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ciety, directly or indirectly :-Reprints, has been completed ; 1 at Berlin; 1 at 42; retranslations, 5; languages and di- Dresden, which, besides a stereotype edialects in which the Scriptures had never tion of the German Bible, has also publishbeen printed before the institution of the ed an edition, in the Wendish tongue, for society, 58; new translations commenced Lusatia; 1 at Frankfort on the Maine. In or completed, 38; total, 143. The soci- Bavaria, the distribution of the Bible has ety provides many translations of single been confined to the efforts of individuals. books of the Bible, or of the New Testa- (180,000 copies of the Catholic translament, in numerous languages and dialects tions of the New Testament, by Gossner of the nations of Middle and Eastern Asia, and van Ess, had been distributed in at Calcutta and Madras; as well as in the Germany and Switzerland, up to 1821. languages of the Levant, North Africa, Many of these reached the Austrian proy&c. (e. g., the Arabic, Tartar, Syriac, and inces, which at present are closed against two dialects of the Ethiopic), at Smyrna, Germani Bibles.) The society at StuttMalta, and other depôts of the Mediterra- gart has printed an edition of 10,000 Binean; and aids all the Bible societies of bles and 2000 Testaments, which have the continent of Europe. It has agents already been taken up. Societies exist at in almost all parts of the inhabited globe, Hamburg, Baden, Weimar, Bremen, Lűwho travel at its expense, to discover the beck; at Schleswig-Holstein, Schwerin, best means of diffusing the Bible, and to Ratzeburg, Eutin, Brunswick, &c. (each procure able translators and manuscripts of them having auxiliary societies). Protof ancient translations for the use of the estant Switzerland has a Bible society of society. Pinkerton found, in Paris, trans- its own; so has the kingdom of the lations of the Bible in the dialects of Netherlands, which provides its colonies Northern Asia and Thibet, with the char- with Bibles. In Paris, such a society was acters belonging to them, which had been instituted, Dec. 6, 1818, for the Protestants brought to France, under Napoleon, from in France. The means of this society the archives of the propaganda at Rome. were small (in 1820, not more than 58,212 The most difficult translation was that francs had been received), and it had into the Esquimaux language. Accord- principally in view the supplying of ing to the 24th report above-mentioned, schools, hospitals and prisons; but, as published in 1828, there were issued in Catholics also have received the Bible, it England, during the 24th year from the es- has met with a strong opposition from tablishment of the society, Bibles, 137,162; the papal-jesuitical party in France. In Testaments, 199,108; purchased and is- Strasburg, an edition of 20,000 Bibles was sued for the society, in foreign parts, du- printed for Alsace. In Sweden, the chief ring the same period, Bibles, 212,024; society in Stockholm have distributed a Testaments, 818,834: total issued on ac- large number of Bibles and Testaments. count of the society, from its establish- In Norway and Denmark, editions have ment, Bibles, 2,248,182; Testaments, been published with the same view, and 3,422,341 ; grand total, 5,670,523. In the Danish society has branches in Iceaddition to this, the society has granted land and the West Indies. The Russian about £53,800 for distributing, in various society in Petersburg has vied with the parts of the European continent, French, English, and some years since had printGerman, Swedish and Danish Bibles and ed the Bible in 31 languages and dialects Testaments. The number of Bible so- spoken in the Russian dominions, among cieties throughout the world, given in the which is one in the modern Russian, same report, is as follows :-In Great since the translation of the church is in Britain and Ireland, connected with the the Sclavonic, and unintelligible to layBritish and foreign Bible society, 262 men. This new translation has been uxiliaries, 350 branches, and 1493 asso- joyfully received by the country people, iations; in Ireland, connected with the and shows them the errors and many suHibernian Bible society, 70 auxiliaries, 38 perstitions which disfigure the ritual of branches, and 18 associations; on the the Greek church. On this account, it European continent and in the Ionian will probably give rise to contests, which islands, 854 societies; in Asia, 13; in can hardly be terminated without a gradAfrica, 4; in America, 549 (there are, in ual reformation of the Greek church. fact, 631 societies in America, in the Part of the clergy are opposed to the present year, 1829); total, 3733.-In Ger- distribution of the Bible, and persecutions many, the following were the chief Bible against zealous readers of the sacred book societies in 1817 :-1 at Hanover, where have already taken place in the more an edition of the Bible, of 10,000 copies, distant governments. The Gospels in the

