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1. Éypy sailor, who gained the shore, and was safely dratbn on drv land.
$. How ungrateful you are to fortune, voho thus make a toil of a pleasure.
When the relative follows an interrogative or a negative, and expresses the same thing and subject as the antecedent clause, it is joined with the subjunctive mood ; as, There is no one, who does not hate you; nemo est, qui te non oderit.
1. Who is the boy, who can applyto his studies, where there is such ' a moise (ubi tot obstrepunt graculi) ?
2. Thére is no.one ucho does not understand, that the body is then most Ę? affected, and best recruited, when it is refreshed with seagonable and moderate sleep.
The relative coming after the English verbs to be, to be found, when preceded by the word there, is, for the sake of perspicuity, followed by the subjunctive mood: as, There,are men who say ; sunt qui dicant.
1. There have been found men, vcho voluntarily shortened their own life : these I think worse, and more mischievous.
2. There are philosophers, vcho think, that the most precious thing in life is time (tempus pretiosissimum esse).
When the relative comes after intensive words, as, such, so, and is. used for ut ego, ut tu, &c., it is followed by the subjunctive :' as, I am not such a man as to say, or, I am not the man who says; non sum is qui dicam. This will not take place after the demonstrative pronoun is ; for it would then be, I am not that man who say, non sum is qui dico, or, I who say am not that man.
1. I am not so hard-hearted, as to deny you your request.
2. Such is the authority of this man, thát it can neither be shaken by the secret intrigues of his enemies, nor by the opem attacks of the multitude.
For the sake of perspicuity, the subjunctive will be used afier qui, when it is preceded by such restrictive words as solus, unicus, unus ; as, He is the only one qf the family who learns ; est solus ex familiâ qui discat; were we to say, discit, it might be mistâken for. he who learns is the only one of the family.
1. He was the only one of the philosophers, who maintained that wisdom was the only guide of life, which led to happiness.
2. He was the only one voho said that the soul of man is the man, that the body is nothing but a dwelling or an instrument.
When qui is used for the interrogative indefinite quis, and not as a mere relative, it is followed by the subjunctive ; as, Tell me whom you see, dic mihi quem videas : if it was merely the relative, as in this sentence, I know the man whom you see, it would be, notus est mihi homo, quem vides.
1. As for me, from the time when I first saw you, and learnt from most men, with whom I conversed, what erudition and virtue you possessed, it became the first object of my wishes to gain your love and esteem.
2. Do you inquire to what end tend so many sciences, and by vohat arts men have polished the rude mammers of barbarians, and have changed worse for better, disgraceful for excellent, and the vilest for the most precious things ?
It is not only after dignus, that the relative qui is used for ut; but, in general, where the relative clause indicates any final cause, design or purpose, and might be rendered by a supine, by ut or ad, then qui may be elegantly used ; as, He sent ambassadors, to sue for peace ; misit legatos qui pacem peterent. 1. He sent certain men to bring him to town. 2. Then Romulus, by the advice of the fathers, sent ambassadors to the ÉÉÉÉ states to solicit the friendship and connubial alliances with this newly-established people. 3. I did not give you money to use at your pleasure. 4. He further enjoined them to send spies into all parts to learn the designs and motions of their enemies.
And in many other instances it is used for the English infinitive, where the sense will easily admit of it.
1. As a calm at sea is understood, when the least breath of wind does not stir the waves, so is the quiet and peaceful state of the mind beheld, when there is no passion to discompose it.
2. They have mo clocks to distinguish hours, (horologia, quibus horas noscunt), nor mile-stones (milliaria) to show the distamce of places.
In sentences which admit of a transposition, without creating any obscurity, it is very elegant to put the relative qui, quæ, quod, and its compounds, before the antecedent, in the beginning of the sentence ; as, quam mecum colis amicitiam, multi laudant: and to give greater force or stress to the sense, and in order to form a stronger connexion between the relative and the antecedent, the pronouns is, hic, idem, &c. are elegantly placed before the second member of the sentence ; as, quem Deus misit, ei non creditis, whom God hath sent, him ye believe not.
1. We commonly say that those men mre always asleep, who, in our opiniom, are indifferent and careless about every thing. (Quos putamus.
2. Nothing can be more foolish than those, who, im a free city, behave themselves in an audacious and alarming manner.
3. Let every man exercise himself in the profession which he knows.
4. Whatever change of manners takes place in princes will, soon pass into the people.
5. Drops of crimson blood distil and stain the earth with gore from the tree, which I tore from the soil, having first brokenTits roots asunder.
