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1790, it is enacted, “that benefit of clergy parents, in Philadelphia. His first emshall not be used or allowed, upon con- ployment was that of an instructer of viction of any crime, for which, by any youth at Germantown-a calling which statute of the United States, the punish- led him to prepare and publish, several ment is, or shall be, declared to be elementary books for the use of schools. death."

The leading traits of his character-enBENEVENTO; a dukedom in the Nea- thusiastic benevolence and profound piepolitan province Principato Oltra (86 ty–were developed at this period. About square miles, with 20,348 inhabitants), the year 1750, he was particularly struck which, including a city and eight villages, with the iniquity of the slave trade, and belongs to the papal see. In 1806, Napo- the cruelty which was exercised by too leon made a present of it to his minister many of those who purchased and emTalleyrand, who received thence the title ployed the negroes. His voice and his of prince of Benevento. ' In 1815, it was pen were now employed in behalf of this restored to the pope. Cattle, grain, wine, oppressed portion of his fellow-beings. oranges and dead game are exported. Finding the blacks in Philadelphia nuThe public revenue amounts to 6000 dol- merous, and miserably ignorant, he establars. In 1820, the inhabitants revolted. lished an evening school for them, and In the. most remote times, the state of taught them himself, gratuitously. In Benevento belonged to the country of the this office he was signally successful, Samnites. The Lombards, in 571, made and accomplished the additional good of it a dukedom, which, long after the ex- removing prejudices against the intellect tinction of the Lombard kingdom, re- of the Negro by exhibiting the proficiency mained independent. At a later period, of his pupils. His first attempts to rouse it fell into the hands of the Saracens and the public feeling, on the subject of Negro Normans. The city, however, was not slavery, consisted in short essays in alconquered by the latter, because Henry manacs and newspapers, which he was III had given it to the pope, Leo IX. The indefatigable in circulating. He soon city of B. (lon. 14° 38' E., lat. 40° 6 N.), published a variety of more elaborate and on a hill between the rivers Sabato and extensive tracts, among which are the Calore, has 13,900 inhabitants, 8 churches following :-An Account of that Part of and 19 convents. Since 969, it has been Africa inhabited by the Negroes, 1762: the see of an archbishop. It has several a Caution and Warning to Great Britain manufactories. Few cities in Italy de- and her Colonies, on the calamitous serve so much attention, on account of State of the enslaved Negroes, 1767 : the antiquities which they contain, as B. an Historical Account of Guinea, its Almost every wall consists of fragments Situation, Produce, and the general Disof altars, sepulchres, columns and entab- position of its Inhabitants; with an Enlatures. Among other things, the well- quiry into the Rise and Progress of the preserved, magnificent triumphal arch Slave-Trade, its Nature and calamitous of Trajan, built in 114, deserves particu- Effects. These works were printed at lar mention. It is now called porta au- his own expense, and distributed, without rea (the golden gate), and is a gate of the charge, wherever he thought they would city. The cathedral is a gloomy build- make an impression. He addressed them ing, in the old Gothic style.

directly, with suitable letters, to most of BENEZET, Anthony; a distinguished the crowned heads of Europe ; and to philanthropist, born at St. Quentin, in many of the most illustrious divines and France, January 1713. His parents were philosophers. The fervor of his style, opulent, and of noble descent. On the rev- and the force of his facts, obtained for ocation of the edict of Nantes, the family his philanthropic efforts the notice which associated themselves with the Hugue- he sought for the benefit of his cause. nots; and, on this account, his father's Great personages, on both sides of the Atestate was confiscated, in 1715, who there- lantic, corresponded with him, and it is upon sought temporary refuge in Holland, certain that he gave the original impulse and afterwards in England, where An- to dispositions and measures which inthony received his education. Of An- duced the abolition of the slave-trade by thony's juvenile habits and dispositions, England and the United States. Clarkbut an imperfect account is preserved : it son, the British philanthropist, whose la is only known that he became a member bors contributed so largely to the accom of the society of Friends, about the 14th plishment of that object, acknowledges, year of his age. In 1731, four years that his understanding was enlightened, subsequent, he arrived, along with his and his zeal kindled, by one of B.'s books,

