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her reign; and her anxiety to enlighten Edward VI ; but this connexion proved her subjects ceased when she began to unhappy, and involved her in troubles entertain the idea that the French rev- and difficulties. She died in child-bed in olution had been brought about by the 1548, not without suspicion of poison. progress of civilization. Laws, colonies, She was a zealous promoter of the reforschools, manufactures, hospitals, canals, mation. Among her papers, after her towns, fortifications, every thing was com- death, was found a composition, entitled menced, but frequently left unfinished for Queen Catharine Parr's Lamentations of want of means. She issued no paper a Sinner, bewailing the Ignorance of her money. Several letters, and other com- blind Life; a contrite meditation on the positions by her, in the French and Rus- years she had passed in Catholic fasts and sian languages, have been published. A pilgrimages. It was published, with a statue of Catharine, of white marble, in a preface, by the great lord Burleigh, in sitting posture, was executed by professor 1548. In her lifetime, she published a volGöthe, at Stockholm, in 1825. The man- ume of “Prayers or Meditations, wherein ners of the Russian court, in her time, are the Mind is stirred patiently to suffer all set forth in the diary of Krapomisky (St. Afflictions here, and to set at nought the Petersburg, 1826). Krapomisky was her vaine Prosperitie of this Worlde, and also private secretary for 10 years. Among to long for the everlasting Felicitee.” Maseveral histories of her life are Tooke's ny of her letters have also been printed. Life of Catharine II (3 vols.), and Cas- CATHARINE PAWLOWNA, queen of tera's Histoire de Catharine II (3 vols.). Würtemburg, grand-princess of Russia;

CATHARINE PARR, sixth and last wife born May 21, 1788; younger sister of the of Henry VIII, was the eldest daughter emperor Alexander, and widow of George, of sir Thomas Parr of Kendal, and was, prince of Holstein-Oldenburg, whom she at an early age, distinguished for her married in 1809, and thus got rid of a learning and good sense. She was first proposal of marriage made her by Napomarried to Edward Burghe, and secondly leon. George died in Russia, December, to John Neville, lord Latimer, and, after 1812. Her two sons, by this marriage, his death, attracted the notice of Henry born in 1810 and 1812, are still living, VIII, whose queen she became in 1543. She was distinguished alike for beauty, Her zealous encouragement of the reform- talents and resolution, and exhibited the ed religion excited the anger and jealousy tenderest affection for her brother Alexof Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, the ander. After 1812, she was frequently chancellor Wriothesley, and others of the his companion in the campaigns in GerCatholic faction, who conspired to ruin her many and France, as well as during his with the king. Taking advantage of one residence at London and Vienna, and of his moments of irritation, they accused evidently had an important influence on her of heresy and treason, and prevailed several of his measures. It is said that upon the king to sign a warrant for her she effected, in 1814, the marriage of the committal to the Tower. This being ac- prince of Orange with her younger sister. cidentally discovered to her, she repaired In 1813, William, crown-prince of Württo the king, who purposely turned the emburg, in Germany, formed an acquainconversation to religious subjects, and be- tance with her, and, in 1814, saw her again gan to sound her opinions. Aware of his in Paris. They were married Jan. 24, 1816, purpose, she humbly replied, “that on at Petersburg; and, after the death of his such topics she always, as became her father, in October, 1816, he ascended sex and station, referred herself to the with her the throne of Würtemburg.wisdom of his majesty, as he, under God, She was a generous benefactor to her was her only supreme head and governor subjects in the famine of 1816. She here on earth.” “Not so, by St. Mary, formed the female associations existing Kate," replied Henry; "you are, as we throughout the country, and established take it, become a doctor, to instruct, and an agricultural society. She labored to plot to be instructed by us." Catharine promote the education of her people, and judiciously replied, that she only objected founded valuable institutions for the poor in order to be benefited by his superior (particularly a school for educating and learning and knowledge. “Is it so, sweet- employing poor children), a school for heart ?" said the king; " and tended your the females of the higher classes, and arguments to no worse end? Then are savings banks for the lower classes, after we perfect friends again.” After the the example of the English savings banks. death of the king, she espoused the lord Indeed, she interfered, often arbitrarily, admiral sir Thomas Seymour, uncle to in the internal economy of the state, and

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chiefly imitated the institutions of Eng- 4th to the 13th Century ; drawn and land. For the fine arts she had but little published by J. G. Gutensohn and J. M. taste. She died Jan. 9, 1819, leaving two Knapp (architects); accompanied by an daughters.

