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fertile valleys in Switzerland, where the &c. There are few cities with finer finest cattle are raised, and the well-known promenades, or where they are kept in Emmenthal cheese made. Neat houses, better repair. One of the favorite walks, comfortable dresses, and cheerfulness, in- for instance, is near the cathedral, raised dicate the prosperity of the inhabitants of at great expense, and planted with four this valley. The southern part of the rows of trees. The side towards the Aar canton, the Oberland (Upperland), (to is 108 feet above the river, which here which the valleys of Hasli, Grindervald, forms a beautiful cascade, equalling that Lauterbrun, Cander, Frutingen, Adelbo- of the Rhine at Lauffen, if not in height, den, Simmen and Saanen, with numerous at least in breadth. smaller valleys, belong), begins at the BERNADOTTE. (See Charles XIV.) foot of the high mountain chain towards BERNARD, Pierre Joseph; son of a statthe Valais, and extends to its summit. The uary, born at Grenoble, 1710; died at lower valleys produce good fruits, and Choisy, near Paris, 1775; studied with are fertile and agreeable: higher up are the Jesuits in Lyons, and entered as a excellent Alpine pastures; then succeed clerk into the service of a notary in Paris. bare rocks, extensive glaciers (the source He was afterwards admitted into the serof magnificent water-falls), and the highest vice of the marshal de Coigny as secretamountains of Switzerland, as the Finster- ry, and, by Louis XV, appointed treasurer aarhorn, the Schreck-horn and Wetter- of the dragoons, and, afterwards, librarian horn, the Eiger, the Jungfrau. The in- of Choisy. In 1771, he lost his memory habitants of the Oberland live, principal- by the apoplexy, and remained in this ly, by raising cattle. The chief trade is condition till his death. Among the poets in linen and woollen manufactures, es- who have sung in praise of pleasure, of pecially in Emmenthal. The revenues whom the French nation possesses so of the state amount to about 600,000 dol- many, B. is esteemed. In 1737, he brought lars. The canton furnishes 5824 men to the opera Castor and Pollux on the stage, the army of the confederacy, and con- which is a masterpiece of lyric-dramatic tributes 104,080 Swiss francs to its sup- poetry. Rameau's music contributed to port.-B. (1062 houses, with 17,620 in- heighten the general applause with which habitants), one of the best built cities in it was received. L'Art d'Aimer was not Switzerland, is situated upon the declivity published until after his death, but had of a hill, on a peninsula, washed on three been before communicated to his friends: sides by the Aar. The streets are, for it is, in part, an imitation of Ovid. Voltaire the greater part, straight, wide and well called B. le gentil. The whole of his paved, and the houses partly provided with works appeared at Paris, 1796. piazzas. Among the public buildings BERNARD, duke of Weimar, general in are the great Gothic cathedral, the church the thirty years' war, born Aug. 6, 1604, of the Holy Spirit, the university build- the fourth son of duke John of Saxeings, the handsomely built hospital, &c. Weimar, entered into the service of HolB. has an academy, and several literary land, at that time the best school for a societies. The economical society, in soldier, where prince Maurice of Nassau particular, has done much for the im- (the creator of a better system of tactics), provement of agriculture, as well as for his brother Frederic Henry, the marquis the better knowledge of the natural his- Spinola, and other great generals, were tory of Switzerland. The historical so- opposed to one another. B. afterwards ciety of Switzerland, of which the mayor entered the Danish army employed in of B., von Múlinen, is president, has pub- Holstein against the trocps of the empelished several chronicles relating to the ror, and commanded by the margrave of former times of B., as that of Justinger Baden-Durlach, and was present at the (till 1421), 1819, that of Schachtlan, 1820, conference of Lubeck, 1629, for negotiaand that of Anshelm (till 1526), 1825. ting peace. When Gustavus Adolphus The gallery for native specimens of natu- entered Germany, B. joined him, and was ral history, founded in 1802, contains vi- present at the attack upon Wallenstein's viparous animals, birds, butterflies, insects camp, in the neighborhood of Nuremberg, and plants. The public library possesses Aug. 24, 1632. In the battle of Lutzen, great treasures, both of printed books and Oct. 6, 1632, he commanded the left wing inanuscripts. Several private persons of the Swedish army, avenged the death have museums, which are generally open of Gustavus Adolphus, and, although himto strangers. Trade and commerce are self severely wounded, put the right wing lively : the manufactories furnish woollen of the imperial troops to flight. Chan. cloth, printed linen, silk stuffs, stockings, cellor Oxenstiern, the Swedish director

VOL. II.

