take away from another (dat.) is both contrary to justice and against nature. He plucks the sword [from] the scabbard. Finally (that it was better præstáre) to be killed in battle than not to recover [their] former renown in war (gen.) and the liberty which they received (sulj.) from [their] ancestors. Cæsar, (having sent præmisso) his cavalry, follows [with] all his forces. These things being transacted, all Gaul being subdued, so great an opinion of this war (prevailed perläta est, among ad) the barbarians, that ambassadors were sent (impf. subj.) to Cæsar from the nations which (lived incolèrent) beyond the Rhine, who promised (impf. subj.) (that they would give him hostages, and submit to his commands se obsides datúras, imperåta factüras). And now the day had shortened the (mid-day medias) shadows of things, and the sun was distant, (equally ex æquo) [from] either (extremity of heaven metá). O Pyrämus, she exclaimed, what calamity has taken thee from me (dat.)? He converted the earth (plur.) into the form of a sea, and took away (the harvests opes) [from] the husbandmen. I have received from Aristocritus three letters, which I have nearly obliterated with [my] tears. (Thou actest facis) absurdly, (to torment qui angas) thyself in mind (gen.). To tt'; » away, aufero: to take away, deträho ; contrary to, (alignum a): he plucks, eripio : finally, postremò; battle, acies: being

transacted, gestus ; being subdued, pacatus: a sea, fretum: to obliterate, d-leo.


1. I am not in fault. 2. He 1. Waco culpa (abl.).

attends to philosophy. 3. I am
not at leisure. 4. He strippèd
him of his goods.
1. To set out where the walls
of a city should be. 2. To de-
molish a town. -

1. To rum through so many dangers, and to die. 2. To be

free from the obligationofan oath.

1. To lose one's labour, not without a cause. 2. ' I would

2. Vaco philosophia (dat.).
8. Non vaco (3 pers. ego
dat.). 4. Exuo is bonum.
1. Urbs designo ara-
trum (abl.) or moenia de-
signo sulcus (abl.). 2. Im-
primo murus (dat. pl.) hos-
tilis (acc.) aratrum (acc.)
1. Fungor tot pericùlum,
et fungor fatum. 2. Sol-
vo religio sacramentum.
1. Opêra abütor, non
injuria (abl.). 2. Paucus

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Ye have before [your] eyes Catiline, that most audacious of men. And now the (high summa) tops ofthe villages (at a distance procul) smoke. The friendship of Orestes and Pylädes (acquired adepta est), immortal fame (among posterity apud postëros). The greatest of benefits are those which we receive from our parents. (No beast nulla bel'tarum) is wiser than the elephant. There is no one of us wiuhout fault. Ripheus (also et) falls, (who qui unus) was the most just (among in) the Trojans, and (the strictest in integrity servantissimus aequi). Orgetörix was by far the noblest and richest (among apud) the Swiss. O harp! the ornament of Phoebus, and acceptable at the banquets of supreme Jupiter. (Some pars) think [that] a thousand verses like mine (gen.) might be spum out in a day. Diogènes, being asked at what age a wife may be taken, said, “By young men not as yet, by old men never.” He drew a ditch of twenty feet with perpendicular sides. The goats themselves shaii bring homie their udders, distended with milk. ' Aurora opened the purple doors and (the courts atria) full of roses. And around the Trojan matrons [stand] dishevelled [as to their] hair, (according to custom de more). What is more shameful or more base than an effeminate man ? Caius Lælius, when an ill-born fellow said to him [that] he was unworthy of his ancestors, replied, “But, by Hercules, thou art not unworthy of thine.” The authority of the senate [has been] betrayed to a (most virulent acerrimo) enemy ; your power [has been] betrayed; the republic (has been set to sale venâlis fuit) at nome and abroad. It is more laborious to conquer one's self than an enemy. (The more quo) ignorant any one [is], (the more eo) impudent. The longer Simonides considered the nature of God, the more obscure the thing appeared to him. This condition [was] so much the more grievous to them, by how much it was the later. He pays to me the money with his owm hand. To every one his own verses are the most beautiful. We have seen the breast (of thee tuum), a simple man. He drew two weapons out of his arrow-bearing quiver, of different workmanship: the one drives away love, the other causes love. He acquired to himself the greatest glory. I hate a wise man, who is not wise to himself. In all things, the agreement of all nations is (to be thought putanda) the law of nature. It is [the duty] of soldiers to obey their general. It is [the part] of a magnanimous man, [in] agitated affairs, (to pardon conserváre) the multitude, [and] to punish the guilty. Propitious [virgin], pity, I pray, the son and the sire; for thou canst [effect] all [things]. (It is the part of a Romam Románum est) to act and to suffer bravely (adj. neut. plur.). He coadeimns his som-in-law of wickedness. He was charged with this crime in the assembly by his enemies. He assassinates Polydörus, amd by violence (possesses potitur) his gold (abl.). Thou art accustomed to forget nothing (but nisi) injuries (acc.). (Wherefore quippe) all, forgetting their wives (gen.) and children, and (their distant longinquae a domo) warfare, (regarded ducébant) the Persian gold, and the wealth of the whole East, as now their own plunder (acc.); nor (did they think of meminerant) the war and the dangers, but of[these] riches. No man can serve pleasure and virtue (at the same time simul). (But most of the youth cætérùm juventus pleräque espècially marimè of the nobility nobilium) favoured (impf. sing.) the undertakings of Catiline. . I envy not indeed the good fortune or condition of any citizen or fellow-soldier ; nor do I wish, by depressing amother, (to exalt extulisse) myself. They often advise her that she should moderate [her] love, (dat.) and apply consolation to [her] inattentive (lii. degf) mind. AEméas commands [his] associates to bend [their] course, and to turn [their] prows [towards] land; and jóyous (he enters succédit) the shady riyer. Compare ye this péace (with cum) that war. We have (est put for habeo ) ripe apples, I ipse a pipe (composed compacta) of sev m 1