Archæol. Histor. Description, by Anth. CAT-HARPINGS; small ropes in a ship, Nibby, professor of Archæology in the running in little blocks, from one side of University at Rome; a numbers, each the shrouds to the other, near the deck. containing 7 plates. There is now in the Their use is to force the main shrouds course of publication at Milan, a splendid tight, for the ease and safety of the masts work, entitled Chiese principali d'Europit, when the ship rolls.

which will extend to 36 numbers; each CATHEDRAL; the Episcopal church of of them being devoted to one particular a diocese. The word is derived from the edifice. From the numbers already pubGreek kabédpa, a seat or bench. From the lished, we extract the subsequent measearly times of the Christian church, the urements of celebrated buildings. bishop presided in the presbytery, or the

St. Peter's, at Rome. assembly of priests. He was seated on a

English feet. chair, a little higher than that of the Width of the cathedral, ...... 233 others. The whole meeting of priests External diameter of the cupola, . 158 was called cathedra; and, at a later pe Total height, ............. 448 riod, when Christians were allowed to

Cathedral at Milan. build churches, this name was applied to

Feet. the Episcopal churches, and the name Width of the front, ..... 216 basilica to the particular churches erected Width of the cross, .,... in honor of a saint or a martyr. In the

Total height, ........ middle ages, the cathedral received the form of the cross. Several of the old

Pantheon at Rome.

Pieds*. churches are masterpieces of Gothic architecture. Among these are the cathe

Length of the portico, ....... 103

Width of do.............. 61 dral at Oviedo, that at Milan (see Storia e Descrizione del Duomo di Milano (com

Interior diameter, .......... 132

Height from the pavement to the menced in 1387, and not yet finished), by Gaet. Franchetti, with engravings, Milan,

summit of the cupola, ...... 132 1821, 4to.); those at Toledo and Burgos;

St. Stephen's, at Vienna. those at Rouen, Rheims, Amiens, and the

Feet. church of Notre-Darne, in Paris (see Ca Width of the façade, ........ 148 thédrales Françaises, dessinées, lithogr. et Great tower, from the ground to publ. par Chapuy, avec un Atlas historique the top of the cross, ....... 450 et descriptif, par Jolimont, 36 numbers, Greatest breadth between the two Paris, 1823 et seq. It contains views of chief towers, ............ 25 cathedrals). Those at Lund, Dron

Santa Maria del More, Florence. theim, Upsal, at York, Salisbury and

Feet. Canterbury, also Westminster abbey, are Whole length, ............ 517 celebrated (see J. Britton's Hist. and An- Total height, ............. 386 tiquities of the Metropolitan Church of CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION. Emancia Canterbury, London, 1823, with engrav- pation, with the Romans, signified the ings; and Cathedratical Antiquities, by the release of a son from the power of his same author). The cathedrals at Oppen- father, or of a slave from that of his mas. heim, Ulm, Marburg, Meissen, Freiburg ter. It was performed before the pretor

q. v.) in the Brisgau, are fine buildings (see attended by certain solernities. By the doctor Moller's Denkmale der Deutschen emancipation of the Catholics is underBaukunst, Darmstadt, 1825 ; and F. W. stood the abolition of those civil and Schwechten's Der Dom zu Meissen, bildl. ecclesiastical restraints, to which the dargest. U. beschr., Berlin, 1826, 3 nos.). Catholics of Great Britain, and particuRespecting the cathedral of Cologne, see larly of Ireland, were once subiected. Boisserée. (For further information, see Ireland, from the time of its subjugation Wiebeking's work Die Kathedralen von was maltreated by its conquerors; and Rheims und York, nebst den Grundrissen repeated attempts, on the part of the ne von 42 andern merkwürdigen Kirchen, tives, to free themselves from foreign Münich, 1825, fol., with engravings.) In doinination, only increased the severity Rome there has appeared, since 1822,

bilan * The measurements of this edifice are given in the Collection of the oldest Christian feet; but they are neither Roman nor the Parisian. Churches, or Basilicas, of Rome, from the nor any other feet we are acquainted with.