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BERNARD.

of the war in Germany, after the death of declined not only this proposal, but also the king, committed the command of an invitation to Paris, and the offer of a half the army to him. B., in 1633, took marriage with the duchess d’Aiguillon, Bamberg, Cronach, Hochstadt and Aich- niece of cardinal Richelieu. Instead of stadt; but his attempt upon Ingolstadt that match, he proposed one with tita miscarried. He also brought the cities of princess of Rohan, to which, however, Ratisbon and Straubing into his power, the French court would not accede, lest and frustrated Wallenstein's intentions. the party of the Huguenots should be The king of Sweden made him duke of strengthened. It is probable that RicheFranconia. His impetuosity caused the lieu had recourse to secret means, in order defeat at Nordlingen (q. v.), Aug. 24, 1634. to rid France of the duke, who was beHe himself narrowly escaped being made come formidable by his growing power. prisoner. The prudence of Oxenstiern He was suddenly seized with a disorder, and the valor of B. soon made amends which terminated his life, July 8, 1639. for this fault. France, now entering into Most of the contemporary writers conjeca closer alliance with Sweden, concluded tured that Richelieu caused him to be a separate treaty with B., who went to poisoned: the duke himself had no doubt Paris, Oct. 16, 1634. B. promised, for that he had swallowed poison. Immedi4,000,000 livres, to raise an army of 18,000 ately after his death, several French commen on the Rhine, to act against Austria. missioners appeared, who enlisted his He now carried on the war in the country troops into the French army: the comadjoining to the Rhine, took the fortress mand of them was committed to marshal of Zabern, in Alsace, spread his army over Guebriant. With B. fell one of the chief Lorraine and Burgundy, and vanquished supports of the Protestants. His succesthe forces of the emperor in several bat- sors, Baner and Torstensohn (q. v.), purtles. At the commencement of the year sued his victorious course, and France 1638, he laid siege to Rheinfelden, not far seriously exerted herself, in the war which from Bâle. Here he was unexpectedly continued, for the benefit of the Protestattacked in his camp, Feb. 18, by an Aus- ants. In B. a graceful person, intelligence trian army that had advanced to raise the and valor were united with a magnanimsiege. B. was obliged to retreat before su- ity which could not be shaken by adverse perior numbers; but, having soon collected events: his only fault was too great imhis forces, he attacked the Austrians by petuosity. surprise, Feb. 21, and obtained a complete . BERNARD of Clairvaux; one of the most victory. Several Austrian generals were influential ecclesiastics of the middle ages, made prisoners, and the fortress of Rhein- born at Fontaines, in Burgundy, 1091, of felden was obliged to surrender, May 13. a noble family. In 1113, he became a He then undertook the siege of Brisach, monk at Citeaux; in 1115, first abbot of the possession of which was necessary Clairvaux, near Langres. An austere for maintaining himself in Alsace. An manner of living, solitary studies, an inimperial army, under the command of spiring eloquence, boldness of language, general Goetze, that approached with the and the reputation of a prophet, rendered intention of raising the siege, was defeated him an oracle to all Christian Europe. with a great loss by B., July 30. B. captur- He was named the honeyed teacher, and ed several places of inferior importance, his writings were styled a stream from during the siege of Brisach, which, how- paradise. The doctrine of the immacuever, did not surrender until he had repeat- late conception of Mary was rejected by edly defeated the Austrians, and then upon him. He principally promoted the cruvery moderate conditions, which B. sign- sade in 1146, and quieted the fermentaed in his own name, without mention- tion, caused at that time by a party of ing France. The possession of Alsace, monks, against the Jews in Germany. which he had before ceded to France He declined all promotion, and, in the under certain conditions, was now secur- rank of abbot of his beloved Jerusalem (as ed; but he also demanded Brisach as an he used to call Clairvaux), he continued appurtenance to Alsace. He garrisoned with all humility, but with great boldness,

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troops, and ordered money to be coined sels to the popes. Innocent II owed to with the Saxon coat of arms and that of him the possession of the right of investi3risach. In vain were the efforts of ture in Germany, and Eugenius III his France to deprive the duke of the posses- education. He was, at the same time, the sion of Brisach, by proposing to place a umpire of princes and bishops, and his French garrison in the fortress: the duke voice in the synods was regarded as BERNARD_BERNARDI.

