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space intervening between the shores of work Frauenreith, and the aqueducts the Atlantic and the confines of Egypt; which conduct the salt water to the works but the different branches of mount Atlas called Reichenhall. The rock-salt does are their principal abode ; while to the not appear here in large, solid masses, south they are bounded by the Negro but in small pieces mixed with clay States on the edge of the great Sahara, or Fresh water is let into the mines, and, Desert. For most of what we know of having been saturated with salt, is carried them, we are indebted to Leo Africanus into large reservoirs, from which, at the and the Arabian writers, whose state- works of Frauenreith, 130,000 cwt. of salt ments are corroborated by Hornemann are annually obtained. A large part of (9.v.) and captain Lyon, who have visited the water is conducted to Reichenhall. them in our own days. Much informa- At this place a large salt-spring was distion concerning them is yet wanted. covered in 1613, and, on account of a Where they live by themselves, and are deficiency in wood required in the prepanot spread among the Arabians and other ration of the salt, the water was conveyed, people of the Barbary states, they man- by means of an aqueduct, to Traunstein, ifest very little cultivation, warlike nom- 20 miles distant. Another aqueduct, 35 ades, without written laws,--and ex- miles long, from Reichenhall to Rosenhibit the chief traits which characterize heim, was completed in 1809, and, in all the African nations. They are ex- 1817, these were again brought into tremely abstinent. Their language is a communication with B. in a most admimatter of much curiosity for the philolo- rable way. The first machine, which gist. It has many points of resemblance raises the brine coming from B. 50 feet with the Teutonic languages. (See Ade- high, is near this place. From hence, it lung's Mithridates, vol. 3., 5th part, page runs in pipes 3500 feet, with a fall of 17 42 et seq., and the article, in volume 2, feet only, into the second reservoir. A new series, p. 438 et seq. of the Trans- hydraulic machine, invented by von actions of the American Philosophical So- Reichenbach, here lifts the salt water ciety.) We know, from trustworthy ac- 311 feet high, in iron pipes 934 feet long. counts, that Mr. Hodgson, attached to the The water then runs in pipes 7480 feet, American consulate-general at Algiers, with 37 feet fall, to a valley, over which has sent to an eminent scholar of the U. it is led in iron pipes, 1225 feet long, and, States communications concerning the after running 12,073 feet farther, it falls Berber language, which will add much into the third reservoir. Here is a second to the knowledge already possessed of hydraulic machine, which lifts the water that dialect. (For further information re- to a perpendicular height of 1218 feet, in specting the Berbers, see Lyon's Travels pipes 3506 feet long; and hence it flows, in Northern Africa, Langlé's translation in pipes 73,000 feet long, to Reichenhall. of Hornemann's Travels in Africa, and The pipes running from B. to Reichenalmost all the works which treat of the hall amount to 104,140 feet. From north of Africa.) It appears from the Reichenhall to Siegsdorf there is but one Berber language, that the first inhabitants aqueduct for the salt water intended for of the Canary islands were of the Berber Traunstein and Rosenheim, 94,800 feet race.

long. From Siegsdorf to Traunstein the BERBICE ; a district of Guiana, formerly brine flows without an aqueduct. In belonging to the Dutch, but ceded to Traunstein, 140,000 cwt. are annually Great Britain in 1814 ; watered by the produced. The other part of the brine river Berbice, the Canje, and others. It flows in pipes, 78,000 feet long, to Rosenextends from Abarry creek, on the west, heim, which produces annually. 180,000 to Courantine river on the east, along the cwt. of salt. The water required to work coast, about 150 miles. The towns are the numerous machines is brought from New Amsterdam, the capital, and Fort places many of which are 16—19,000 Nassau. The productions are sugar, rum, feet distant. cotton, coffee, cocoa and tobacco. The BERCHTOLD, Leopold, count, born in coast is marshy and the air damp. Popu- 1758, devoted his life to the relief of the lation, in 1815, 29,959; of whom 550 wretched. He spent 13 years in travelwere whites, 240 people of color, and ling through Europe, and 4 in travelling 25,169 slaves.

through Asia and Africa, to assuage huBERCHI ESGADEN ; a market-town in man misery. The results of his experithe Salzburg Alps, in the kingdom of Ba- ence are contained in his Essay to direct varia, with 3000 inhabitants, famous for and extend the Inquiries of patriotic the salt mines in its neighborhood, the salt- Travellers (London, 1789, 2 vols.) He

