treachery had given the fort, but afterwards changed the siege into Turks information that the bastions of St. a blockade, which they continued for 10 André and Sabionetta were the weakest years without success, since the Venetians, points of the fortress: they therefore albeing masters of the sea, supplied the for- tered their plan, and attacked the lasttress, without difficulty, with provisions, mentioned works. Departing from the men and ammunition. In 1667, after the line of operations which they had hitherto peace of Vasvar, the grand vizier, Kio- followed, they approached the fortress by purli, in order to restore his reputation, employing a great number of men in digwhich had been tarnished by the loss of ging a deep ditch, throwing up the earth the battle of St. Gothard, and to regain the towards the place, and continuing to favor of Mohammed IV by an important move it forward with shovels, till they conquest, took vigorous measures for the reached and filled the trench. Daring salentire reduction of Candia, investing the lies and well-applied mines, however, kept capital, May 14th, with 80,000 men. A wall the Turksin check for a long time, and often with 7 bastions surrounded the fortress; destroyed their works; but, having finally the same number of ravelins were situated succeeded in establishing themselves on in front of the wall, and several detached the bastion of St. André, they found beworks still farther in advance: a numerous yond it strong intrenchments, which withfleet held the Turks in check by sea, and stood the most violent assaults; and the the garrison, commanded by the chevalier approach of winter found the besiegers de Ville and Morosini, was ready to be no farther advanced. In the spring of buried under the ruins of the fortress. 1669, the Turks pursued their labors The attack of the Turks was directed slowly, but surely and successfully. In a

Christians contested every step of their and stones remained to the Venetians of advance; but the Turks were soon at the the bastion of St. André, and their last foot of a breach, which was, however, so defence was a wall, thrown up during the well defended by mines, sallies, and in- winter, as a general intrenchment. In trenchments, that the most furious assaults, this extremity, the dukes of Beaufort and directed by Kiopurli in person, who fear- Navailles appeared with a French fleet ed the displeasure of his master, were and 7000 troops. A desperate sally was without success. The winter found the undertaken with this new reinforcement. Turks still before the breach, and com- A mine, which was to serve as a signal, pelled them to withdraw to their intrench- and throw the Turks into confusion, did ments. The natives of the East, unac- not explode: on the contrary, a Turkish customed to a winter campaign, were car powder-magazine blew up when the ried off by sickness; and new masses of French had already got possession of the troops, with all the materials for a siege, trenches, and repelled an attempt of the supplied the loss. Changes occurred also Turks to recover them. This explosion in the fortress. In the spring of 1668, filled the French with such a fear of conthe brave chevalier de Ville was recalled, cealed mines, that they fled in disorder to on account of the jealousy of his superi- the fortress, and left 200 men dead on ors, and a quarrel with Morosini. His the field, among whom were many brave place, however, was well supplied by the officers, and the duke of Beaufort. At the chevalier St. André Montbrun. Volun- same time, the Christian fleet, consisting teers, likewise, poured in from all the coun- of 80 ships and 50 galleys, which were to tries of Europe, to display their courage attack the Turkish camp in the flank, was on so bloody a field, and to learn the art thrown into disorder by the batteries on of war. Numerous engineers made the the coast, and the blowing up of a ship of place their school, and Werthmüller, 70 guns, and the sally was entirely un.

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successful. This misfortune increased Canea and Retimo, governed the island. the discord which already existed to such On account of the feuds of these pachas, a degree, that the duke of Navailles, con- the inhabitants of the western mountains vinced that the preservation of the for- succeeded in forming a government of tress was impossible, re-embarked his their own, under Turkish protection, in corps, and returned to France. Individ- the agalic of Sphachia. As the compacts uals belonging to the other troops joined made with them were not always obserythe French ; the Maltese, and almost all ed, they were wont, in such cases, to take the volunteers, also, departed shortly after; up arms, were often defeated, but never a new assault of the Turks was more suc- entirely subdued. The pachas having cessfulthan the previous ones, and brought demanded hostages of them in 1821, they them to the palisades of the last intrench- joined the Greek insurgents. Even under ment; the garrison, amounting to scarcely the Venetian government, the Candiotes 3000 men, was desponding and disobedi- had the reputation of suffering no infringeent; quarrels distracted the commanders, ment of their privileges, and would not and every thing announced that the place permit the Venetians to establish, as in the

solved, therefore, in a council of war, to possidenti, by whose means they might surrender. The terms of capitulation hold the other inhabitants under the yoke gave the garrison and inhabitants liberty of the podestas. Had the mountaineers to depart within 12 days, and to take with been armed, when the Turks made their them all their property, even the artillery first descent on the island, it would prob

during the siege, and left the Venetians to have maintained themselves in Candia. in possession of Suda, Garabusa and Spi- The Sphachiotes have played the same part nalonga. Sept. 27, 1669, the city was in Candia as the Mainotes in the Morea, surrendered, after a war of 25 years, a excepting that they have not escaped the blockade of 13 years, and a siege, in which tribute of the poll-tax. The energy of the the trenches had been open 2 years 3 inhabitants seems to be now relaxed. (See months and 27 days. Its defence must Greek Insurrection.) The historical imporserve as a model to the latest ages, as one tance of ancient Crete, in a mythological of the bravest recorded in history, and point of view, and as a seat of ancient civproves what Christian courage could ef- ilization, is shown by Höck's Kreta (Gött., fect against Turkish fury and superiority 1823). In 1817, F. W. Sieber, a German

