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solid learning, every precept of true wisdom and prudence, and, what is of much greater consequence, the best examples for the formation and direction of a good life (bene instituendæ vita).
A participle passive is often elegantly joined to a verb as antecedent to it, and put into the neuter gender, being made to agree with the sentence, though either of the two verbs would have been sufficient ; as, Quam relatum legerint. A similar mode is very frequently adopted with the verb habeo, when the English verb to have refers not merely to the perfect, but to the present ; as, '. VWe have found or discovered that the, sun stands stillCompertum habemus solem consistere. 1. We have received it from traditiom, or we have received it as delivered from antiquity. . ' ' 2. I comprehend in my mind, or, I hold it comprehended in mymind. 3. You could scarcely mention any thing which he did not know ; for as we mark with letters whatever we Wish to commit to a lasting monument, so he had engraven all things om. his mind.
The participle future active should be used, instead of the verbs cupio, volo, and statua, with the omission of the conjunctions cùm and si, when they merely imply something future; as, - ,* - .-*
If you intend to set out on your journey, shake off your sleep : Iter initurus eripe te somno. -
1. When you wish to vcrite verses, read Virgil, and thus his manner may, by degrees, be imperceptibly transfused into your poetry.
2. When I was thinking qf vriting this letter to you, ïïigence was brought to me, that you were gone into Italy.
All verbs, signifying motion to a place, may be variously rendered; either by a supine, a gerund, or by ut with the subjunctive; but with greater elegance by the participle future active ; as,
He came to snatch auay the boy :
Venit ut eriperet puerum ;
Venit ereptum puerum;
Venit eripiendi puerum causâ; or, ad eripiendum puerum :
But more elegantly,
Venit erepturus puerum.
• 1. 1 am come to ertricato you fron all your difficulties.
2. He retired into the temple, to implore the favour of the gods, and to consult the oracle ; but a band of ruffians, unmindful of the sacree, , place in which so foul a deed would be perpetrated, rushed upon him, and slew him before the altar.
One or two more words in a sentence are elegantly placed between the participle and the verb sum, which, in that case, r generally comes first. -
1. I think I shall not be very far from the truth, in asserting, that, among all those (ex omnibus iis), who have been employed in the most liberal studies of the arts and sciences, there have existed a very small number of excellent poets.
2. I had not the least doubt, that many messengers, and report itself, would, by its rapidity, anticipate this letter. ' '
In a continued narration, which is intended to represent circumstances as ifthey were present to the eye, the present indicative is more in use than the perfect.
1. The commander, observing the, general consternation, called a council of war, and, having summoned all the centurions of the army to be present, inveighed against them, with great severity, for presumiing to inquire, or at all concern themselves, which way, ér on what design, they were to march. -
2.TA few days after, Ennius haying come to Nasica, and asking for him at the door, Nasica cried out that he was not at home.
- - a^ It is usual with the Latins, in a narration, to make use of the present infinitive instead of the indicative, with the ellipsis of coepi, or of some other verb; this is called the historie infinitive ; as in that line of Virgil: ' , • Nos pavidi trepidare metu, crinemque , flagrantem Ezcutere.
1. Then all in the assembly exclaimed that the country was in danger (in summum discrimen esse adductum), and that the enemies were iilready at the gates; they, then suddenly rushed forth, determined eitherto conquer, or to die bravely for their country. *
2. The mam, being struck (percitus) with the fear of impending danger, faltered, hesitated, and blushed. -
, Where the subject is general, and the word man is either expressed or understood, the passive is not always used, but it is as elegant to put the second person singular of the subjunctive, or the infinitive, with the verb est or licet; as, A man may easily understand what use is to be derived from literature : Animadvertere est, quanta ex re literariâ quæri possit utilitas. / 1. 2d PERsos PREs. Sub.—In every business, before men undertake any thing of moment, they should first deiiberate, and use the utmost caution. - 2. What is promised with an oath, as if God were a witness, must be inviolably Ë (id tenendum est). * 3. INFIN. Iwith est or licet.