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sometimes called heroic verse. It is the most ancient of all poetical measures, as well as the most dignified and harmonious. Tné use of the hexameter is not, however, confined to epic and heroic poetry. The satires and epistles of Horace are sufficient to prove that it is a measure no less adapted to the most, familiar, than Tit is to the most exalted subjects.
A spondee is sometimes found in the fifih foot of a hexameter, instead of a dactyle, and gives to the line the name of a spondaic verse ; as, ,
When a spondee is substituted for a dactyle in the fifih foot of a hexameter, to prevent the line from appearing to move too heavily, the fourth foot is generally a dactyle.
It must always be observed in scanning, that when a word ending in a vowel or the consonant m is immediately followed by a word be ginning with amother vowel, or the aspirate h, am elision of the preceding vowel generally takes place, and the final syllable of the word is not scanned nor counted in the line ;- thus, in the three verses which immediately follow, the syllables printed in italics are not considered as forming any part of a foot ; ' ' •
6. Contentique cibis, nullo cogente, creatis, Arbuteos fœtus montanaque fraga legebant,
. Cornaque, et in duris hærentia mora rubetis,
8. Ver erat æternum ; placidique tepentibus auris Mulcebant Zephyri natos sinè semine flores.
9. Mox etiam fruges tellus inärata ferebat ;
This kind of verse is sometimes termed elegiac, because it is generally employed by the poets in elegiac and similar compositions. It is, however, seldom or never used alone in a poem, but is intermixed with hexameters, and sometimes with other measures. »
In the exercises in this work, and, indeed, in poetry in general, a pentameter may be distinguished from a herameter verse by the first word being printed somewhat within the boundary of the page, and consequently not beginning in a line with the other verses; thus, in the exercises, which immediately follouo, every alternate $ine is a pentameter ; the others are hexameters.
8. Luna fuit: specto si quid nisi littora cernam ; Quod videant, oculi nil nisi littus habent.
4. Nunc huc, nunc illuc, et utròque sinè ordine curro;
5. Ascendo ; vires animus dabat ; atque ita latè
Cæ•ur \ is a division or separation of a foot, occasioned by the syllables, of which it is composed, belonging to different words: it is a term applied also to the last syllable or two last syllables of a word, when they form the first part of a foot. - ,
The word cæsura is derived from caedo, cæsus, to cut off: its use has been adopted in versification either because the syllable, to which it is applied, is divided or cut off from the other syllables in the word bv the termination of the ?? foot, or because the foot, in which the cæsura takes place, is divided or separated, being composed of syllables belonging to different words.
The beauty of a verse depends in a great measure on the cæsura. It connects with each other the different words, of which the line is composed, and gives to it smoothness and harmony. It must not therefore be considered merely as an ornament, but as an essential requisite of every hexameter and pentameter verse. A line in which it is neglected is not only destitute of all poetic beauty, but can $ardly be distinguished from prose, and, unless on peculiar occasions, in which harmóny is designedly avoided, is not admissible in Latin poetry.
There are three kinds of cæsura, the syllabic, the trochaic, and the monosyllabic. The syllabic cæsura is that in which the first part of the divided foot consists of the last syllable of a word ; as, Sylvës|trém ténü|i mùsàm médi|täris ä|vênâ. The syllabic appears to be the principal cæsura in Latin versification, and but few harmonious lines can be found, in which it is not introduced. If the ancients did not consider it indispensably necessary, it is evident that they seldom ventured to write a verse without it. The syllabic cæsura may take place in a heroic verse at the triemimeris, penthemimeris, hephthemimeris, and sometimes at the enneemimeris ; as, Si cäni|mùs sylvâs, sylvæ sint | cönsülè | dignæ. Illê lãtùs nivè ùm möljli fültüs hyäjcinthö. The ancient grammarians generally divided every line into half feet, and from this division the preceding mames have been introduoed. .The triemimeris is that portion of a verse which contins iis three first half feet ; the penthemimeris is the part which contains five half feet ; the hephthemimeris that which contains seven ; and the enneemimeris that which comprises nine half feet. The trochaic cæsura is that in which the first part of the divided foot consists either of a long and short syllable remaining at the end of a word, or of an entire word comprised of one long and one short syllable ; as, Förtú|nàtùs ét | illó, dé|ös qui | nóvit ä'gréstës. Although one syllabic cæsura, at least, generally occurs in every Hic vir hic | ést tibi | quém prö|mitti | sæpiùs | aüdis. The preceding is one of the few limes in which no cæsura but the monosyllabic occurs : the metrical effect of this cæsura is by no means so great as that of the syllabic or trochaic, but many instances may be found, in which it appears to be the principal cæsura in the verse. - . A cæsura is not indispensably necessary in every foot of a verse. Those lines, in which it most frequently occurs, generally appear to be the most poetical, but, for the sake of that variety without which the most harmonious arrangement of words would soon become tedious, the cæsura is often omitted. in one or more of the feet, and its situation is frequently varied. ,^ . . In the first foot of a verse, the cæsura may generally be omitted ; as, - Pästörës övi|üm tënë|rös dépélléré ] fœtùs. Paupëris | et tügü|ri cön|gèstùm | cëspitë | cülmén. In' the second foot, the cæsura is often omitted ; but when this omission takes place, the word which begins the foot is generally of sufficient length to complete it, and to leave a cæsural syllable in the next foot ; as, -
hexameter verse, yet the trochaic has nearly the same metrical effect, and oftem appears to be the principal cæsura in the verse ; as,
Fatä vö|cánt cön[ditquè nä|tântiâ | luminâ | sömmùs. In Horace and Virgil, about twenty lines may be found, in which the trochaic cæsura only occurs, and which are still not deficient in harmony ; as, - Spärgëns | humidâ | méllâ sö|pörifë|rümqué pálpâvër. The trochaic cæsura may take place in either of the first five feet of a verse, but two successive trochaics must not occur in the second and third, or in the third and fourth feet; as, * v. Täliä | wócè référt, öltérquè quáltèrquë bëläti. Armâ prölcül cür|rüsquê vilrùm mi|rätür i|nànës. Albâ ligüsträ cäldünt, väc]ciniä | nigrä lëlgüntür. The monosyllabic cæsura is that in which the first syllabke of the divided foot is a monosyllable ; as,
The frequent recurrence of the verb nescio as a dactyle, and of the prepositions inter and intra as spondees, forning the second foot, appears om the first view to be inconsistent with the preceding rule, büt it is in reality quite agreeable with it. It has been clearly ascertained that the preposition and its c.use were frequently pronoumiced with one aecent, as ome word ; and there is reason to suppose that nescio was often connected in a similar inanmer with the wórd which followed it ; thus the words intcr se were promoumced, and consequently regarded in versification, as though they were written interse, and mescio quis as though written nescioquis. A similar connexion is not unusual in English words; thus some body is pronounced somebody, no body, nobody; can not, • annot.
The cæsura is not so frequently omitted at the penthemimeris ; as it is in the other feet, and when it is omitted in the third, it always occurs in the fourth, and generally in the second foot: when this omission of the cæsura at the penthemimeris takes place, the third foot generally consists of the two or three first syliables of a word, which is finished in the next foot ; as,
Jüssâ mö|ri quæ | sórtitüs nón | pértülit | üllös.