ropean art of war was imperfect, and the made many observations on it, which had Turkish empire was at the zenith of its principally in view the improvement of prosperity. At the time of the capitula- natural history and medical science. See tion, the garrison consisted of only 2500 his Reise nach der Insel KretaVoyage to soldiers. 30,985 Christians and 118,754 the Island of Crete (Leips. 1823), 2 vols. Turks were killed or wounded during the with plates and a map. siege; 56 assaults were made by the CANDIDATE (from the Latin candidatus, Turks ; 96 sallies by the Christians; 472 white-robed, because, among the Romans, mines were sprung by the former, 1173 a man who solicited an office appeared in by the latter; 509,692 cannon shot were a shining white garment-toga candida). fired by the fortress, and 180,000 cwt. of The candidati of the Romans wore no lead used for musket balls by the Chris- tunic; either as a sign of humility, or in tians. The Turks found the city in a ru- order to show the wounds received on inous state ; every thing of any value was their breasts. The time of their canvasstaken away ; only 33 men, for the most ing was two years, during which they part far advanced in years, remained be wore the toga candida. In the first year, hind, and 350 miserable cannon stood on they delivered speeches to the people, or the walls. The Turks immediately re- had them delivered by others, with the paired all the works. Having obtained consent of the magistrates. This was possession of the capital, they now en- called profiteri nomen suum, and the year, deavored to expel the Venetians from the annus professionis. After this year, they strongholds which remained to them on the requested. the magistrate to enter their island; and, before the expiration of the names on the list of candidates for the 17th century, Garabusa fell into their power office sought for. An aspirant was selby treachery, and Suda and Spinalonga by dom refused permission to deliver his surrender. They managed Čandia in the speeches ; but he was not yet necessarily usual manner. Three pachas, at Candia, treated as a candidate by the magistrates,

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or proposed by them to the people on the attacks revelation with plausible but suday of election. Before that was done, perficial arguments. Voltaire is unsurhis life was subjected to a scrutiny in the passed in the art of treating the most senate, after the pretor or consul had re- serious subjects with light raillery, while ceived his name. If the senate accepted he seduces the reader by the charms of him, he was permitted to offer himself, his style. Some descriptions in this tale, on the day of election, as a candidate. for instance, that of the carnival at Venice, The formula, by which permission was are excellent. granted, was, rationem habebo, renuntiabo; CANDLEMAS; a Catholic feast, instiif he was not accepted, he received the tuted by pope Gelasius I, in 492, in comanswer rationem non habebo; non renun- memoration of the presentation of Christ tiabo. The tribunes often opposed a in the temple, and of the purification of candidate who had been accepted by Mary; perhaps intended to take the place the senate. The morals of the aspirants, of the rude heathen feast called the Luin the purer ages of the republic, were percalia, which was abolished by him. always severely examined. In the later It is celebrated on February 2, and has period of the republic, nobody could ob- its name froin the consecrated torches tain an office if he was not present, and which are carried about in procession, in if he had not offered himself on three allusion to the words of Simeon, “a light market-days. (Sall. Cat. 18., Cic. Fam. to enlighten the Gentiles." xvi. 12.) On these days, the candidates CANE. (See Bamboo and Ratan.) tried to insinuate themselves into the CANEA ; the principal port of Candia ; favor of the people. They went from lat. 35° 28' 45' N.; lon. 24° 12 45'' E.; house to house (ambiendo), shook hands supposed to be on the site of the ancient with every body whom they met (pren- Cydonia. Population, 7150. The city · sands, addressed each one by his name, has been fortified from the time of the

for which purpose they generally had a Venetian government. nomenclator with them, who whispered CANGA-ARGUELLES, don José, Spanish the names of those whom they met into minister of finance from 1820 to March, their ear. Cicero, therefore, calls the can- 1821, distinguished himself in the cortes didates natio officiosissima. They placed of 1812, no less by his talents than by his themselves, on market-days, in elevated zeal for the establishment of a constituplaces, in order to be seen. On the day tion. When he was minister, he laid of election, they did the same. Favor- before the cortes a statement of all the ites of the people accompanied them (de- possessions of the crown and of the ductores); some of their suite (divisores) church in Spain, from which it appeared distributed money among the people, that the latter surpassed the former by a which, though prohibited, was done pub- third part. When king Ferdinand, in licly. Interpretes were employed to bar- 1814, resumed the government, C. was gain with the people, and the money confined in Penniscola, but, in 1816, was was deposited in the hands of sequestres. restored to liberty, and employed in VaSometimes a number of candidates united lencia. In his Memoria sobre el Credito into parties (coitiones), in order to defeat Publico, he represented the condition of

grounds on which each candidate rested swore to observe the constitution, and set his claims to the office were read, and the forth the measures of the ministry for

ful candidate then sacrificed to the gods According to this report, the annual defiin the capitol. To oppose a candidate cit of 340,050,231 reals was more than was called ei refragari ; to support him, the whole revenue. Among other means suffragari, or suffragatores esse.We have of remedying the evil, the minister prodwelt so long on this subject, on account posed to raise 140,000,000 reals by direct of the similarity between the ancient and taxes; to sell a 7th part of the property the modern modes of seeking office. The of the church and monasteries; also the word candidate is also used, by Protestants, small possessions of the crown in North to designate a theologian, who, having fin- Africa, and to make proposals for a loan ished his studies at a university, is waiting of 200,000,000 reals. He presented : for an appointment in the church.

plan, likewise, for diminishing the great CANDIDE ; the name of a famous tale number of officers, and reducing the of Voltaire's, forming an epoch in French amount of exclusive privileges. His proliterature, in which he ridicules the sys- jects were executed only in part. In tem of optimism with his usual spirit, and 1821, he resigned his office, together with

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