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October, 1784, he set out, leaving his Tilsit, he retired to his estates. In 1813, wife in America, and landed in Madagas he led a Russian army, called the army of car, 1785. Having there commenced Poland, into Saxony, took part in the hostilities against the French, the author- battle of Leipsic, and blockaded Hamities in the Isle of France sent troops burg. After commanding the army in against him. In an action which took the south of Russia, he finally settled place May 23, 1786, he was mortally in his native country, and died Oct. 3, wounded in the breast by a ball. B. 1826. He is the author of Thoughts on wrote an account of the events of his life certain Points requisite for an Officer of in French. William Nicholson has pub- Light Cavalry to be acquainted with (Rilished an English translation of it, made ga, 1794; Wilna, 1805). from the manuscript. His widow died at BENNINGTON; a post-town in a county her estate Vieska, near Betzko, Dec. 4, of the same name, in Vermont, watered 1825. Benjowsky's only son is said to have by a branch of the Hoosack; 37 miles been devoured by rats in Madagascar. N. E. Albany, 68 S. W. Windsor, 115 S.
BEN-LAWERS; a mountain of Scotland, by W. Montpelier, 132 W.N.W. Boston. in the county of Perth, 4015 feet above Lon. 73° W., lat. 420 42 N. Population the level of the sea; 11 miles S. George- in 1810, 2524; in 1820, 2485. It borders town.
on New York, is situated in a good farmBEN-LODI; a mountain of Scotland, in ing country, and is a place of consideraPerthshire, 3009 feet above the sea; 4 ble trade and manufactures. The courts miles S. W. Callander.
for the county are held alternately at BenBEN-LOMOND ; a mountain of Scotland, nington and Manchester. On mount Anin Stirlingshire, 3240 feet above the sea; thony, in this town, there is a cave con26 miles W. Stirling.
taining many beautiful petrifactions.BEN-MACDUIE; a mountain of Scot- Two famous battles were fought here, on land, on the western confines of Aber- the 16th of August, 1777, in which gendeenshire, 4300 feet high. It is the sec- eral Stark, at the head of 1600 American ond highest mountain in Great Britain. militia, gained a distinguished victory
BEN-MORE; a mountain of Scotland, over the British. in the island of Mull, 3097 feet above the B ENNO, St., of the family of the counts of · evel of the sea.
Woldenberg, born at Hildesheim, in 1010, BEN-MORE; a mountain of Scotland, became (1028) a Benedictine monk, in the in Perthshire, 3903 feet above the level of convent of St. Michael there. Henry IV the sea ; 20 miles W. Crief.
(1066) made him bishop of Misnia, and BEN-NEVIS; a mountain of Scotland, favored him by repeated donations of in the county of Dumbarton, the highest estates for his church. Nevertheless, B. in the island of Great Britain. It rises took a secret part in the conspiracy of the 4370 feet above the level of the sea. A Saxon nobles against the emperor, for great portion of this mountain consists of which reason Henry led him away prisporphyry of different shades, and beauti- oner, when he passed Misnia, in 1075, ful red granite. It also contains a vein after the battle on the Unstrut. He was of lead ore, richly impregnated with sil- afterwards set at liberty, but several times ver. The summit is generally covered proved faithless to the emperor. He died with snow.
1107. His bones began by degrees to BENNINGSEN, Levin Augustus, baron work miracles; and pope Adrian VI, after of, Russian commander-in-chief, born at many entreaties from the Saxons, as well Banteln, in Hanover, 1745, early entered as from the emperor Charles V, and hayinto the Russian service, and distinguish- ing received large sums of money, placed ed himself by great gallantry in the war him among the saints, 1523. It was against Poland, under the empress Cath- thought that this canonization would tend arine II. He acted a chief part in the to the promotion of the Catholic faith in conspiracy of the palace against the em- Saxony. . At present, the bones of St. peror Paul I. In 1806, he was appointed Benno are in the city of Munich, which to command the Russian army which has chosen him for its patron. hastened to the assistance of the Prus- BENSERADE, Isaac de, a poet at the sians; but, before his arrival, the Prussians court of Louis XIV, born, 1612, at Lyonswere defeated at Jena. He afterwards la-Forêt, a small town in Normandy, fought the murderous battle of Eylau wrote for the stage, and composed a great (next to that of Mojaisk, perhaps, the number of ingenious verses for the king most bloody in military history), and the and many distinguished persons at court. Lattle of Friedland. After the peace of In the first half of the reign of Louis X1
the court, and the followers of the court, tesquieu's proposition, that judicial forms patronised songs of gallantry, rondeaux, are the defence of innocence. His latest triolets, madrigals and sonnets, containing work is the Art of Packing (London, sallies of wit, conceits and effusions of 1821); that is, of arranging juries so as to gallantry, in the affected style then prev- obtain any verdict desired. His previous alent. No one succeeded so well in this work, Essai sur la Tactique des Assenart as B., who was therefore called, by blées législatives, edited, from the author's way of eminence, le poète de la cour. He papers, by Etienne Dumont Geneva, received many pensions for his perform- 1815), and translated into German, conances, and lived at great expense. Wea- tains many useful observations. His Inried, at last, with the life which he led at troduction to the Principles of Morals and court, he retired to his country-seat, Gen- Legislation (London, 1823, 2 vols.) treats tilly, and died 1691.
