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1. He declared that he would no longer lend his assistance to the senate, in their PĘ (grassanti) against the people ; that ho would interfere ifthey perseveredin their fórmer tyranny ; but, ifthey thought that he could be as cruel as the senator§, thai he would go' away with his soldiers, and no longer be present at their civil broils.
Instead of quod attinet ad id quod, and which the English itself renders by as to what, it is more elegant simply to use quod. . - - - ' • '
Jls to what sóme men have thought, that the soulitself will one day (olim) perish, they are most egregiously mistakem. .
And, on the contrary, the best writers do not use quod ad, with the accusative, for as to, in regard to, but always quod attinet, quod spectat ad; as, As to you : quod ad vos attinet. • , , • · · · ·
4s to you, I never saw a man inore perniciously prodigal.
In stating am objection, instead. of saying, at objici possit, objiciat quis, &c., it will be sufficient simply to make use of at, and the answer may be made with, or even without, at.
In this I have often been' struck with admiration at the dignity, the justice, and the wisdom manifested by Cæsar. He always, uses the imost honourable names towards Pompéy. But somne one vcill say, that he showed the most persecuting and vindictive spirit towards his person. But these were the deeds óf arms, and the insolence of vietory, and not of Cæsar. , • *
In the connexion of several arguments, the Latins do not enumerate them by primò, secundò, tertiò, &c., but by primùm, deinde, tum, denique, postremò; and, instead of those words of enumeration, as, tum, prætereà, insuper, &c., other forms of connexion maybe used, as, accedit quod; ut taceam, omittam, &c. ' - - • ^ . . . .
We must first consider, that our kindness should hurt nobody ; secondly, that it should not be above gur faculties; thirdly, that it may be exercised with dignity; and, lastly, attended with the greatest honesty. . • . - - - - • .
As nothing contributes more to elegance of style than a cnange or variation of words, to which the scholar should be early introduced, we shall briefly show how it may be effected. This variation is either simple, and consists in the mere change of one word into another synonymous word or phrase, or it is rhetorical or ornamental, as, by the accession of another expression, more full, dignified, or smooth, the simple idea receives greater ornament, and, by this metaphorical and circuitous manner, assumes the form of a period. -Thus, to give an example of a simple variation by means of a synonymous phrase: *•. . ; Ingenium est omnium hominum a labore proclive ad libidinem.—Ter. , - ' . May be varied thus: - i . Ea est omnium mortalium indoles ut a labore ad voluptatem ruant. - Thus again, to show the ease with which a sentence may be almost infinitely varied: – – . In hoc natura efficere quid possit videtur experta. . In the genitive: In hoc naturæ quanta vis sit, satis perspectum est. In the dative: Naturæ quid efficere liceat, in hoc compertum est. - „ . . In the accusative: Naturam, quid efficere possit, experiri voluisse arbitror.' In the ablative: In.hoc quid a naturâ effici possit, compertum est. ` .. ' , ,
'An adjective may be changed into a substantive; as, He reproaches his legs for being too slender : Crurum nimiam tenuitatem vituperat. .
1. He was sufficiently eloquent, liberal, versed in civil law, as well
as the military art.—(Say Äj enim....) - 2. Hovo senseless must you tlink yourselves, who, while you pos
sess the real comforts and blessings in Jife, harass your minids with
phantoms of:maginary evils, and, imstead of enjoying the substantial ifts of fortune, torture yourselves with the apprehension of future cafú. which are never likely to happen !
And, in the same manner, an adjective may be elegantly put in the neuter gender, and its substantive in the genitive case; as, instead of hanc laudem consecutus es, say, hoc laudis..... - .
1. The sum imparts the sane light and heat to all these nations.
2. You have this nobility, and I shall always pay you that def. erence. - • * • .
Two substantives are often put for one ; each, however, having its proper force and meaning; for they are not re„ dundant, but are intended to give greater perspicuity or harmony to the sentence ; as, instead of offendere hominem, we shall. say offendere animum hominis, because it is his mind which is offended ; and qffendere hominem might be mistaken for, to find a mam. We shall be more accurate in saying gladii mucrone ictus, than gladio. , 1. Say now that you were overreached by him, who refused such an immense sum of money not on account of his indolence, but on aecount of his magnificence.” (Here inertiam laboris may be used, and followed by magnificentium liberalitatis, for the sake of that concinfiitas, or equálity of the clauses, which we shall mention afterwards.) 2. Thé whóle senate, (the state or condition of) the judiciary proceedings, the whole commonwealth itself, has undergone a revolution.