6. The same land shall receive you returning thither in its fertile bosom (ubere læto), which first brought you forth the race of mighty ancestors.
Est, sunt, erit, &c. elegantly admit the relative qui, quae, quod, with the omission of the antecedent aliquis, quoddam, &c. followed by an indicative or a subjunctive ; as,
Est de quo tibi gratulor.
1. There is scme one to vchom you can give these letters.
2. You have what to write in these eventful times.
3. There were some mem at that time who said Cicero did not deserve so highly of his country (de patriâ bene meritum).
4. There are some men whose delight is to follow the camp, and to encounter the dangers of war.
The omission of the antecedent is also elegant, where it may be easily inferred from the sense of the subject; as, You have one, or, a friend, who wishes you well : Habes, qui tibi bene cupiat. 1. He sent men or servants, to invite all his friends to supper. 2. Sciences are soon acquired, if you have a master acho can teach them with diligence and faithfulness. (This rule may be referred to the former.)
The pronoun is, or ille, is oftener understood before the relative qui, quæ, quod.
1. He, voho despises riches, is a wise inan.
2. But if we retreat through fear and consternation, these same circumstances will be adverse to us; neither the advantage of situation, nor the number of allies, will be able to protect him, whom arms could not protect (quem arma minimè potuerint).
The relatives qualis, quantus, quot, are elegantly placed before the antecedents, talis, tantus, tot ; and the relative adverbs quantò, ubi, quò, quàm, quamdiu, quoties, before tantò, ibi, hoc, or eò, tam, tamdiu, toties ; as,
Atlas was made as great a mountain, as he was a man : Quantus erat, tantus mons factus Atlas.
1. Citizens usually conform themselves to the example of those, who govern the state. (Say, such as those, who govern the state, such are usually citizens.
2. There are almost as many different kinds of speaking, as there are orators.
3. The more elevated we are in rank, the more submissive should we behave ourselves.
For omnis qui, and omnia quae, it is often much better, as it is more concise, to put quicunque, quisquis, and quidquid. I wish you to consider that in all things, in vchich you can show a
kindness to my friend, you will bind me to you by the strongest ties of gratitude.
The pronoun quid is most frequently used for the adverb cur ; as,
And, on the contrary, it is nore elegant to use the adverbs cur, quare, quamobrem, instead of propter or ob quem, quam, quod ; &c. as, Many reasons occurred to my mind, for which I thought that labour would prove an honour to you : Multa mihi veniebant in mentem quamobrem illum laborem tibi honori fore putarem. 1. Nor yet have I been able to devise any reason, for which he ough; to undertake their cause. - . 2. But if there is no reason, for which you should load this miserable wretch with so great calämities, my advice is, that you should
spare him (ut ei parcatur). 3. But there were mariy reasons, for which I wished to be there
To the interrogatives quis, quæ, quid, quó, quando, the particle ec is elegantly prefixed ; as, Brutus ecquid agit ? What does Brutus ?
1. I pray you, what so great misfortune can you imagine, which does not fjllto my lot ?
2. Who had the power of entering into the forum ?
3. When did you suppose that yoù would give in an account of your proceedings ?
Id quod is most frequently used for quod, when it refers not merely to one substantive, but to the whole preceding sentence ; as,
You love virtue, which I commend : Amas virtutem, id quod laudo.
1. The undeserving are often loaded with wealth and honours, whilst the good meet with contempt and repulse ; which is the reason that virtueitselfis mot practised with much zeal.
2. But the man who feels no shame, vohich I find happens in many, I consider not only worthy of reprehension, but even of punishmenit.
3. You have $ your intention to leave this country soom, vchich has affected us all with the most lively concern.
When the pronoun is is used for talis, it is elegantly followed by qui, quæ, quod, instead of ut is, ut ea, &c., as, by the same rule, quantus, qualis, quot, quoties, will be more elegantly put for ut tantus, talis, tot, toties; as,
Such, or so great, is your desire of revenge, that, if Iwere Laflamed with it, I shoul l be the most miserable :
Ea or tanta est tua vindictæ cupido, quâ or quantâ si flagrarem miserrimus essem.
1. Such indeed is your learning, that, if I possessed it, I should call myself fortunate.
2. You have read Homer so oftem, that, if I had read him as qftem, things would go on much better with me.
3 TWe havé gained so many trophies from our enemies, that no na tion cam boast of ever having gained so many.
Qui, quæ, quod, is often elegantly used simply for talis, or tantus, or qualis; as, Such isTthy love towards me : Qui tuus est ergà me amor.