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Calmuc language and the Persian New and even the Esquimaux already read Testaments are much sought for. A the Acts of the Apostles in their own translation of the Bible for the Booriaits, language. A similar zeal for the distriMongol worshippers of the Lama, near bution of the Bible has been awakened in lake Baikal, is preparing, with the assist- Southern Africa and in India, where Biance of two young Booriaits of high birth, bles are published in the languages of the who embraced Christianity at Petersburg. country : even the islands on the eastern Auxiliary societies have been formed at coast of Asia are not neglected. In the Irkutsk, Tobolsk, among the Kirghises, Netherlands, there is a fraternal union of Georgians, and Cossacks of the Don. different sects for this purpose, as is also The word of God is carried from Odessa the case in other countries containing to the Levant. The bull of Pius VII, various sects. Such associations excite June 28, 1816, obtained by the archbishop among different sects a feeling of mutual of Gnesen, did not prevent the Poles from sympathy, by a consideration of their forming a society in Warsaw, under the mutual participation in the most imporprotection of Alexander. In 1817, the tant truths of Christianity.-Such a gendistribution of the Bible by such societies eral diffusion of the Bible is an event of was forbidden in Austria, and those al- great historical importance. Its translaready existing in Hungary were sup- tion into languages which have been pressed. Italy, Spain and Portugal have hitherto destitute of all literature, and had, as yet, no Bible societies; France even of writing, must contribute greatly only one; but the English have provided to the progress of intellectual cultivation them with Bibles in their own tongues. In throughout the earth, and must have an the U. States of America, the great Amer- especial influence on the advancement ican Bible society, formed in 1816, acts in of general philology. The Bible societies concert with the auxiliary societies, of may be considered as assisting to pave which, in 1829, there were 630. The the way for the introduction of European management of the society is intrusted civilization into all the less enlightened to a board of managers; stereotype plates regions of the earth. The societies adhave been procured, and Bibles are issued here to the principle of publishing the at a low price for the auxiliaries, and for Bible without notes, starting from the gratuitous distribution among the poor. Protestant principle, that the Bible, and During the first year, 6,410 copies of Bi- the Bible alone, is the foundation of bles and Testaments were distributed. Christian faith. Undoubtedly, the various In 1827, the number amounted to 134,000, sects of Christians, differing so greatly as and, during the first 8 months of 1828, to they do, and always must, respecting cer146,000. The whole number issued since tain points of faith and the interpretation the organization of the society is about of particular passages of the Scriptures, 700,000. These have been mostly in Eng- could not be made to co-operate with zeal lish, Spanish and French, from the society's in the distribution of the Bible, if the text plates. The managers have occasionally were accompanied with commentaries. purchased Bibles in Europe, and issued But now missionaries and ministers must them to applicants, in German, Dutch, supply, by verbal explanation, the place Welsh, Gaelic, Portuguese, modern Greek, of notes, because it is clear to every body and some other European languages. that the Bible cannot be understood They have also furnished money to print without the explanation afforded by translations into pagan languages, by study. Thus the opinions of individuals, American missionaries. They have in orally delivered, are substituted for the operation 8 power-presses and 20 hand- more precise and profound criticism of presses, and copies are prepared at the rate united commentators. It seems to us, of 300,000 a year. Many of the auxiliary that the friends of Bible societies and societies have undertaken to discover the their opponents (a part of the Catholic number of families in their vicinity desti- clergy) have both run into extremes; the tute of the Bible, and to supply them. It former by injudiciously distributing the is the object of the society to supply every Scriptures, in some cases, before people family in the U. Statės, before devoting were fit to understand them; and the latmuch attention to distribution abroad. ter by an unqualified prohibition of the Yet Spanish America and Ceylon, Greece reading of the Bible by the laity. The and the Sandwich islands, have been fur- order of the pope, that only certain edinished with Bibles by the society. The tions and versions should be read by the colonies also exert themselves in this Catholics, originated from views founded cause. Hayti has offered her assistance, on the experience of all ages of Chris