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livine. By his rigid orthodoxy and his Assisted by the servants of the convent, mystical doctrines, which, though at times the heroic ecclesiastics, provided with enthusiastic, were always directed to wine and bread, devote themselves to the the promotion of practical Christianity, guidance of travellers; and, in order to he refuted the subtleties and dialectics of defend the poor against the cold, they lend the scholastic philosophers, although his or give them clothes, which are kept for severity against Abelard and Gilbert of that purpose. Upwards of 9000 persons Poree can by no means be justified. Lu- annually pass over the mountain, who are ther says of him, “If there has ever been refreshed in the hospitium. In the midst a pious monk who feared God, it was St. of tempests and snow-storms, the monks, Bernard; whom alone I hold in much accompanied by dogs (called marons), set higher esteem than all other monks and out for the purpose of tracking those who priests throughout the globe." B. died in have lost their way. If they find the 1153, and was canonized by Alexander body of a traveller who has perished, they III, in 1174. (See Aug. Neander's St. carry it into the vault of the dead, where Bernard and his Times, Berlin, 1813.) His it is wrapped in linen, and remains lying works have been translated from the on a table till another victim occupies the Latin, and published by professor Silbert place. It is then set up against the wall, Vienna, 1820).

among the other dead bodies, which, on BERNARD, Great St.; a mountain be- account of the cold, decay so slowly, that tween the Valais and the valley of Aosta, they are often recognised by their friends 11,006 feet high. On its top is the boun- after the lapse of years. Adjoining this dary between the Valais and Piedmont. vault is a kind of burying-ground, where The road from the lake of Geneva through the bones are deposited, when they accuthe Valais, into the valley of Aosta, passes mulate too much in the vault. It is imover it. The Little St. B., 7194 feet high, possible to bury them, because there is separates Piedmont from Savoy. Over nothing around the hospitium but naked this Hannibal directed his march. Ber- rocks. In the church is the monument nard de Menthon, a Savoyard nobleman, of general Desaix, who fell in the battle who lived from 923 to 1008, built here, of Marengo. The first consul ordered in 962, two hospitia, for the benefit of him to be embalmed, and assigned him a those on a pilgrimage to Rome, one upon resting place on the summit of the Alps. mont Joux, where a temple of Jupiter The monument of marble represents Desstood, the other on the road that leads saix in relief, wounded, and sinking from over the Grison Alps, at a place called his horse into the arms of his aid Le Colonne Jou, from a pillar which was an Brun. On the stairs of the convent stands object of idolatrous worship. Animated his statue of marble. Opposite to it there by a pious zeal, Bernard destroyed the is a slab of marble, on which the republic pillar and temple, and, with their ruins, of Valais commemorated Napoleon's built the two hospitia on the Great and passage over the St. B., May 15, 1800, Little St. Bernard, so called after him. with an inscription in letters of gold. By He committed the care of both these means of a contribution raised through establishments to monks of the order of Europe, a short time ago, the habitations St. Augustine, who, with an almost unex- of the 9 or 10 ecclesiastics have been ampled self-devotion, exercised the most made more comfortable. generous hospitality towards travellers, BERNARDI, Augustus Frederic, a Gerdown to the time of Charles Emanuel III man scholar, born in Berlin, in 1768, died of Sardinia. This king, falling into a there in 1820. In his youth, his attention dispute with the cantons of Switzerland wau directed to universal language (that about the nomination of a provost, seques- is, t) language as far as it is common trated the possessions of the monks, and to all rational beings), to the mystery gave the administration of the hospitia to of its construction, the mathematics, as it regular canons of the Augustine order, were, of language. B., considering all who, with equal humanity and devotion, different languages as a whole, endeavored discharge the duties of their pious calling. ! to discover a universal grammar common Upon the barren height (7668 feet), where to thein all. The result of his researches the hospitium of the Great St. Bernard appears in his works, Reine Sprachlehre stands, which is considered to be the (Abstract Grammar), 1801, 2 vols.; highest inhabited place in Europe, an Angewandte Sprachlehre (Grammar in almost everlasting winter reigns; in vain its Application), 1803; and Anfangsdo we look for a tree or bush ; the glitter- gründe der Sprachwissenschaft (Elements ing snow dazzles the eye of the wanderer. of the Science of Language), in which

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many philosophical principles of language note their love for wine, and their careare laid down. B. was a man of culti- less gayety, called themselves i vignajuoli vated mind and extensive knowledge. (vine-dressers). Mauro, Casa, FirenzuoHe was also a professor and director of a la, Capilupi, &c. were of the number. classical school in Berlin.