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of their rulers. (See Orangemen.) The sistent, jealousy and distrust would conCatholic inhabitants of the country were tinue. The Anglo-Irish, also, who had excluded from public offices, and from all previously desired the independence of participation in the choice of members of Ireland, and, at first, supported the reparliament. None but the Anglo-Irish, bellion, perceived that the superior numbelonging to the Episcopal church, which bers of the Catholics, and their bitter had now become the established church enmity to the Protestants, would make in Irelandmen who possessed the great- the separation of Ireland from England a est part of the landed property, that had great misfortune for them. It was rebeen torn from the original inhabitants- solved, then, to unite Ireland with Engwere eligible to public offices, or to a seat land; and, three years after the last re in parliament. In this oppressed condi- bellion, the union was effected, and the tion the Irish Catholics remained till united parliament was opened Jany. 22, 1793. But when the principles dissemi- 1801. În regard to ecclesiastical affairs, nated at the time of the French revolu- nothing further was provided in the act tion produced a general fermentation, of union, than that the Episcopal church which extended to the Irish Catholics, a in Ireland should remain the established lively desire was awakened in them to church, and should constitute, with the obtain equal rights with their Protestant English, one church. Respecting the fellow-citizens. They were supported in condition of the Catholics nothing was England itself by a very respectable party. done, and Pitt observed that it would be Burke repeatedly spoke in parliament in well to reserve this business for future favor of their emancipation. In 1792, deliberation. The united parliament had they presented a petition, praying for the been in session but a few days, when reabolition of all the restrictions to which ports were spread, which cast a dark they had kitherto been subjected. Upon shade over the union, and gave occasion this, a recommendation was addressed for much anxiety. The Catholics in Irefrom the throne to the Irish parliament, land, it was said, complained of the nonto contrive means for the melioration of fulfilment of expectations which had been the condition of the Catholics. Accord- held out to them, to make them favorable ingly, the Irish act, so called, was passed to the union. Full emancipation had in 1793, which conferred the elective been promised them, as a certain consefranchise on the Catholics, threw open to quence of it. Pitt, the author of the them all employments in the army in union, had pledged himself, with his colIreland, and all offices in the navy. Three leagues, to promote the fulfilment of this offices in the army only were excepted wish of the Catholics. After the union those of the commander-in-chief, master- was completed, invincible obstructions general of the ordnance, and generals on were found in the way of the accomplishthe staff. They continued to be excluded, ment of their promise. Pitt and his colhowever, from 30 public offices, and from leagues had encouraged these hopes with parliament-an arrangement which could the expectation of being able to fulfil not be changed without a repeal of the them. For this reason, they endeavored, corporation and test acts. (q. v.) A part after the union was completed, to obtain of the Irish Catholics were satisfied with an act of parliament, by which admission the concessions. Another party, however, to parliament and to offices of state, from encouraged by a few noblemen, who had which the Catholics were still excluded, entered into connexion with France, should be made possible for a certain cherished the hope that Ireland would number of them, by dispensing with the succeed, with the help of France, in free- test-oath. But the king set himself against ing itself from the British power. An this measure, as being inconsistent with insurrection speedily. broke out, which his coronation-oath. Pitt and his colwas quelled by the severity of the gov- leagues, therefore, in 1801, resigned their ernor, lord Camden. It blazed forth places. Pitt foresaw that, if both houses again, however, in 1798, and Ireland be- agreed to this measure, the king would came the theatre of a new civil war. By still withhold his permission; and thus the this rebellion, judicious men, both in discontent of the Catholics would be diEngland and Ireland, were convinced rected against the person of the king that, as long as the two kingdoms had himself. This, like a wise statesman, he separate legislatures, and that of the wished by all means to avert; and, on weaker was dependent on that of the this ground, in 1805, he spoke against stronger, and the inhabitants of the two the emancipation, when the opposition kingdoms thought their interests incon- proposed anew to grant the Catholic a