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tianity, that men of pure intentions often Lawrence Bauer, Warnekros de Wette fall into dreadful errors and absurdities and John Jahn particularly deserve to from want of just direction in the study be mentioned. We may find information of the Bible. And it remains a fact not concerning Christian antiquities in the to be disputed by the most ardent defend- commentaries on the New Testament, er of immediate and supernatural assist- and in the historians of the church. The ance to the reader of the Bible, that, Germans have particularly distinguished being composed of parts extremely vari- themselves in this department. ous in their character, written in times BIBLIOGRAPHY (from Biblcov, a book, and countries very remote from us, often and ypaow, I describe) was originally a in metaphorical language, and intimately branch of archæography, or the art of deconnected with the customs, views, his- scribing or explaining antiquities, and detory and language of particular nations, noted skill in the perusing and judging and even individuals, its real meaning is of ancient manuscripts; but in its modern not to be found without an extensive study and more extended sense, it signifies the of many different branches of science, knowledge of books, in reference to the the results of which may be used to assist subjects discussed in them, their different the less informed reader. History shows degrees of rarity, curiosity, reputed and us, that the blackest crimes and the most real value, the materials of which they egregious follies have been defended by are composed, and the rank which they the misapplication of the text of the Sa- ought to hold in the classification of a cred Scriptures. It must be left to time library. It is, therefore, divided into two to show what will be the ultimate effect branches, the first of which has reference of Bible societies. Undoubtedly it will be to the contents of books, and may be found, that some portion of their efforts called, for want of a better phrase, intelhave been made in vain, as was, indeed, lectual bibliography; the second treats of to be expected; and, in many instances, their external character, the history of they appear to us to have been made particular copies, &c., and may be termed injudiciously. The extension of the material bibliography. The object of the habit of reading through so many parts first kind is to acquaint literary men with of the world, we imagine, will be the most valuable books in every departone of the greatest and most lasting ment of study, either by means of cataconsequences of the exertions of these logues raisonnées simply, or by similar societies.

catalogues accompanied with critical reBIBLICAL ARCHÆOLOGY is the science marks. Bibliography belongs to those which describes the political state, man- sciences, the progress of which is deners and customs of the Jewish nation, pendent, in a great degree, on external as well as the usages of the early Chris- circumstances. It has been and still is tian church; consequently, the antiquities cultivated most successfully in France. of the Bible. Civil relations, religious This is owing not only to the riches of ceremonies, holy places, domestic cus- the great and daily increasing public litoms and utensils, modes of dress, and braries, liberally thrown open to the use other external circumstances, form the of the public, the large number of fine subject of this science. The antiquities of private collections, and the familiarity of the Bible are partly Jewish, partly Chris- its numerous literary men with books tian. The sources of the former are the of all ages and countries, but, in a great Old Testament, the works of Josephus degree, to the practical spirit of the nation and Philo, the Talmud, and the writings which induces their bibliographers to of the rabbins. The sources of Chris- keep constantly in view the supply of tian antiquities are the New Testament existing wants. Brunet's Manuel du Liand the writings of the fathers, who braire was the first important work which lived and wrote soon after the age of the contained, in an alphabetical form, a list apostles. Without the knowledge of the of the most valuable and costly books of manners and customs of a nation, many all literatures ; Barbier's Dictionnaire des passages of their authors, which contain Ouvrages Anonymes, the first systematic allusions to them, remain unintelligible, and satisfactory treatise on this subject and, on this account, the knowledge of Renouard's Catalogue d'un Amateur, the the antiquities of the Bible is necessary to first, and, for a long time, the best guide the interpreter of the Holy Scriptures. of the French collectors; the Bibliogra. Among the modern authors, who have phie de la France, the first work which written on Jewish antiquities, Voland, showed how the yearly accumulation of John Simonis Ernst Aug. Schulz, George literary works can be recorded in the