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wrote several pamphlets on the means of irritated against him to such a degree, reforming the police, which he caused to that he retired to the isle of St. Cosmas, be printed in different European coun- in the neighborhood of Tours, in the year tries, at his own expense, and to be dis- 1080, where he closed his life at a great tributed gratis. His prize-questions gave age, in pious exercises (1088). On the rise to many pamphlets and treatises on history of this controversy, which has the means of saying the drowned and the been very inuch misrepresented by the seemingly dead. He offered a prize of Benedictines, new light lias been shed by 1000 florins for the best treatise on be- Lessing, in his Berengar (1770), and by neficent institutions, and was himself the Staudlin, who has likewise published the founder of many. From 1795 to 97, he work of B. against Lanfranc. This B. travelled through Asiatic and European must not be confounded with Peter BeTurkey, chiefly for the purpose of coun- renger of Poitiers, who wrote a defence teracting the ravages of the plague. At of his instructer Abelard. a later period, he was engaged in making BERENHORST, Francis Leopold von ; vaccination more extensively known. one of the first of the writers by whom During the famine that raged in the Rie- the military art has been founded on clear sengebirge (Giant mountains), from 1805 and certain principles. He was a natural to 1806, he procured corn and other pro- son of prince Leopold of Dessau, and visions from distant regions. He fitted was born in 1733. In 1760, he became up the palace Buchlowitz on his estate the adjutant of Frederic II. After the Buchlau in Moravia, as an hospital for seven years' war, he lived at Dessau. He the sick and wounded Austrian soldiers. died in 1814. Here this patriot and philanthropist was B ERENICE (Greek, a bringer of victory). carried off by a contagious nervous fever, 1. This was the name of the wife of July 26, 1809.

Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus. BERCY; a village on the Seine, at its con- Her husband, when vanquished by Lufluence with the Marne, in the neighbor- cullus, caused her to be put to death hood of Paris. The Parisian wine-mer- (about the year 71 B. C.), lest she should chants have here their stores of wine, fall into the hands of his enemies. Mowine-vinegar, distilled liquors, &c.; so nima, his other wife, and his two sisters, that the intercourse between B. and the Roxana and Statira, experienced the same capital is extremely active. It is increased fate.-2. The wife of Herod, brother to also by several important tanneries, sugar- the great Agrippa, her father, at whose refineries and paper-mills. A large pal- request Herod was made king of Chalcis, ace, Le grand Bercy, was built by Levau by the emperor Claudius, but soon died. at the close of the 17th century. The In spite of her dissolute life, she insinupark which belongs to it, containing 900 ated herself into the favor of the emperor acres, was planted by Lenôtre. M. de Vespasian and his son Titus. The latter Calonne was for some time in possession was, at one time, on the point of marrying of it. The present possessor is M. de her.-3. The wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, Nicolai.

who loved her husband with rare tenderBERENGARIUS, or BERENGER, of Tours, ness, and, when he went to war in Syria, a teacher in the philosophical school in made a vow to devote her beautiful hair that city, and, in 1040, archdeacon of An- to the gods, if he returned safe. Upon gers, is renowned for his philosophical his return, B. performed her vow in the acuteness as one of the scholastic writers, temple of Venus. Soon after, the hair and also for the boldness with which, in was missed, and the astronomer Conon 1050, he declared himself against the of Samos declared that the gods had doctrine of transubstantiation, and for his transferred it to the skies as a constellaconsequent persecutions. He was several tion. From this circumstance, the seven times compelled to recant, but always stars near the tail of the Lion are called returned to the same opinion, that the coma Berenices (the hair of Berenice). bread in the Lord's supper is merely a BERESFORD, William, baron, duke of symbol of the body of Christ, in which Elyas and marquis of Campo Mayor, for he agreed with the Scotchman John the ability and courage which he disErigena (called Scotus). The Catholics played in the war of Portugal against wanked him among the most dangerous France, is ranked among the distinguishheretics. He was treated with forbear- ed generals of Great Britain. He orance by Gregory VII, but the scholastics ganized the Portuguese army, and also belonging to the party of the great Lan- the militia of the country, in so excellent franc, archbishop of Canterbury, were a manner, that they could vie with the