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when he was about to treat the question nent of Asia: and should the English be submitted to the senior bachelors of arts ever driven from all the other parts of Inin the university of Cambridge, Anne dia, as long as they shall retain their mariliceat invitos in servitutem dare?-B. re- time pre-eminence, they will find in garded all mankind as his brethren. B. a secure asylum against their eneAbout the year 1763, the wrongs inflicted mies. Thus guarded from a foreign foe, on the aboriginal race of North America they are equally safe from any insurexcited his susceptible mind, and prompt- rection of the natives, whose mildness ed him to publish a tract, entitled, Some of disposition and aversion to war are Observations on the Situation, Disposition such, that nothing short of the most atroand Character of the Indian Natives of cious cruelty, or religious persecution, this Continent. He addressed the British could induce them to draw their swords governors and military commanders, on against their present rulers. The fertile the effect of hostilities against the natives, soil of B. produces every thing requiwith characteristic boldness and pathos. site for the sustenance of life, and in such His various philanthropical efforts, and abundance, that the crops of one year his excellent qualities, obtained for him are sufficient for the consumption of its peculiar consideration in the society of inhabitants for two. It abounds in fruits Friends.-In 1780, he wrote and pub- and animals of many varieties, and yields lished a Short Account of the religious every article essential to the comfort, or Society of Friends, commonly called even luxury, of man. Its ingenious inQuakers; and, in 1782, a Dissertation on habitants are well versed in all the arts the Plainness and innocent Simplicity of useful industry; and, whilst their deliof the Christian Religion. About the cate and valuable manufactures are exsame time, he issued several tracts against ported to every part of the world, they rethe use of ardent spirits.--The person of quire no assistance from other countries. B. was small, and his face far from hand- In short, it has been truly said of this sorne, though benignity might be traced province, that it is the most valuable jewel in his animated aspect, even by those in the British crown. The revenues who knew not how his whole being and of B. consist chiefly of rents paid to small estate had been devoted. His un- the government for land. In the year derstanding was originally strong, and 1811–12, they amounted, including those much improved by reading and observa- of Behar and Orissa, to £2,590,000 stertion. His private habits, morals and pur- ling, to which may be added nearly suits were adapted to endear and dignify £200,000 for the monopolies of salt and his public career. He died at Philadel- opium. The exports of B. are prinphia, May 5, 1784, aged 71 years. When cipally rice, cotton and silk, both raw and it was announced that he was seriously manufactured; indigo, sugar, saltpetre, ill, a multitude of his fellow-citizens pre- ivory, tobacco, and drugs of various sented themselves at his dwelling with kinds: hemp and flax are also to be proanxious inquiries; and he conversed lu- cured in great abundance. Its imports cidly with hundreds after his case was by sea are gold and zilver, copper and pronounced to be hopeless. There is ex- bar-iron, woollen cloths of every descriptant a full and interesting memoir of his tion, tea, salt, glass and china ware, wines, life, by Roberts Vaux.

and other commodities, for the use of its BENGAL; an extensive and valuable European inhabitants, and a few Arabian province of Hindostan, situated between and English horses. The native breed the 21st and 27th degrees of N. lat., and of these animals being diminutive, B. is between the 86th and 92d degrees of E. chiefly supplied with them from the lon., being in length about 400 miles, and north-west provinces, although the govin breadth, 300. On the north and east, ernment have a stud of their own in it is defended by the mountains of Ne- Behar, and hold out great encouragement paul, Assam and Ava; on the south, by to the zemindars, or landholders, to breed a line of inhospitable and dangerous sea- them. The south-east districts produce coast, containing but one harbor capable fine elephants, which are not only in conof admitting ships of any considerable siderable demand, among the opulent size, and even that one guarded by innu- natives, for state or riding, but also used merable shoals: on the west, it joins Behr for carrying the camp equipage of the and Oude; and, although rather exposed army. They vary in price from £50 to tc invasion on this frontier, it is, neverthe- £1000: a good one should be from 8 less, better defended by nature than any to 10 feet high, and not less than 30 province of similar extent on the conti- years of age.--B. is intersected by the