They laughed at every thing, and made BERNARDIN DE ST. PIERRE. (See sport, in verse, of the most serious, nay, Pierre, St.)

the most tragic matters. B.'s verses were BERNARDINE MONKS. (See Cister- the most successful, and were written cians.)

in so peculiar a style, that his name has BERNBURG, Anhalt; one of the three been given to it (maniera Bernesca, or dukedoms of Anhalt (253 square miles, Berniesca). When Rome was sacked by un towns, 51 villages, with 38,400 inhabit- the troops of the constable Bourbon, 1527, ants. The income is valued at 450,000 B. lost all that he possessed. He afterguilders. Its contingent to the army of wards made several journeys, with his the German confederation is 370 men. patron Ghiberti, to Verona, Venice and In 1820, the Lutheran and Calvinistic Padua. At length, wearied with serving, parts of the population were united. The and satisfied with a canonship in the capital of this dukedom is Bernburg, on cathedral at Florence, in the possession the Saale, with 4900 inhabitants. The of which he had been for some years, he public debt amounts to 1,034,500 guilders. · retired to that place. The favor of the Napoleon made the princes of Bernburg great, however, which he was weak dukes.

enough to court, brought him into diffiBERNERS, or BARNES, Juliana; an culties. He was required to commit a English lady of the 15th century, of crime, and his refusal cost him his life. whom little more is known than that she Alessandro de' Medici, at that time duke was prioress of the nunnery of Sopewell, of Florence, lived in open enmity with near St. Alban's, and has her name pre- the young cardinal Ippolito de' Medici. fixed, as the writer or compiler, to one of B. was so intimate with both, that it is the earliest and most curious productions doubtful which first made him the proof the English press. The title of the posal to poison the other. Certain it is, second edition, printed in the abbey of St. that the cardinal died by poison, in 1535. Alban's, in 1486, is, The Boke of Hawking B. died July 26, 1536 ; and if, as is assertand Huntyng, with other Pleasures dy- ed, his life was terminated by poison, then verse, and also Cootarmuries. The first the crime must be imputed to duke Alesedition (1481) does not treat of coat-armor sandro.--In the burlesque style of poetry, or heraldry. This work, under the title of B. is still considered the best model. the Book of St. Alban's, became a popu- His satire is often very bitter, and fre· Jar manual of sporting science, and was quently unites the good humor of Horace several times reprinted in the 16th centu- with the causticity of Juvenal. The exry. As a typographical curiosity, a small treme licentiousness of his writings is his impression of it was published, in 1811, greatest fault. It should, however, be conby Mr. Haslewood.

sidered that he wrote for his friends only, BERNI, Francesco (also Berna, and and that his works were not printed until Bernia); a poet of the 16th century, born after his death. The admirable ease, for at Lamporecchio, in the territory of Tus- which his writings are distinguished, was cany, towards the close of the 15th cen- the result of great efforts, since he repeattury, of a noble but poor Florentine fami edly amended and corrected his verses. ly; went to Florence, and, at the age of The same is asserted of Ariosto; a.d yet 19, to Rome, where he lived under the they are the most distinguished, among care of liis relation, cardinal Bibiena; the Italian poets, for the ease and fluency who, as he himself says, did him neither of their style. B. also wrote Latin good nor harm, and he was at length verses very correctly, and was well acobliged to enter the service of the bishop quainted with Greek. His Rime Burof Verona, Ghiberti, datary of the papal lesche (Burlesque Verses) have great merit. chancery, as secretary. In the hope of So has also his Orlando Innamorato, compromotion, he took orders; but, disgusted posto già dal Sig. Bojardo Conte di Scanwith the duties of his office, he sought diano, ed ora rifatto tutto di nuovo da M.

pleased the prelate. A society had been cesco B., who was born in 1610, and died established at Rome, consisting of young in 1673) has written 11 dramas, and also ecclesiastics of a jovial temper, like B., several lyric poems. and a poetical vein, who, in order to de- BERNINI, Giovanni Lorenzó, called nl