of the principal objects of government in a BENSLEY, Thomas; a printer in Fleet profound and comprehensive manner. Zastreet, London. He and Bulmer are nobelli has translated Bentham's Theory among the first typographical artists in of Legal Evidence into Italian (Bergamo, England. He distinguished himself first 1824, 2 vols.). Among the earlier works by the edition which he printed of the of B. was his Defence of Usury, showing English translation of Lavater's Physiog- the Impolicy of the present legal Renomy, London, 1789, 5 vols., 4to. The straints on the Terms of pecuniary Barmost beautiful productions of his press gains (1787). are Macklin's splendid edition of the Eng- BENTIVOGLIO, Cornelio; cardinal and lish translation of the Bible (1800—15,7 poet, born at Ferrara, 1668, of a family vols., folio), and that of Hume's History of that held the highest offices in the former England (1806, 10 vols., folio), both adorn- republic of Bologna. He early distined with excellent copper-plates. Among guished himself by his progress in the his impressions of a smaller size, the edi- fine arts, literature, philosophy, theology tions of Shakspeare (1803, 7 vols.), and and jurisprudence. While at Ferrara, he Hume (1803, 10 vols.), with masterly en patronised the literary institutions there. gravings on wood, are distinguished. He Pope Clement XI made him his domeshas also furnished several well-executed tic prelate and secretary to the apostolic impressions on parchment, and first used chamber, and sent him, in 1712, as nuncio the printing-press invented by Koenig to Paris, where, during the last years of and Bauer, for Elliotson's English trans- the reign of Louis XIV, he acted an imlation of Blumenbach's Physiology (Lon- portant part in the affair of the bull Unidon, 1818).
genitus. The duke of Orleans, regent BENTHAM, Jeremy, an English lawyer, after the death of Louis, was not favoraborn in 1749, never appeared at the bar, bly disposed towards him; the pope, nor has he published his chief works him- therefore, transferred him to Ferrara, and, self. They have been arranged and trans- in 1719, bestowed on him the hat of a lated into French by his friend M. Du- cardinal, and employed hiin at first in mont, and printed partly in Paris and Rome, near his own person, then as legate partly in London. Among them are a latere in Romagna, &c. B. died in Traités de Législation, civile et pénale, Rome, 1732. Poetry had occupied the &c. (Paris, 1802, 3 vols.), and Théorie des leisure hours of the learned cardinal. Peines et des Récompenses (London, 1801, Some sonnets composed by him are to be 2 vols.). B. is a friend of reform in par- found in Gobbi's collection, vol. 3, and in liament, and of a thorough correction of other collections of his time. Under the civil and criminal legislation. His Frag- name of Selvaggio Porpora, he translated ments on Government, in opposition to the Thebais of Statius into Italian, He Blackstone, appeared anonymously in delivered several addresses before socie1776, and with his name, London, 1823. ties for the promotion of the fine arts. In France, his literary labors found a His discourse in defence of the utility hetter reception than in England or Ger- and moral influence of painting, sculpture many. A small pamphlet on the liberty and architecture, delivered in the academy of the press (London, 1821) was addressed of design, at Rome, 1707, was reprinted by him to the Spanish cortes, during their by the academy of the Arcadians, in the discussion of this subject; and, in another 2d vol. of the Prose degli Arcadi.