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Ganges, the Brahınapootra, Dummooda, till October; after which it becomes cool, and several other rivers, so connected by and the weather continues pleasant for various streams, and the annual inunda- four months.-Of the ancient history of tions, that there is scarcely a town which B. we have no authentic information. It does not enjoy the benefits of an inland is said to have been sometimes an indenavigation, the boats employed in which pendent kingdom, and at other times are of various sizes and shapes, many of tributary to Magadha (Behar). In the inthem very handsome, and fitted both foi stitutes of Akbar, a list of 61 Hindoo convenience and state. The Delta of the kings is given; but the number of years Ganges, the water of which is either salt assigned to many of the reigns does or brackish, exhibits a labyrinth of unin- away its credibility. B. was first invaded habited inland navigation; and in other and conquered by the Afghan Mohammeparts of the country, during the rainy dans in A. D. 1203, and continued tribuseason, some hundred miles of rice fields tary to the emperor of Delhi till the year inay je sailed over. These inundations 1340, when Fakher Addeen, a confiden are, however, frequently the cause of tial servant of the governor, murdered his much injury, by carrying away the cattle, master, and, having seized the reins of stores of grain, and habitations of the poor government, threw off his allegiance, and peasants. The greater proportion of the took the title of sultan Sekunder. From inhabitants of B. are Hindoos: they are this period till 1538, B. remained an inolive-colored, with black hair and eyes. dependent kingdom, when it was conThey are small and delicate in their per- quered by Shere Shah, who shortly after sons, and, although very timid, are litigious; annexed it to Delhi. From the descendhumble to their superiors, and insolent to ants of Shere Shah it was conquered by their inferiors. In youth, they are quick the emperor Akbar, and continued suband inquisitive, and would probably be ject to Delhi, or nominally so, till the much improved by their intercourse with year 1757, when it fell into the hands of Europeans, but for the supreme con- the English, who have gradually changed tempt in which they hold other nations, its form of government, and introduced a from the notion of their being degraded code of regulations, founded on the HinHindoos. The indigent wear scarcely doo, Mohammedan and English laws, by any clothing other than a rag round their which impartial justice is administered to waist: the rich, when out of doors, dress all the inhabitants, and toleration granted much like Mohammedans; within the to all religions, owing to which the counhouse, they usually resume their old na- try improves, and the population intional costume, which consists merely of creases. The cities of Gour, Tonda, Radifferent pieces of cloth twisted round the jemahil, Dacca and Moorshedabad have body, and having one end tucked into each, at various times, been the capital; the folds. No small part of the population but, since the conquest of it by the Engare Mohammedans; they are the descend- lish, Calcutta is become the seat of govants of the Afghan and Mogul conquer- ernment.--The government of this presiors, and Arabian merchants, softened, in dency is vested in the supreme council, the course of time, by an intermixture consisting of the governor-general and with Hindoo women, converts, and chil- three counsellors. The former is apdren, whom they purchased during a pointed by the king; the latter are chosen scarcity, and educated in their own re- by the court of directors from the civil ligion. There are also a number of the servants of at least 12 years' standing. · descendants of the Portuguese, and of For the administration of justice, there is various other nations; and, in spite of the 1 supreme court at Calcutta, 6 courts checks held out by the English against of appeal and circuit, and 46 inferior macolonization, it is probable, that, in the gistrates, stationed in as many different course of another century, their descend- towns or districts. The circuit courts are ants will become so numerous, that it formed by 3 judges, with an assistant and will be necessary to permit them to be- native officers. Criminal cases are tried come cultivators of the soil.—The ther- by the Mohammedan law, in form and inometer, part of the year, in B., is as name, but so modified as to approach high as 100 degrees, and the climate is nearly, in fact, to the English; and capiinjurious to European constitutions. The tal sentences are confirmed by the nizam. year is there divided into three seasons, at adalat, or supreme court at Calcutta. viz, the hot, the rainy and the cold : thé The district magistrates or judges, as they former begins in March, and ends in June; are often called, have each a registrar and the rains then commence, and continue one or more of the junior civil servants;