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cavaliere Bernini, born in Naples, 1598, the piazza di San Pietro. The admirable is praised by his contemporaries as the colonnade, which is so beautifully proMichael Angelo of modern times, on ac- portioned to the Basilica, was built under count of his success as a painter, a statua- the direction of B. We may also menry, and an architect; but he deserves his tion the palace Odescalchi, the rotunda fame principally in the latter character. della Riccia, the house for novices, belongRichly endowed by nature, and favored ing to the Jesuits, on Monte Cavallo, &c. by circumstances, he rose superior to the Louis XIV having invited him, in the rules of art, creating for himself an easy most flattering terms, to Paris, he set out manner, the faults of which he knew how from Rome, in 1665, at the age of 68, acto disguise by its brilliancy. From his companied by one of his sons, and a early youth, he manifested a great power numerous retinue. Never did an artist to excel in the arts of design, and, at the travel with so great pomp, and under such age of eight years, executed the head of a flattering circumstances. The reception child in marble, which was considered a which he met with in Paris was highly remarkable production. That such rare honorable. He was first occupied in preendowments might be suitably cultivated, paring plans for the restoration of the his father carried him to Rome. One of Louvre, which, however, were never exeB.'s first works was the marble bust of the cuted. But, notwithstanding the esteem prelate Montajo; after which he made the which he enjoyed in Paris, some disabust of the pope, and of several cardinals; greeable circumstances induced him to also sundry figures of the natural size. return to Rome: he left Paris loaded with He was not yet 18, when he produced presents. Cardinal Rospigliosi having bethe Apollo and Daphne, in marble, a mas-' come pope, B. was admitted to an intiterpiece of grace and execution. Looking mate intercourse with him, and charged at this group near the close of his life, he with several works; among others, with declared that he had made very little prog- the decoration of the bridge of St. Angelo. l'ess since the time when that was pro- In his 70th year, this indefatigable artist duced. His manner was indeed more executed one of his most beautiful works, chaste and less affected, in the early part the tomb of Alexander VII. He still conof his career, than at a later period. After tinued to devote himself to several works the death of Gregory XV, cardinal Maf- of architecture, as well as of statuary, feo Barberini, his successor, employed B. with such ardor, that, exhausted by his to prepare plans for the embellishment labors, he died, Nov. 28, 1680, at the age of the Basilica of St. Peter, assigning to of 82. He was buried, with great maghim a monthly pension of 300 crowns, nificence, in the church of St. Maria Magwhich was afterwards augmented. With- giore. To his children he left a fortune out forsaking sculpture, B.'s genius em- amounting to about 3,300,000 francs. B.'s braced architecture, and he furnished the favorite maxim was, Chi non esce talvolta design for the canopy and the pulpit of della regola, non passa mai. Thus he was St. Peter, as well as for the circular place of opinion, that, in order to excel in the before the church. Among his numerous arts, one must rise above all rules, and works, were the palace Barberini, the bel- create a manner peculiar to one's self. fry of St. Peter, the model of the monu- This B. has accomplished with a rare ment of the countess Matilda, and the good fortune, but the influence of his style monument of Urban VIII, his benefac- has been transient. His most eminent tor. In the year 1644, cardinal Mazarin, disciples are Pietro Bernini, his brother, in the name of the king of France, a statuary, architect and mathematician; offered him a salary of 12,000 crowns; Matthia Rossi, François Duquesnoi, surbut he declined the invitation. Urban named the Fleming, and Borromini. had scarcely closed his eyes, and Inno- BERNIS (François Joachim de Pierres, cent X ascended the papal throne, when comte de Lyon) cardinal de, born at the envy engendered by the merits of St. Marcel de l'Ardeche, in 1715, was de*the artist and the favor bestowed on him scended of an ancient family, but little fabroke forth. His enemies triumphed; vored by fortune, for which reason, his hut he regained the favor of the pope by parents destined him for the clerical pro a model for a fountain. About the same fession. Me. de Pompadour, whom he time, he erected the palace of Monte Ci- had known as Me. d'Etioles, presented. torio. Alexander VII, the successor of him to Louis XV, who, being pleased with Innocent X, displayed much taste for the him, assigned to him an apartment in the arts, and favor to this artist, and required Tuileries, with a pension of 1500 livres. of him a plan for the embellishment of His wishes were directed towards raising

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