« ForrigeFortsett »
She, offended with me (gen.) and (hating perösa) all the race of men, wandered in the mountains, employed in, the exercises of Diana. Whilst we are speaking. these [things], we come in the meantime to the market, where the confectioners, fishmongers, butchers, cooks, all glad, run to meet me. Let them therefore either depart or be at rest; or, if they * continue in the city, or in the same mind, let them expect those [punishments] which they deserve. O folly (acc.), folly, shall I say, or unparalleled impudence ? Do ye dare to make mention of these men ? Dost thou not now see, brute, dost thom not now perceive what the complaint of men is (subj.) of thy (impudence frontis)? The Lacedemonians desisted from their long dispute, and, of their own &ccord, yielded up (the command at sea imperii maritimi) to the Athenians. For (O prò) sacred Jupiter (voc)! what greater aotion was ever performed, not only , in this city, but in all lands ? ', -
—•—t , - - OF The CHOICE AND ELEGANCE OF PARTICULAR woRDs*.
Elegance, according to the derivation of the word (eligere), consists, in the choice of the most appropriate words and expressions, and in their composition, and clear and perspicubus order. It depends chiefiy on the usage of the best Latin writers. When, `therefore, the scholar has selected those words, which are appropriate in their meaning to the sense of the subject, the next thing will be, to consider whether they have been used by the best writers of antiquity. But let it be premised, that no word can be elegant or ^beautiful in itself in its disjoined state, but merely as far as it strengthens, connects or illustrates the subject; or at least as far as the Latin word conveys, in its true meaning, the full force of the English expression. It would be absurd, therefore, to use at random the first word which presents itself, without considering whether it is appropriate to the sense. In investigating the true and proper signification of words, it will be necessary to understand each different sense, in which they are used; and ifthe scholar acquaints himself as much as he can with their etymology and original meaning, he will be enabled to write purer Latin, and to avoid many Græcisms, obsolete and barbarous words, and those which have too great an affinity to the English, introduced into use by several modern and inelegant writers, as, recommendare, to recommend, &c.
* Altered from Valpy's Elegantiæ Latinæ.
Should the Latin, however, not furnish a word sufficiently elegant, or fully expressive of the English idea, or ifthe force or dignity of the subject requires it, it miay be necessary to vary an expression by means of a short periphrasis, or of a • phrase, instead of a simple word. , But, in the choice of phrases, care must, be taken that they do not convey more meaning than we wish to express. Nòthing, indeed, will be more conducive to the purity and elegance of the Latin language, than a happy contexture of elegant Roman phrases, or forms of speaking, used by the best and purest writers. With these, therefore, the learner should be directed to store his memory, and be taught how to use them in his own composition. It will also be necessary to observe, that there are many peculiar modes of expression or idioms in the English, which can on.y be rendered by adopting . some Latin phrase, or using such a variation as will best süit the Latin style. For instance— • Send me word by letter : • • To use a literal, or, rather, barbaroüs expression, we should say, mitte mihi verbum : to speak true or elegant Latin, we should say, fac me per literas certiorem. I am short qf money : , , - Barbarously or literally, brevis sum pecuniae; elegantly, deficit me pecunia. I would be loath to make thee to be beatcn : I will make them friends : He made as though he wept : Such expressions, on the very first view, carry with them the appearânce of English idioms. It would be, therefore, absurd, carelessly to say, essem invitus facere te vapulare, &c.; but, with a little care and judgment, and by considering their real meaning, it will be easy to give them a turn which may answer that meaning, and to find out a corresponding Latin expression. Thus we shall say: I vpould be loath to make thee be beatem : non lubens committerem ut vapulares, that is, I would not willingly give cause that..... I will make them friends : redigam eos in gratiam. He made as though he wept : simulavit quasi fleret, or se flere.
. And so on of phrases in general: thus again
I will make good, that is, supply, supplebo. He made much qf me, i. e. he treated me well, comiter me tractavit. He makes much of himself, i. e. he indulges himself, sibi or genio indulget. You make game qf me, i. e. you laugh at me, ludis me, or ludibrio me habes. You can do much with him, tu multùm apud eum potes. You know what account I make qf him, i. e. esteem him, scis quanti cum faciam. I'll have nothing to do with your friendship, i. e. I renounce... renuncio tuae amicitiae. I have my brother to entreat, i. e. my brother remains to be entreated, restat mihi frater adhuc exorandus. Thou mayst for all me, licet tibi per me. Thou mayst be gone for all me, licet abeas per me. To be spoken qf, audire. - VVhat trade are you qf? i. e. do you pursue? Quam artem factitas ? - . 'o ask the advice qf any one, i. e. to consult, consulere. You are sure to be punished, i. e. a certain punishment awaits you, certa pœna te manet. Be ruled by me, i. e. listen to me, ausculta mihi. I am not in fault, i. e. blamable, or, I am free from fault, vaco culpâ. • ' Let kim lose, be made to go without, his supper, multetur cœno. To be sick of a disease, fever, want, i. e. to labour under .... laborare morbo, &c. Besides a great number of phrases, which are derived from the particular forms and customs of the Romans, and which a more intimate acquaintance with Latin authors will soon render familiar to the scholar ; as, to sell by auctiom, hastæ subjicere; with good or ill luck, bonis aut malis avibus ; to marry, ducere uxorem, &c. And so on of phrases in general: this shows at the same time the absolute necessity of attending more to the sense than the words, and of suiting the expressions accordingly. Many English sentemces may appear very difficult and intricate, and sometimes, at first sight, scarcely susceptible of being converted into elegant, and, at the same time, appropriate Latin. These sentemces the scholar should be directed to read repeatedly till he understands perfectly their sense and meaning. His first business will be, then, to simplify, so as to reduce them to their bare and original idea, divesting them of every superfluous word and idiomatic expression : and he should not begin to write any part of the sentence tul he has furnished himself with the Latin corresponding to *he chief heads of it; for his first attempt will not always embrace the full scope and purport of its, meaning, and it may be necessary to vary his sentence, and give it a new and *fifièrent turn, by the change of active into passive, or passive pnto active, &c. ; and then it will be easy to give it a fuller ^ress, and so to connect it by the addition of any suitable vnd necessary words, as may give to the whole a force equal to that of the English. And as the young Latin writer is apt to follow too closely fhe literal order of the English, it may be necessary to guard him against this common error, by the following observation, which, though coming more properly under the head of the order and arrangement of words, may be introduced in this place, as being applicable to almost every example that may occur. It is the genius of the Latin language, that the order and position of words are not bound by so strict and immutable laws as in other languages, though certain rules must be followed, and such an arrangement preserved, that the style may not be confused, puerile and inelegant. Seldom, therefore, does the nominative case come first in the sentence; but other cases, unless the sense and perspicuity absolutely require it, are generally placed before it. - But, though elegance of style depends very much on this transposition, care, must be taken to avoid a cor.fused intermixture of words; that, for instance, what belonps to a clause of a sentence in which the relative qui, quae quod, occurs, and is dependent upon it, may not be interemixed with the clause which contains the antecedent; as, The man who has once transgressed the bounds of ^odesty must be completely and perfectly impudent. It may not be inelegant to say, Qui semel verecundiae fines transierit, eum prorsus 0: <rtet esse impudentem. But to say, Qui semel verecundiae, eum prorsus oportet esse imp* lemtem, fines transierit, . Would render the sense obscure and unintelligible.