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as assistants, with native lawyers, Mussul- preacher and professor at Denkendorf. man and Hindoo. An appeal lies from His chief studies were the fathers of the their sentence, in almost all cases, to the church and the New Testament. He provincial court. The average size of a died, after having been appointed to sevdistrict in this presidency is about 6000 eral offices, in 1752. B. was the first Lusquare miles. In civil causes, the re- theran theologian who applied to the spective codes of the Mohammedans and criticism of the New Testament a comHindoos are generally followed. In 1793, prehensive spirit, which embraced the regular advocates, educated at the Mo- subject in its whole extent, and manifesthammedan and Hindoo colleges at Cal- ed the power of patient investigation cutta and Benares, were appointed to which the study required. His suggesplead in these courts. Their fees are tions for the correction of the text are regulated by law. Written pleadings are particularly valuable. In some of his allowed, and written evidence must some- observations, his judgment has been led times be admitted, on account of the dis- astray by his inclination to mysticism. inclination of the Asiatics to have women His explanation of the Apocalypse has appear in public. Domestic slavery is given him, with some persons, the fame permitted by law, but the slaves are kind- of an inspired prophet; with most people, ly treated. The number of these slaves that of an enthusiast. He was esteemed it has been thought unsafe to ascertain. for his private virtues. Their marriage is never impeded; but BENGER, Miss Elizabeth Ogilvy, was few children are sold, as it is reputed dis- born in 1778, at Portsmouth, in England. creditable to sell them, and their manu- She was the daughter of a purser in the mission is considered an act of piety. navy, who died in 1796, and left his wife Parents themselves, who are reduced by and daughter with a slender provision. famine, &c., are usually the persons who In 1802, she removed with her mother supply the slave-market. Inability to to London. She soon attracted attention provide for their children, not the desire by her verses, and Miss Sarah Wesley of gain, seems to be the real motive of early became her patron. She composed this horrid custom. Slaves, like freemen, some theatrical pieces, which did not are under the protection of law. The meet with success. Mr. Bowyer, the enMohammedans may be estimated at one graver, employed her to write a poem on seventh of the whole population. Vari- the Slave-Trade, which, with two others, ous estimates of the population have been was published in quarto, with engravings, made at different times, but rather from in 1812. She successively published conjecture than from well-authenticated memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth Hamilton, documents. The sum total for Bengal memoirs of John Tobin, the dramatist, and appears to be 25,306,000, and there are notices of Klopstock and his friends, prestrong reasons for believing this number fixed to a translation of their letters from to be short of the real amount. The the German. These writings were folnumber of native troops, called seapoys lowed by the history of Anne Boleyn, (sipahis) or soldiers, was, in 1811, 207,579, which was translated into French, and besides 5875 invalids. The non-commis the memoirs of Elizabeth, queen of sioned officers are natives, those who Bohemia. She undertook to compile have commissions are Europeans, and memoirs of Henry IV of France, but the the number of the latter in this presiden- progress of this work was prevented by cy, at the time above mentioned, was her death, January 9, 1827. By all who 2024. About 22,000 of the king's troops knew her, among whom the editor has are also stationed in India, and occasion the pleasure of counting himself, she was an expense to the company of about esteemed as a kind, faithful and candid £160,000 per annum.-Before concluding friend, a most affectionate daughter, bethis article, it may be proper to observe, loved by all ages and both sexes on acthat the Dutch possess the town of Chin- count of her fine talents, benevolent dissura, the French, Chindunagore, and the position, and pure heart. Danes, Serampore, with a small territory BENGUELA, a country in Africa, boundadjoining each. These towns are situ- ed N. by Angola, E, by the country of ated on the Hoogly river, from 15 to 25 Jaga Cassangi, S. by Mataman, and W. by miles above Calcutta.

the sea. Cape Negro forms its S. W. BENGEL, John Albanus, a famous Ger- extremity, whence mountains run northman theologian. horn in 1687, at Winne- ward, in which are contained the springs der, in Würtemburg, studied at Stuttgart of many rivers. The productions are and Tübingen, and, in 1713, became a similar to those of Angola and Congo;