The pronoun personal may be rendered by the pronoun substantive. ' f. ' , • ' ,
Though Cæsar has never been my friend, but had always shown a disinclination to me, though he hadislighted myfriendship, and acted the part of an implacable enemy towards me, yet, after the great things he has done, and still continues to do, I could, not helpTlowing him. i
It may be observed, that the dative acquisitive is oftea elegantly used instead of the genitive.
When they heard that he had been condemned unheard, they threw themselves át the judge's feet, and prayed that he might be saved from the gallows (ut e furcâ redimueretur),
The English adjective may be sometimes rendered by a substantive, and the word with which it agrees be put in the genitive case ; as, You will easily judge houo few orators there are and have been : Facillimè quanta oratorum sit, semperque fuerit paucitas judicabis : , Instead of quàm pauci .... - . 1. /lncient friendship, the $. of the man, and my constant , präctice through life, jointly ealled upon me to defend him. 2. A good voice, though it is very desirable, it is notin 9ur power to acquire, but to exercise and improve it, is certainly in the power of every mam. - 3. No one could resist the brave Hercules.
This variation generally takes place when the chief stress lies upon the adjectives, as implying a cause, reason, or something like it. - - - -
A substantive may be changed into a verb by a periphrasis; as, - • • _ _ . 'Nor could I foresee that accident : Neque quod accidit, prævidere poteram. • ' , , • ' ' . 1. Nor did I prognosticáte those events, when I said they would bappen ; but I was önly urged by my fears, lest they should happen ; when I considered the pcssibility of them, and, at the same time, foresaw their pernicious tendency, ifthey should happen. 2. But I make this concession to yóu, that you may pass over those things which, from your silence, yoü allow not to exist.
' But, above all, a SUPERLATIVE will admit of- many different modes of variation. -
A superlative is elegantly changed into a comparative, with a negative, especially with the pronoun relative, qui, quæ, quod; as, . • ' ' .
, A most courteous and learned man : Vir quo non alius humanior, quo non doctior alter. ( 1. He was most eminent, and indeed unparalleled, in his virtues and vices. (Say, nihil fuit.)
2. Plato, vcho was the most ingenious and learned of men, laid it down as a maxim, that those républics would enjoy a lasting hapĘ whose government was in the hands of the wise and the oarneci.
Observe that quo is more elegantly used with a comparative than ut, to express the purpose. - , •' 1. He paid his debts (nomina liberavit) that he mightlead aha ierlife.
2. We broke opem the seal (linum incidimus), ihat we might detect the conspirators the more easily. . . . .
Or it may be rendered comparatively, with an affirmative, either by an interrogative or a repetition ofthe words; as, A most courteous man : Vir humanus, si quisquam omninó humanus; • • • • Or, Quis, or, quid hoc viro humanior, or humanius ? 1. Believe me, your brother is a most studious man. 2. Croesus was the richest mam in the world ; and yet neither his numerous forces, nor his riches, could avail any thing against the attack of a small but disciplined army, inured to poverty and hardships.
A superlative receives an additional force, if its comparative is introduced with it, as having more power than the su- ' perlative : in this manner;. • -
Plato a most learned man : Plato quovis doctissimo doctior. ,
1. In this, indeed, I am more miserable than you, because my cahgt; is accompanied with yours, and common to both.
e persuaded that those are the fairest talents, which are employed for the good of others (ad communem utilitatem).
Cicero and the best writers often increase the force of the superlative by the addition of such expressions as these; unus omnium, unus, sine controversiâ, apprimè, insigniter, egregiè ; as, - '. - - - You seem to me a most choice and ezcellent speaker : Unus omnium in dicendo mihi videris lectissimus. 1. I dare pronounce him to be the most eminent in the state for genius and industry. • 2. I cannot evem promise it to that most learned and religious man, and who enjoys your greatest favour and friendship. .
The variation of the superlative may be elegantly made by these verbs, contendere, certare, superare, or by cedere ; as,
Cicero was the most eloquent of orators: Nemo oratorum cum Cicerone contendere audet eloquentiâ.
1. Your brother is the greatest lover ofliterature that ever was.