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best soldiers of the combined armies in upon the bridges. Discipline had long the wars of the peninsula. In 1810, B. before disappeared. The confusion ingained a victory over Soult, at Albufera. creased with every minute. Those who In 1812, he commanded under Welling- could not hope to escape over the bridges ton, and took an important part in the sought their safety on the floating ice of victories at Vittoria, Bayonne and Tou- the Berezina, where most of them perlouse. He made his entrance into Bor- ished, while many others were crowded deaux, March 13, 1814, with the duke of into the river by their comrades. In this Angoulême. May 6, he was raised to fatal retreat, the duke of Reggio (Oudithe rank of baron by the king of Eng- not) led the advanced guard, with the land, and, soon after, sent to Brazil, Poles under Dombrowsky in front; the whence he returned to England in 1815. rear guard was formed by the corps of The prince regent of Portugal made him the duke of Belluno. Nov. 27, at noon, generalissimo of the Portuguese armies. the dear-bought end was gained, and the He had scarcely arrived at Lisbon, when army, leaving the road to Minsk, took he was sent, by the English government, that of Wilna to Warsaw, with the hope on an important mission to Rio Janeiro. of providing for their necessities in WilThe rigor with which he punished a con- na.--Besides the multitudes who were spiracy of general Freyre against the obliged to remain beyond the B., the diBritish army and the regency, in Lisbon vision of Partouneaux, which formed the (1817), rendered him odious to the Por- rear guard, was also lost. It was intrusttuguese military. He was, therefore, dis- ed with the charge of burning the bridges missed by the cortes in 1820. He then in its rear, but it fell into the hands of ihe went again to Brazil, afterwards to Eng- enemy. According to the French bulleland, and, in Dec., 1826, appeared anew tins, only a detachment of 2000 men, who in Lisbon, at the head of the English missed their way, was taken; according forces sent to aid in quelling the rebellion. to the Russian accounts, the whole corps,

BEREZINA ; a river in the Russian 7500 men and 5 generals. province of Minsk, rendered famous by BERG; a duchy of Germany; bounded The passage of the French army under on the north by the duchy of Cleves, on Napoleon, Nov. 26 and 27, 1812. Admi- the east by the county of Mark and Westral Tschitschakoff, with the Moldavian phalia, on the south by the Westerwald, army, forced his way from the south, to and on the west by the Rhine. It bejoin the main army, which, after Borizoff longed, formerly, to the elector of Bavahad been retaken, was to assist the army ria, but has been included, since 1815, in led by Witgenstein from the Dwina, and, the grand-duchy of the Lower Rhine, in this manner, cut off Napoleon from which belongs to Prussia. It contains the Vistula. Napoleon was, therefore, 1188 square miles, with 983,000 inhabitobliged to make the greatest efforts, not- ants. There are mines of iron, copper, withstanding immense difficulties occa- lead and quicksilver; but the principal sioned by the nature of the country, the objects of attention are the manufactures, climate, and the critical situation of his which render it one of the most populous troops, to reach Minsk, or, at least, the and flourishing countries. in Germany : B., and to pass it earlier than the Rus- of these, the principal are iron, steel, sians. To effect this, it was necessary to linen, woollen, cotton and silk. The ex: sacrifice a great part of the baggage and tent of the manufactures of B. is, in it artillery, Nov. 25. After the advanced great measure, owing to the multitude of guard of the Moldavian army had been skilful workmen whom the fury of the repelled to Borizoff, by Oudinot, and the Spaniards, in the war against the Netherbridge there burnt by them, early in the lands, forced to leave their country. The morning of Nov. 26, two bridges were richest fled to London and Hamburg, the built near Sembin, about two miles above poorer sort, which included a great proBarizoff, an undertaking the more diffi- portion of the manufacturers, to the cult, because both banks of the river neighboring Berg. At a later period, were bordered by extensive morasses, when Louis XIV revoked the edict of covered, like the river itself, with ice not Nantes, many of the most industrious of sufficiently strong to afford passage to the the French Protestants fled also to this army, while other passes were already duchy, which thus became the most manthreatened by the Russians. Scarcely ufacturing part of Germany. Elberfeld had a few corps effected their passage, is the most important of the manufacturwhen the greater part of the army, un- ing places of B. Another reason of the armed and in confusion, rushed in crowds great prosperity of this country is, that it

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BERG-BERGEN.