unequal (reeds cicütis). The sea is a destruction to greedy mariners. To these [men] ease, riches, (desirable optandæ) to others, were a burden and misery. Hunger teaches a man many [things]. Can I teach thee letters ? How many more men have been destroyed by the violence of men, that is, by wars and seditions, than by every (other reliquâ) calamity! Never shall he disconcert me (by his measures consilio), never (shall he bafile pervertet) me by any artifice! Thrice had Achilles dragged Hector round the Trojan walls, and was selling the breathless corpse for gold. The eager man bought it (for as much as tanti quanti) Pythius wished. Hephæstion was dead (whom quem vnum) Alexander, (as quod) might be easily understood, háò valued very highly. All are rich, say the Stoics, who can enjoy (the air cælo) and the earth. Go from the city, Catiline, free the republic from fear ; go, ifthou waitest for that word, into banishment. Use [thy] ears more frequently than thy tongue. He rescued me [from] death (dat.). This speech (bcing ended habità), he dismissed the council. Cæsar ordered the gates to be , shut, and the soldiers to depart from the town, lest the inhabitants should receive any injury from the soldiers by night. These things being transacted, all Gaul (being pacified pacätä), so great an opinion of this war prevailed among the barbarians, that ambassadors were sent to Cæsar from the nations which lived beyond the Rhine, (who quæ) promised that they would give him hostages, (and submit to his commands imperäta factüras).

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He was condemned for Proditiönis est damtreason. Small things are com- nâtus. Parva magnis pared with great. conferuntur. « He will be beloved by us. A nobis diligétur. Non I am not understood by any intelligor ulli. one. What will become of my De fratre quid fiet? brother?

* Whatever is the accusative after an active verb must be the nominative to it after a passive verb, whilst the other case is retained un

ExERcIsE 56.

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spect, a crown was given by the sum. • • people. Perdiccas is slain at the river Perdiccas apud flumen

der the government of the verb, and cannot become its nominative ; as,


Act. p Ass. Do tibi librUM. Datur tibi liBER. Narras FABULAM surdo. Surdo FABULA narratur. Capitis euM condemnârunt. Capitis ILLE est condemmatus. PATERAM vino implevit. Vino PATER A est impleta.

When there are two accusatives, that of the person becomes the nominative ; as, Act. .pASS. Docebat pueRos grammaticam. Purki docebantur grammaticam. It is therefore to be remembered, that nothing but that which is in

the accusative after the active verb, whether denoting a person or a thing, cam be the nominative to the verb in the passivé voice ; as,

Act. ' pass. Persuadeo hoc tibi. Hoc tibi persuadetur, not Tu persuaderis. Hoc tibi dixi. Hoc tibi dictum est, mot Dictus es.

In the expression Tu dictus es, tu denotes the subject of discourse, or the person of whoM, not the person to whoM, information is given. Hence it is, that, if a verb does not govern the accusative in the active voice, it cam have no passive, unless impersonally ; thus we say, Resisto tibi, and cannot, therefore, say Tu resisteris, but Tibi re

sistitur. See more on this subject in Grant's Institutes, p.210.

\ To this we may add, that the nominative tothe active verb must be the ablative wiwh a or ab after the passive verb; as,

ACt. pAss.

Arma fecit VuLcAnus Achilli. Arma facta sunt Achilli a VulcAro. Romulus cQndidit Romam. Roma condita est a Romulo.

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