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seat and a voice in parliament, and ad- Hippesley and doctor Duigenan, drew forth missibility to all offices of state. During majorities against the Catholics of 40, 48 late years, the petition for complete and 42, and, on the 24th of May, the bill emancipation has been several times re- was given up. In 1821, Mr. Plunkett carnewed in vain. In 1822, on the motion ried the bill through the house of comof Mr. Canning, a bill was passed, in the mons by a majority of 19; but it was lost house of commons, by a majority of 21 in the lords by a majority of 39. In 1822, voices, enabling Roman Catholic peers to Mr. Canning carried it, in the commons, sit in parliament; but, in the house of by a majority of 21 ; but it was thrown lords, the bill was rejected. The same out, in the lords, by a majority of 42. In happened in 1825, when the duke of 1825, sir Francis Burdett carried it, in the York, who died in 1827, solemnly op- commons, by a majority of 27; but it was posed it. In 1827, under Canning's ad- again thrown out, in the lords, by a maministration, the motion for emancipation jority of 48. In 1827, sir Francis Burwas lost, in the house of commons, by dett's motion for a committee was lost, in a'majority of 3. The measure has, at the commons, by a majority of 3. In last, been effected, under the administra- 1828, the motion for a conference with tion of the duke of Wellington. The the lords was carried, in the commons, by disturbances in Ireland were assuming a majority of 6; but thrown out, in the continually a more organized character, lords, by a majority of 45. And, in 1829 under the influence of the Catholic asso- (April 10), a relief bill, abolishing the civil ciation, which was spread through the disabilities on Roman Catholics, by recountry, and directed by men of great pealing the oaths of supremacy, &c., abilities--such as O'Connell and Shiels was carried through the commons by

supp: It the cause of emancipation. He second reading, and 178 on the third ; said tlit he had to choose between con- and through the lords, by the duke of cession to the Catholics and civil war. Wellington, with a majority of 105 on Mr. Peel, who had formerly spoken warm- the second reading, and 104 on the ly against einancipation, now moved it in third. By this bill, Catholics are eligible the house of commons. One of the chief to all offices of state, excepting the lordopposers of the measure was lord Eldon, chancellorships of England and Ireland, the former lord chancellor; one of the the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland, the office royal family--the duke of Cumberland of regent or guardian of the United Kingalso took part with the opponents. The dom, and that of high commissioner to emancipation of the Catholics is so intér- the church of Scotland. They are still esting an event, that the following abstract excluded from the right of presentation to of the fate of various motions respecting livings, and all places connected with the it may not be unacceptable to our readers. ecclesiastical courts and establishment. In the year 1805, a majority of 129 in the The church patronage attached to any house of lords, and of 212 in the house office in the hands of a Catholic is to be of commons, refused to act on the peti- vested in the archbishop of Canterbury. tion vi the Catholics, moved severally by Attached to the bill is a clause for the lord Grenville and Mr. Fox. In 1807, gradual suppression of the Jesuits and lord Grenville withdrew his motion in monastic orders (religious establishments favor of emancipation, it being under- of females excepted). At the same time, stood that his majesty was averse to it. the duke carried a disfranchisement bill, In 1808, Mr. Grattan's motion was reject- by which the 40 shilling freeholders of ed, in the house of commons, by a major- Ireland were disfranchised, and the inity of 153, and lord Donoughmore's, in come of real estate necessary to entitle to the house of lords, by a majority of 87. a vote in elections in that country raised In 1810, a motion to the same effect, by to £10 sterling. There has lately been the same members, was again lost, by a published a History of the late Catholic majority of 112 in the commons, and 86 Association of Ireland, from its Instituin the lords. In 1812, there was a ma- tion, in 1760, to its final Dissolution in jority of 72 in the lords, and 85 in the 1829; by Thomas Wyse, junior, Esq., one commons, against the movers. Mr. Can- of the members of that body ; 2 vols. 8vo., ning's motion was lost, in the same year, London, 1829, Colburn. by a majority of 129 in the commons, CATHOLIC MAJESTY ; a title which pope and that of the marquis of Wellesley, by Alexander VI gave to the kings of Spain, a majority of 113 in the lords. In 1813, in memory of the perfect expulsion of the he motions of Mr. Grattan, sir John Cox Moors out of Spain, in 1491, by Ferdi


nand of Arragon. But ever core that Toledo, in 589, several Spanish kings had time and especially after the council at borne this title.

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