has been under the government of rich masqued comedy, are Bergamese, or affect princes; and the smallness of its territory the dialect of the country people in the has often enabled it to remain a long neighborhood of this city. time neutral, when all the other German BERGAMOTS are a variety of citron. states were desolated by war. The duchy It is said to have been produced at first by of B. continued in the possession of the grafting a citron on the stock of a bergaelectors of Bavaria until 1806, when it mot pear-tree. The fruit has a fine taste was ceded to France, and bestowed by and smell, and its essential oil is in high Napoleon on his brother-in-law Murat, esteem as a perfume. under the title of the grand-duchy of Berg. BERGASSE, Nicholas; a statesman and There was at the same time added to it author, born at Lyons, in 1750, where he part of Cleves, the counties of Homburg, was an advocate. He afterwards became Bentheim-Steinfurt, Hortsmar, Nassau- advocate to the parliament of Paris. Here Dietz, Dillenburg, Hadamar, and a num- he showed his talents in the famous lawber of lordships and scattered bailiwicks suit of Beaumarchais (q. v.) with the and towns. On Murat's receiving the banker Kornmann. Upon the breaking kingdom of Naples, Napoleon named his out of the revolution, he was chosen a nephew Napoleon Louis, eldest son of member of the states-general by the city the king of Holland, hereditary grand- of Lyons, but abandoned his seat. even duke of Berg, with the condition that earlier than Mounier and Lally-Tollendal, the country should be under the immedi- a step which, both in his case and theirs, ate management of the French govern- was universally condemned. During the ment until the young prince should be reign of terror, his life was saved only of age. At the same time, the Prussian by the events of the 9th of Thermidor. part of Munster and the county of Mark Since that time, B. has devoted himself to were annexed to it, and the whole was metaphysical speculations. He is distindivided into the departments of the Rhine, guished among the modern French ideolthe Ems, the Roer and the Sieg, having ogists by a splendid style and richness of a population of 878,000 on 6908 square ideas. He is the author of Morale réligimiles. At the congress of Vienna, in euse, De l'Influence de la Volonté et sur l'In1815, the whole was given to the king of telligence, and De la Propriété (1807). B. Prussia.

was also one of the most zealous adherBERG, BOOK OF. (See Symbolic Books.) ents to the doctrine of Mesmer respecting

BERGAMO, capital of the district of Ber- animal magnetism. During the abode of gamo (1150 square miles and 306,600 in- the Russian emperor in Paris, 1815, this habitants), in the Lombardo-Venetian monarch paid him a visit. . kingdom, is situated on hills between the BERGEN; a bishopric in the kingdom rivers Brembo and Serio, has a castle of Norway, that borders on Aggerhuus to within the city, and another, called la ca- the east, Drontheim to the north, Chrispella, without it, besides two suburbs en- tiansand to the south, and the German circled by walls, and four others that are ocean to the west ; lon. 4° 45–6° 55' E.; open, containing together 30,680 inhabit- lat. 59° 34-62° 39N. It contains about ants. Amongst many distinguished men 13,900 square miles, 57 parishes, 180 born here, is the famous Tiraboschi, the churches and chapels, 137,700 inhabithistorian of Italian literature. B. export- ants, or nearly 10 to a square mile.—Bered, formerly, more than 1200 bales of silk, geri, the fortified capital, with a citadel which produced, on an average, £150,000 (Bergenhuus), the largest city in Norway, sterling yearly. In 1428, the Bergamese is situated in lon. 5° 21' E., lat. 60° 10 N., put themselves under the republic of 180 miles N. of Stavanger, 270 S. W. of Venice. In 1796, Bonaparte took B., and Drontheim, at the bottom of the bay of it was subsequently made the capital of Waag, that stretches far into the country, the department of the Serio, in the king- forming a safe harbor, surrounded by dom of Italy. Lon. 9° 38' E.; lat. 45° high and steep rocks. The entrance, 42 N. The city is the seat of a bishop however, is dangerous. The wall of rocks and of the authorities of the district. It also makes the access to the city on the has an academy of painting and sculpture, land side difficult. The climate is comà museum, an athenæum, a public libra- paratively mild, on account of the shelry, several academies, many manufacto- tered situation of the town. It is reries, especially of silk. There is, also, a markable for frequent rains. B. is well small Protestant congregation in this city. built, yet several streets are crooked -The comic characters, Arlechino, or and uneven, on account of the rocks. Truffaldino, and Brighella, in the Italian The city contains 2200 houses, 18,000 BERGEN-BERGMANN.