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most authentic manner. No less valuable liographical works in particular departare the works of Peignot, Petit Radel, ments of science and literature :—T. A. Renouard on the Aldines (see Aldine Nösselt's Anweisung zur Kenntniss der BesEditions), and many others. English ten Allgemeinen Bücher in der Theologie, bibliography can boast of but one of 4th ed. Leipsic, 1800, and the continuathe advantages of the French; that is, of tion of it by Simon, Leipsic, 1813; C. F. rich public and private collections, but the Burdach's Literatur der Heilwissenschaft, use of them is allowed only to a linnited Gotha, 1810, 2 vols.; W. Gf. Ploucquet's degree, and the English bibliographers Literatura Medica, Tübingen, 1808, 4 vols. are far behind the French. The works of 4to.; T. G. Meusel's Bibliotheca Historica, doctor Adam Clarke (Bibliographical Dic- Leipsic, 1782-1802, 11 vols. in 22 voltionary, 1820) and of Robert Watt (Bibli- umes, not finished; his Literatur der otheca Britannica, 1819) are compilations Statistik, Leipsic, 1816, 2 vols.; G. R. of little value; the undigested collections Böhmer's Bibliotheca Scriptorum Historice of Beloe (Anecdotes of Literature, 1807), Naturalis, Leipsic, 1785-99, 7 vols. : of Brydges (British Bibliographer, 1818; Alb. Haller's Bibliotheca Botanica, Zurich, Censura Literaria, 1805), of Savage (the 1771, 2 vols., 4to.; Anatomica, Zurich, Librarian, 1808), and others, are destitute 1774, 2 vols., 4to.; Chirurgica, Bern, 1774, of judicious selection, and often of cor- 2 vols., 4to., and Medicince Practica, Bern, rectness. Ottley's Inquiry into the Origin 1776 et seq., 4 vols., 4to., &c.—Fred. Blume and Early History of Engraving (1816), has lately published the first volume of and Singer's Researches into the History Iter Italicum, containing an account of the of Playing Cards (1816), works which be- archives, inscriptions and libraries in the long to very important points of bibliogra- Sardinian and Austrian provinces. Italian phy, are deficient in correct criticism; and bibliography is no longer what it was in if we are not dazzled by the type, the the times of Mazzuchelli, Audiffredi and paper and the engravings of Dibdin's Tiraboschi. A great indifference is alproductions (Typographical Antiquities, most universal in regard to the public 1810; Bibliotheca Spenceriana, 1814; Bib- libraries; the private collections are beliographical Decameron, 1817; Tour in coming more and more scarce, and the France and Germany, 1821), we cannot precious ones of count Cassano Serra Le blind to the superficial acquirements and Melzi, in Naples and Milan, have of the author. There is now publishing, been lately sold to England. The bibin England, the Bibliographer's Manual, liographical works of Italy treat prinan imitation of Brunet's Manuel above- cipally of the provincial libraries (one of mentioned. It is to be completed in 12 the latest is Moreri's Bibliografia della parts. The learned Germans, little assist- Toscana, 1805): Gamba's Serie de Testi ed by public, almost entirely destitute of (1812) is a very valuable work. The private collections, consulting only the Dutch, Spaniards and Portuguese have, real wants of the science, have actively of late years, done little for this science; endeavored to promote it. Ersch is the but the learned Bentkowsky's Polish founder of German bibliography. He Literature (1814) deserves the highest gave it a truly scientific character by his praise. The count Zechenyi, a Hungaextensive work, Allgemeines Repertorium rian, published a catalogue of all Hunder Literatur (Universal Repertory of garian works, Pest, 1799–1807, 9 vols., Literature, 1793-1807), and by his Hand- 8vo., and 1 vol., 4to. Russia has probuch der Deutschen Literatur (Manual of duced, in the department of bibliography, German Literature). German bibliogra- little more than catalogues. In regard to phy is particularly rich in the literature particular sciences, many useful cataof separate sciences; and the bibliography logues exist, commonly called Bibliothecæ. of the Greek and Latin literature, as well Well arranged and accurate catalogues as the branch which treats of ancient edi- of libraries, which are rich in particular tions, was founded by the Germans. The departments, may be used with advanfirst attempt, in Germany, to prepare a tage by the bibliographer, as may, also, universal bibliographical work, was made the annual catalogue of the book-fair at by Ebert (q. v.), who wrote, also, in the Leipsic. (See Books, Catalogues of.10th number of Hermes, a review of the Directions for the study of bibliography whole modern German bibliography. are contained in Achard's Cours de BibThe booksellers' dictionary is a very liographie (Marseilles, 1807, 3 vols.), Th. valuable German bibliographical work. Hartwell Horne's Introduction to the A supplement is published annually. Study of Bibliography (London, 1814, 2 The following are valuable German bib- vols.), and Gabr. Peignot's Dictionnaire