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one of the principal is manioc; divers entered the same service himself, and sorts of palms are found ; dates grow in acted as lieutenant in the seven years great abundance; the vines naturally war till 1758. He afterwards studied form alleys and arbors; cassia and tama- navigation in Hamburg, Amsterdam and rinds also flourish; and, from the hu- Plymouth. He then went to Poland, midity of the soil, there are two fruit joined the confederacy against the Russeasons in the year. The air of the sians, and became colonel, commandcountry is exceedingly unwholesome. er of cavalry and quarter-master general. The chief towns are Old Benguela, St. B. was taken prisoner by the Russians in Philip or New Benguela, Man-kikondo, 1769, and sent, the next year, to Kamtand Kaschil. Lon. 30° to 35o E.; lat. 13° schatka. On the voyage thither, he saved 30 to 15o 30 S.

the ship that carried him, when in peril BENIN ; a kingdom in the west of Afri- from a storm. This circumstance proca, the limits of which are not well ascer cured him a favorable reception from tained; but the name may be applied to governor Niloff, whose children he inthat part of the coast extending from the structed in the German and French lanriver Lagos, the eastern limit of the Slave guages. Aphanasia, Niloff's younger coast, to the Formosa, about 180 miles. daughter, fell in love with him. B. preThe interior limit is unknown. The vailed on her father to set him at liberty whole coast presents a succession of estu- and to betroth her to him. He had, howaries, some of them very broad, and their ever, already conceived the project of origin never explored. Between the La- escaping from Kamtschatka, together gos and Cross rivers, the number of rivers with several other conspirators. Aphaflowing into the gulf of Guinea is said to nasia discovered his design, but did exceed 20, some of them very broad and not forsake him. On the contrary, she deep. This tract, called the Delta of Be warned him when it was resolved to senin, is about 260 miles in extent. The cure his person. Accompanied by Aphaaspect of the coast, and the great body of nasia, who remained invariably faithful water flowing into the gulf, have led to to him, though she had now learned that the supposition that the waters of the Ni- he was married, B., together with 96 ger here find an entrance into the ocean. other persons, left Kamtschatka in May, This region has been but little explored, 1771, and sailed to Formosa ; from thence and is little known. The country is low to Macao, where many of his companand flat, the soil on the banks of the riv- ions died, and among them the faithful ers very fertile, but the climate unhealthy. Aphanasia. At length he arrived in The inhabitants are of a mild disposition; France, where he was commissioned to polygamy is practised ; almost all labor is found a colony in Madagascar; an unperformed by females; the government is dertaking of which he foresaw the diffidespotic. Chief towns, Benin, Agatton, culties, especially as the success depended Bododa, Ozebo and Meiberg, which are on the assistance of the officers in the situated on the Formosa, the principal Isle of France, to whom he was referred river.

e for the greater part of his equipment. In Benin ; capital of the above kingdom, June, 1774, B. arrived in Madagascar, on the Formosa; lon. 5° 6 E; lat. 6° 12 established a settlement at Foul point, N. This town, according to some, is 18 and gained the good will of several tribes, miles in circuit, the largest street 3 miles who, in 1776, appointed him their amlong, and others nearly equal ; according pansacabe, or king; on which occasion to other statements, it is only 4 miles in the women also swore allegiance to his circuit. The streets are filled with vari- wife. Afterwards, he went to Europe, ous articles of merchandise, and present with the design of obtaining for the nathe appearance of a crowded market, tion a powerful ally and some commerthough always clean. The houses are cial advantages. But, on his arrival in large, and, though their walls are of clay, France, he was compelled, by the persethe reeds and leaves, with which they are cutions of the French ministry, to enter covered, give them a pleasing appearance into the Austrian service, in which he The king's palace consists of a great commanded against the Prussians in the number of square enclosures.

battle of Habelschwerdt, 1778. In 1783, BENJOWSKY, Maurice Augustum count he made an attempt in England to fit out of, a man of indefatigable activity and an expedition to Madagascar. He reextraordinary adventures, born in 1741, ceived assistance from private persons in at Werbowa, in Hungary, where his fa- London, and particularly from a commerther was a general in the Austrian army, cial house at Baltimore, in America. In

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