inhabitants, 1 German and 3 Danish Bremen. The remains of the two patrichurches: it has a bishop, a classical ots are deposited in Oldenburg. school, a seminary, founded by bishop BERGERAC; a town of France, in the Pontoppidan, for 12 students, who are in- department of the Dordogne, 48 miles E. structed gratis in the higher branches of of Bordeaux, which gives the name to an literature, a naval academy, an hospital for agreeable French wine, cultivated on the such as are infected with the scurvy, banks of the Dordogne. There is a white which is common among the fishermen, and a red sort. In France, it is somearising from their food, principally smoked times also called petit Champagne. or salt meat and fish; besides other use- BERGHEM, Nicholas, born at Harlem, in ful institutions. The inhabitants of the 1624, received his first instruction in middle coast of Norway bring their painting from his father, Peter of Harlem, boards, masts, laths, fire-wood, tar, train- who was a very indifferent artist. He oil, hides, &c., and particularly dried fish then continued his studies under van (stock-fish), to B., to exchange them for Goyen, and the elder Weenix. It is recorn and other necessaries, brought lated, that once, when pursued by his thither by the English, Dutch and Ger- father, he fled into the workshop of van mans. B. thus carries on its commerce Goyen, who, to protect him, called to his with but 100 vessels of its own. In the pupils, “ Berg hem(conceal him): this, it year 1445, a factory and several ware- is said, occasioned his new name. Love: houses were established here by the of his art, and the great demand for his3 Hanseatic cities of Germany, and the paintings, as likewise the avarice of his German traders, as they called them wife, prompted him to labor with extreme selves, enjoyed, for some time, the pro- assiduity. To buy engravings, of which tection of the Hanseatic league. The he was very fond, he was often compelled German factory consisted of about 60 to borrow money from his students, warehouses. The roads leading into the which he could only refund by deceiving interior of the country are frequented his wife in regard to the price of his only in the winter, when they are passa- paintings. In this manner he obtainble in sleds. B. is the native place of the ed a rich collection. B's. landscapes and. poet Holberg.-Bergen is also the name representations of animals adorn the most of other places; amongst them is, 1, a town celebrated galleries. The distinguishing in the Netherlands, a post of some conse- characters of the pictures of B. are the quence in the wars of 1739 and 1814.-2. breadth and just distribution of the lights, A town in the electorate of Hesse. A bloody the grandeur of his masses of light and battle was fought here, April 13, 1759, be- shadow, the natural ease and simplicity tween the French and allies, in the seven in the attitudes of his figures, the brillianyears' war, in which the former were vic- cy and harmony as well as transparency torious. It is three miles N. E. Frankfort. of his coloring, the correctness and true -3. The capital of the island of Rügen, in perspective of his design, and the elethe Baltic, now subject to Prussia.–4. A gance of his composition. Although he small island in the Indian ocean, 60 miles hardly ever left his workshop, yet he had W. of Sumatra ; lat. 3° 20 S.

closely observed nature, during a long BERGER, Louis von, was born in Ol- residence in the palace of Benthem. He denburg, where he held a high office in died at Harlem, 1683. Charles Dujardin the administration. When the Russians and Glauber were among his pupils. At approached, in 1813, the citizens of Ol- the auction of P. de Smeth's collection of denburg took up arms. The French ma- paintings, Amsterdam, 1810, four of B.'s gistrates fled, but not until they had ap- were sold for 800, 1000, 1625, 2500 pointed a committee of regency, of which Dutch guilders. von Berger and Fink were members. BERGMANN, Torbern Olof, a natura. This committee was afterwards summon- philosopher and chemist, born at Cathaed before a court-martial in Bremen, in rineberg, in the Swedish province of which general Vandamme presided, and West Gothland, March 9, 1735, obtained, these two excellent men were condemned after many difficulties, the permission of to death, though their accuser had only his family to devote himself entirely to proposed their imprisonment. They were the sciences. At that time, disciples shot, April 10, 1813. The clearness, firm- flocked from all quarters to Linnæus at ness and power of language, with which Upsal. They were joined by B., in 1752, von Berger exposed this mock-trial, is who, by his acuteness and his discoveries, well described in the Murder of Fink which were facilitated by his attainmems and Berger, written by Gildemeister of in geometry and physics, excited the no

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