Three Tracts relative to the Spanish and BENTIVOGLIO, Guy or Guido, celebrated Portuguese Affairs, London, 1821), he as a cardinal and a historian, was born at refuted the idea of the necessity of a Ferrara, in 1579. He studied at Padua house of peers in Spain, as well as Mon with great reputation, and afterwards, fix60
ing his residence at Rome, acquired gen- the sanguine anticipations of classical eral esteem by his prudence and integrity. scholars from the future labors of the He was nuncio in Flanders from 1607 to author. Doctor Stillingfleet, having been 1616, and'afterwards in France till 1621. raised to the bishopric of Worcester, made His character stood so high, that, on the B. bis chaplain, and, in 1692, collated him death of Urban VIII, in 1644, he was to a prebend in his cathedral. The recgenerally thought to be the most likely ommendation of his patron and of bishop person to succeed him; but, on entering Lloyd procured him the honor of being the conclave, in the hottest and most un- chosen the first preacher of the lecture healthy season of the year, he was seized instituted by the celebrated Robert Boyle with a fever, of which he died, aged 65 for the defence of Christianity. The disyears. He had lived in a magnificent courses against atheism, which he delivstyle, and was much embarrassed at the ered on this occasion, were published in time of his death-a circumstance attrib- 1694: they have since been often reprintuted to his canvass for the papacy. Car- ed, and translated into several foreign dinal B. was an able politician, and his languages. In 1693, he was appointed historical memoirs are such as we should keeper of the royal library at St. James's expect from such a man. The most valu- --a circumstance which incidentally led able of these are his History of the Civil to his famous controversy with the hon. Wars in Flanders, written in Italian, and Charles Boyle, afterwards earl of Orrery, first published at Cologne, 1630, a trans- relative to the genuineness of the Greek lation of which, by Henry earl of Mon- Epistles of Phalaris, an edition of which mouth, appeared in 1654 (London, folio); was published by the latter, then a stuan Account of Flanders, during his lega- dent at Christ-church, Oxford. In this tion, also translated by the earl of Mon- dispute, Bentley was completely victomouth (folio, 1652); his own Memoirs; rious, though opposed by the greatest and a collection of letters, which are reck- wits and critics of the age, including Pope, oned among the best specimens of epis- Swift, Garth, Atterbury, Aldrich, Dodwell, tolary writing in the Italian language (an and Conyers Middleton, who advocated edition of which was published at Cam- the opinion of Boyle with a degree of bridge, in 1727). All these, except the warmth and illiberality which appears Memoirs, have been published together at very extraordinary. But the motives of Paris, 1645-1648, folio, and at Venice, B.'s assailants were various. Swift, in his 1668, 4to.
Battle of the Books, took up the cudgels BENTLEY, Richard, a celebrated Eng- against him in defence of his friend sir lish divine and classical scholar, distin- William Temple; doctor Garth attacked guished as a polemical writer, in the lat- him probably from mere wantonness, in ter part of the 17th century, was born in the well-known couplet in his Dispen1662. His father is said to have been a saryblacksmith. To his mother, who was a So diamonds owe a lustre to their foil, woman of strong natural abilities, he was And to a Bentley 'tis we owe a Boyle. indebted for the first rudiments of his Some were actuated by personal consideducation. At the age of 14, he entered erations, among whom was Conyers MidSt. John's college, Cambridge. In 1682, dleton, whose persevering hostility to B., he left the university, and became usher during a long series of years, seems to of a school at Spalding; and this situation have originated from the latter having he relinquished, in the following year, for applied to the former, when a young stuthat of tutor to the son of doctor Stilling- dent in the university, the contemptuous fleet, dean of St. Paul's. He accompanied epithet of fiddling Conyers, because he his pupil to Oxford, where he availed played on the violin. It does not appear himself of the literary treasures of the who was the author of a punning caricaBodleian library, in the prosecution of his ture, which was produced on this occasion, studies. In 1684, he took the degree of representing B. about to be thrust into the A.M. at Cambridge, and, in 1689, obtained brazen bull of Phalaris, and exclaiming, the same honor at the sister university. “I had rather be roasted than Boyled." His first published work was a Latin In 1699, B., who had three years before epistle to doctor John Mill, in an edition been created D. D., published his Disserof the Chronicle of John Malela, which tation on the Epistles of Phalaris, in appeared in 1691. It contained observa- which he satisfactorily proved that they tions on the writings of that Greek histo- were not the compositions of the tyrant of rian, and displayed so much profound Agrigentum, who lived more than five learning and critical acumen, as excited centuries before the Christian era, bu