97 *aisonné de Bibliologie (Paris, 1802-4, of Agde and Auxerre. But, in the 12th 3 vols.)

century, we find it employed as a mode Material Bibliography, often called, by of detecting heretics. In the Gallican way of eminence, bibliography, considers church, it was long practised in the elecbooks in regard to their exterior, their his- tion of bishops; children being employed, tory, &c., and has been principally culti- on behalf of each candidate, to draw slips vated in France and England. The differ- of paper with texts on them, and that ent branches of material bibliography which was thought most favorable de(see, also, Bibliomania) may here be men- cided the choice. A similar mode was

editions (incunabula, or, if classical au- the reception of canons; and this custom thors, editiones principes), some of the is said to have continued in the cathedrals best works on which are, G. Wfg. Pan- of Ypres, St. Omer and Boulogne, as late zer's Annales Typographici (Nuremberg, as the year 1744. In the Greek church, 1793-1803, 11 vols., 4to.), coming down we read of the prevalence of this custom to 1536; the Annales Typographici, by as early as the consecration of AthanaMaittaire (Hague, 1719 et seq., 11 vols., sius, on whose behalf the presiding pre4to.), which not only contains the titles, late, Caracalla, archbishop of Nicomedia, but investigates the subjects of works. opened the Gospels at the words, “For More exact descriptions of particular an- the devil and his angels." Matt. xxv. 41. cient editions are found in Serna Santan- The bishop of Nice first saw them, and der's Dictionn. Bibliogr. der 15ième Siècle adroitly turned over the leaf to another (Brussels, 1805, 3 vols.); Fossius' Cata- verse, which was instantly read aloud: logus Codicum, sec. 15, Impressor. Bibli- “ The birds of the air came and lodged othecæ Magliabecchiance (Florence, 1793, in the branches thereof.” Matt. xiii. 32. 3 vols. fol.), and others. The study of But, this passage appearing irrelevant to rare books, on account of the vague prin- the ceremony, the first became gradually ciples on which it rests, is more difficult known, and the church of Constantinople than is generally believed, and easily de- was violently agitated by the most fatal generates into superficial and capricious divisions during the patriarchate. trifling. This has been more injured BIBLIOMANIA is a word lately formed than promoted by I. Vogt's Catalogus from the Greek, and signifies à passion Librorum Rariorum (Frankfort and Leip- for possessing curious books. The true sic, 1793), and J. Jac. Bauer's Bibliotheca bibliomanist is determined in the purchase Libror. Rarior. Universalis (Nuremberg, of books, less by the value of their con1770-91, 12 vols.) We may also men- tents, than by certain accidental circumtion here the catalogues of the books pro- stances attending them. To be valuable hibited by the Roman church (Indices in his eyes, they must belong to particular Librorum Prohibitorum et Expurgatorum). classes, be made of singular materials, For the discovery of the authors of anon- or have something remarkable in their ymous and pseudonymous works, we may history. Some books acquire the charuse Barbier's Dictionnaire des Ouvrages acter of belonging to particular classes, anonymes et pseudonymes (Paris 1806-9, from treating of a particular subject of 4 vols.), which is valuable for its accuracy interest to the bibliomanist; others froin (but it contains only French and Latin something peculiar in their mechanical works). We need not observe, what an execution, or from the circumstance of important source of information, in the having issued from a press of uncommon department of bibliography, are literary eminence, or because they once belonged journals. (See Bibliomania.)

to the library of an eminent man. Some BIBLIOMANCY ; divination performed by of these collections are of much intrinsic means of the Bible; also called sortes value. Among them are, various editions biblicæ, or sortes sanctorum. It consisted of the Bible (the most complete is at in taking passages at hazard, and drawing Stuttgart); collections of editions of indications thence concerning things fu- single classics (e. g., those of Horace and ture. It was much used at the consecra. Cicero, in the city library at Leipsic); tion of bishops. It was a practice adopted the editions in usum Delphini and cum froin the heathens, who drew the same notis variorum ; the editions of Italian kind of prognostication from the works classics printed by the academy della of Homer and Virgil. In 465, the coun- Crusca; works printed by the Elzevirs, cil of Vannes condemned all who prac- by Aldus, Comino in Padua, and Bodoni tised this art to be cast out of the com- (the most complete collection of Bodoni's munion of the church; as did the councils editions is in the library of the duchess


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