—Men are seen every where covetous of money. - - 4. Men are oftem seem, not so much from a natural benevolence, as from a desire of appearing generous, doing actions ' which seern to proceed rather from ostentation than good will. 5. This may be seem in our other senses, that we are not so long delighted with perfumes of a very high and sweet savour, as with those that are more moderate (quâm his moderatis). In the epistolary style, instead of the present tense, the past tenses are often used ; most frequently the imperfect. The writer seems to consider the time of the letter's being read, not of its being written, as the moment of narration : as, I am ill;* the letter writer si.ould say,. Aegrotabam, because his illness may have left him before the letter is received. A future is rendered by the participle future, with the imperfect of the verb suin. v ' 1. There is (say was) a report, that you have succeeded in your enterprise. - - - 2. I am thinking qf setting qff to-morrow (Participle future with imperfect of sum). 3. If there shall be a long interval between my letters, do not vconder at it (perfect subjunctive); for I shall be absent for a whole nmonth. 4. I mrrite this on the twelfth of June, and send it by the letterearrier (tabellario tradebam). -
There is some difficulty in the use of the future perfect, owing to the incorrectness of the English, which generally uses the simple present, future or perfect, where it ought to have a future perfect. It generally follows these particles, * cùm, ubi, si, quando, and is used when the verb, thát accompanies it, is in the future imperfect, and itself denotes a future action absolutely completed ; as, - , When he comes, we shall sing: Cùm venerit ille, ca7 aemus. * • 1. When your father comes, I shall tell him (certiorem faciam) what progress yóu have made in your learning. 2. IVhen you have sent me"that book, Ishall give it to my father. . • • 3. If you do this, I shall be highly indebted to you. 4. Whatever you resolve will please me. 5. To-morrow, ifthe enemy go out of their camp to forage and lay waste the nei Κ; country, 1 shall give orders for a chosem troop to sally forth, and, if possible, to takeTthe foraging party in the rear, and cut them off from their maim army. . ]
' • - Tf.is tense is by some grammarians very erroneously called a futur^ subiunctive. The Latins invariably use.the participle future, and the verb sum, to form a future subjunctive; as, I do nut doubt but he will prove a learned man : Non dubito, quin evasuri.s sit doctus. When verbs have no supine, and consequently want a participle future, they employ the periphrasis fore ut, as we have already observed; as, I hope he will learn ; spero fore ut discat. 1. Such is his skill, bravery, and knowledge of the military art, that he vcilt. without doubt, crtricate himself from that danger. . 2. He wiul use so many arts, that he vcill corrupt my son.
3. I think that, if misers bury their treasures in à chest, not only their thoughts but their bodies vcill always hang ower that chest. v
And, oftem where the English has a future, the Latins, speaking with greater accuracy, make use of a present, when the matter relates to a thing present.
1. Who will deny this ? I am so far from invalidating the force of thi$ argument, that I wish to, pay all possible respectoto so high an authority.
2. Every one vill easily understand, that the whole of my discourse tends to confute so erroneous an opinion.
The Latins often very elegantly use the perfect subjunctive, instead of the present.
•, 1 Some one may say, that virtue is its own reward; but few men
will be induced to love virtue for its own sake, if they are not at the same time impelled by other more powerful reasons. 2. You may olject to this, that man is born to labour, and therefore
he cannot expect a life of repose. r
The present subjunctive of the verbs volo, malo, nolo, possum, is often used for the imperfect, as is the case with other verbs, when there is an interrogation.
1. I vpould rather please you and Brutus. 2. If he must be sent for, which I should by no means voish, he cannot but be struck with astonishment at this unheard of prodigy. 3. Who could mot understand a thing so intelligible ? '4. Who could beliere, that you, whd are already so much advanced in years, should think of marriage *
Concerning the SUCCESSION OF TENSES to each other, as far as it varies from the English, as it is often attended with some difficulty, it may be observed, that after ut, ne, quô, quo minùs, quin, qui, quæ, quod, quis, and other particles, that goverm the subjunctive, if a present or future goes before, it is right to use the present ; if an imperfect, perfect or pluperfect, then the imperfect follows: as, he will be worthy to be loved; dignis erit, qui ametur ; he was worthy to be loved: dignus erat, qui amaretur. But it will be necessary to pay strict regard -to the nature of the tenses, and the sense of the subject; , hence some exceptions may sometimes occur. A PRESENT after a PREsENT,—When speaking of things present. - 1. You tell me that your destimy is placed in my own hand, as ífit
vpere possible, that I should obtain this boon.—(Here it would be ÄÈ to say consequerer, because fieri possit goes before, though the Englis
might seem to authorize it.) É I do not think, that there are any men, vcho would not wish to be informed of the fate of their absent friends.
But these will be excepted: - A perfect must come after the present, if speaking of a circumstance that is past; and a future, if speaking of the future.
1. You are novo afraid, as if you had not at all been present, as if you yourself had not obtained that wealth unjustly. '