BENTLEY-BENZOIC ACID. were written by some sophist, under the ton's Paradise Lost, with conjectural borrowed name of Phalaris, in the declin- emendations, which appeared in 1732. ing age of Greek literature. Soon after This added nothing to his reputation, and this publication, doctor B. was presented may, in one word, be characterized a failby the crown to the mastership of Trinity ure. He died at the master's lodge at college, Cambridge, worth nearly £1000 Trinity, July 14, 1742, and was interred a year. He now resigned the prebend of in the college chapel. As a scholar and Worcester, and, in 1701, was collated to a critic, B. was very distinguished. The the archdeaconry of Ely. His conduct as best informed of his opponents respected head of the college gave rise to accu- his talents, while they were loading him sations against him from the vice-master with classical abuse, which he did not fail and some of the fellows, who, among to return with interest. Now that the prejvarious offences, charged him with em- udices, excited apparently by his personal bezzling the college money. The con- conduct, have subsided, his preëminence test was much protracted, and occasioned in that species of literature which he cula lawsuit, which was decided in the doc- tivated, is universally acknowledged. The tor's favor, about twenty years after. In celebrated German philologist J. A. Wolf 1711, he published an edition of Horace, wrote an excellent biography of B. in the at Cambridge, in 4to., which was reprint- Analecta, (vol. 1, Berlin.) ed at Amsterdam; and, in 1713, appeared BENZEL-STEPNAU, Charles Christian, his remarks on Collins's Discourse on count, born at Mentz, 1750, was, in 1812, Free-thinking, under the form of a Letter president of the ministry for the departto F. H. [Francis Hare) D.D., by Phile- ment of the interior in the former grandleutherus Lipsiensis. He was appointed duchy of Frankfort, and now lives in the regius professor of divinity in 1716, and, neighborhood of Hanau. He is one of in the same year, issued proposals for a the most humorous writers of our time, new edition of the Greek Testament-an and, in the character of his writings, undertaking for which he was admirably resembles J. Paul Richter. His fame was qualified, but which he was prevented from established by the Golden Calf (a biograexecuting, in consequence of the animad- phy, 1802-1804, 4 vols. in the first ediversions of his determined adversary, Mid- tion). B. has written much, and all his dleton. In 1717, George I, visiting the uni- productions display wit, richness of imversity, nominated by mandate, as is usual agery, and nice observation of character. on such occasions, several persons for the BENZENBERG, John Frederic, born, doctor's degree in divinity. It was the May 5, 1777, at Schöller, a village between duty of B., as professor, to perform the Elberfeld and Düsseldorf, studied theoloceremony called creation; previous to gy in Marburg, and, in Göttingen, mathewhich he made a demand of four guineas matics and natural philosophy. He renfrom each candidate beyond the usual dered much service to the latter science, fees, absolutely refusing to create any doc- by his observations on the fall of bodies, tor without payment. Some submitted; and the motion of the earth, which he but others, among whom was Middleton, began by experiments in the steeple of withstood the demand, and commenced a the church of St. Michael, in Hamburg, prosecution against the professor before and continued in the shaft of a mine, in the vice-chancellor, who, deciding in favor the county of Mark, having a depth of of the complainants, first suspended B., 266 feet. He was appointed, in 1805, and subsequently degraded him from his professor of astronomy and natural phihonors, rights and offices in the univer- losophy, by the then elector of Bavaria, sity. These proceedings were, after con- in Düsseldorf. At a later period, he has siderable litigation, annulled by the court written much in favor of the Prussian of king's bench; and the doctor, in 1728, government; but the influence of his was restored to all his former honors and political pieces has not been so great as emoluments. In 1726, he published an that of his scientific observations aboveedition of Terence and Phædrus; and mentioned. B. lives now retired, near his notes on the comedies of the former Crefeld, in the neighborhood of the involved him in a dispute with bishop Rhine. Hare, on the metres of Terence, which BENZOIC ACID is obtained by the appliprovoked the sarcastic observation of sir cation of a moderate heat to the balsam Isaac Newton, that “two dignified clergy- of Peru: it rises in vapor, and condenses men, instead of minding their duty, had in slender prisms, which are white and fallen out about a play-book.” The last brilliant. It has a peculiar aromatic odor. work of doctor B. was an edition of Mil. When heated on burning fuel, it inflames
and burns with a clear yellow light. It 1822, he was condemned to imprisonment unites with alkalies and earths, forming for 13 months, and deprived of a small salts called benzoates, which are unimpor- office in the royal university. This protant, except the benzoate of iron, which, cess increased his reputation. The last from its insolubility, affords a conven- edition of the Chansons de P. J. de Béient means of separating iron from its solu- ranger, (1 vol., Paris, 1829, 24mo.,) contions, so as to ascertain its quantity, and tains the happiest specimens of wit, also of obtaining it free from manganese, humor, gayety, satire, and flashes of which forms with the acid a soluble salt. sublime poetry, which place him by the (See Benzoin.)
side of the most distinguished chansonBENZOIN is a solid, fragile, vegetable niers of France Blot, Collé and Panard. substance, of a reddish-brown color. In B. ascends with singular ease from the commerce, two varieties are distinguish- lower sphere of poetry to a high and ed, viz. the common and the amyg- noble enthusiasm, and the rapidity of the daloidal ; the latter containing whitish transition produces a striking effect. We tears, of an almond shape, diffused would refer the reader to his beautiful through its substance. It is imported verses entitled Mon Ame. He was never from Sumatra, Siam and Java, and is a flatterer of Napoleon when money or found, also, in South America. Benzoin titles were to be gained by flattery, and is obtained from the tree called styrax has never reviled him since reviling has benzoin, and perhaps from some others. been a means of rising. He is a truly On making incisions into the bark, it national poet, and Benjamin Constant flows out in the form of a balsamic juice, has said of him, Béranger fait des odes having a pungent taste, and an agreeable sublimes, quand il ne croit faire que de odor. The pure balsam consists of two simples chansons (Béranger makes subprincipal substances, viz. a resin, and a lime odes, when he thinks he is making peculiar acid termed benzoic (q.v.), which simple songs). Dec. 11, 1828, B. was is procured from the mass by sublimation. sentenced, by the court of correctional It is soluble in water. This acid is found, police, to pay 10,000 francs (about 1800 also, as a constituent principle in storax dollars), and to undergo nine months' imand the balsams of Tolu and Peru: itexists prisonment, for having attacked the digin the urine of cows, camels, and even of nity of the church, and of the king in his young children. It is sometimes found poems the Guardian Angel, Coronation in a crystalline form on the pods of the of Charles the Simple, and Gerontocracy. vanilla. Benzoin is not soluble in water, His songs are at once a storehouse of but is readily dissolved in alcohol, by the gayety and satire, and a record of the aid of a gentle heat. The tincture thus history of his time; and happy is that made is used in pharmacy. A small nation which can boast of so excellent quantity of this tincture, dropped into and national a poet. He often sings of water, forms a white, milky fluid, which wine, and we recollect no other great is used in France as a cosmetic, under modern, poet who has written a series of the name of lait virginal. The gum is a songs on this subject, except Göthe, in principal ingredient of the common court his Buch des Schenken, one of the 12 plaster. The acid, as well as the gum, is books of the Westöstlicher Divan. The employed in medicine: they are stimu- difference between them is striking. lating, and act more particularly upon Göthe mixes philosophical reflections the pulmonary system; whence they are and praises of the liquor with a boldness used in asthma and chronic catarrh. which borders on temerity, while B. is
BÉRANGER, Pierre, Jean de ; a lyric gay almost to extravagance. We doubt poet, of that class which, in modern lite- whether B.'s poems in translation would rature, is almost peculiar to the French, ever give a fair idea of the original, becalled chansonnier; born Aug. 19, 1780; cause their beauty consists, in a great educated by his grandfather, a poor tailor; measure, in the delicacy and pungency was destined for the printing business, of the expression, which could hardly be when his talents for poetry excited atten- transferred to another language. tion. Lucien Bonaparte became the pa- BERBERS; the name of a people spread tron of the amiable poet, who gave zest over nearly the whole of Northern Africa. to his social songs by allusions to the From their name the appellation of Barpolitics of the day. The imperial censors bary is derived. (See Barbary States.) spared him; the royal suppressed his They are considered the most ancient songs, which, for this reason, were read inhabitants of that country. Their difand sung with the greater eagerness. In ferent tribes are scattered over the whole