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Syncope is the omission of- a letter or a syllable in the middle of a word ;. as, amârat, amantùm, for amaverat and amantium. , *. The words which are the most frequently contracted by syncope are the preter tenses of verbs; as, amásti for amavisti; the participles of compound verbs, as, repóstum for *repositum ; genitives plural ; as, deùm for deorum ; and words which have a u in the penultima before the consonant 1, as, vimclum for vinculum. \ • Apocope is the omission of the final vowel or syllable of a word, before another word beginning with a consonant ; as, tugurí for tugurii. • The words which are most commonly contracted by apocope are cases in ii, and enclitics affixed to other words; as, peculi for peculii, men' for mene. A vowel was sometimes cut off in the beginning of a word by the
figure aphæresis, as, st for est; but this contraction was seldom used by the poets of the Augustam age. *,
The contraction qf one word, at least, in each of the follonoing exercises, is necessary, in order to form them into verses. The exercises which are not translated require a change in the position qf the words, but in the English exercises this ajteration of the arrangement will not be found necessary.
1. Rure levis apis ingerit flores verno alveo, Ut sedula compleat favos dulci melle.
2. Super quæ ipse jacens, more hirsuti leonis, Visceraque, et carnes, ossa oblisisque medullis, Semianimesque artus, condebat in avidam alvum
3. Caprificus findit marmora Messalæ, et audaa
4. Perpetuòque comans oliva jam deflorescit;
5. Ille saucius pectus gravi vulnere venantium,
6. Then was life sweet to me ; nor had I any knowledge of cruel Arms, nor heard with a trembling heart the trumpet's sound. Tunc ego vita foret dulcis; nec tristis novissem Arma, nec audivissem cor micans tuba. 7. Forcible, and perspicuous, and very much resembling a limpid stream, He will pour out his treasures, and enrich Latium with a copious language. - Vehemens, et liquidus, purusque simillimus ammis, Fundo opes, Latiumque beo dives lingua. 8. Why is any man in want, who has not deserved poverty, while you are rich ? Why Are the ancient temples of the gods falling to ruin ? Why, O wicked man, Do you not, for your dear country, take something from so great a hoard ?
Cur egeo indignus quisquam, te divite ? Quare
9. Then Mercury took in his hand the wand, by which he had. been accustomed to chase away sweet Dreams, and to bring them back again ; by which he had been wont to enter the gloomy Regions of lie dead, and again to animate lifeless shades. ' . Tum dextra virga insero, qui pello dulcis
Aut suadeo iterum somnus, qui niger subeo
10. The Zephyrs had heard the voice and the sighs of the complaining shepherd, And the winds sighed with him in mournful sounds : The river had heard him, and an echoing murmur , to his murmurs The water returned, and a complaint to his complaints.
Audio Zephyrus vox gemitusque dolens, J Et mœstus ventus congemo sonus : Audio rivus, resonusque ad murmur murmur, Et questus, ad questus, ingemino aqua. 11. Have you seen (surely you often see) that the drooping lilies wither, Which a showér of rain beat§ down ? Thus diä she waste away with a slow disease, thus did she grow pale, Her last day now drawing near its end. Videone (quin sæpe video) ut languidus marceo , Lilium, qui sævus prægravo imber aqua ? Lentus sic pereo tabum, sic palleo ille, Ad finis extremus jam properans dies. 12. The ship, weighed down by the slaughter of the men, and filled with much blood, Receives frequent blows on its curved side: But after it let in the sea at its leaking joints, Filled to its highest parts, it sunk in the waves. - Strages vir cumulatus ratis, multusque cruor Plenus, per obliquus creber latus accipiò ictus At postquam ruptus pelagus compages haurio, Ad summus repletus forus, descendo in unda. 13. He admires at a distance the arms and empty chariots of heroes. Their spears stand fixed in the ground, and at liberty in different places Through the plains their horses feed: that care of their chariots And of their arms, which they had when alive, that care their shining Horses to train up, the same follows them, though interred in the earth.
Diæresis is the division of one syllable into two; as, aurae, aurai. This figure is most commonly introducedinto a word by dividing a diphthong or a syllable composed of two_vowels into two separáte syllables; as, suádeo for suadeo, reliqutis for reliquus : by changing e consonants j and v into the vowels i and u ; as, sylua for sylva, Troia for Troja : and, in words derived from the Greek, by changing i into et ; as, elegeta for elegia. Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter or syllable in the middle of a word; as, alitum, alituum;, reliquiæ, relliquiæ
Paragoge is the addition of a letter or syllable to the endof a word ; as, dici, dicier. • The words, which are most frequently lengthened by this figure, are verbs passive and verbs deponent in the infinitive mood.
Another figure, by which words were sometimes lengthened, is termed prosthesis ; it adds a letter or syllable to the beginning of a word ; as, gnatus for natus, tetuli for tuli.
Besides the introduction qf one of the preceding figures into each of the following exercises, the arrangement qf the woras must be changed; in the exercises, which are translated, th:s change may be confined to one voord only in eacii line. .
1. Libabant pocula Bacchi in medio aula, Dapibus impositis auro, tenebant paterasque.
2. Illa est audax malo. Stabant cum atris vestibus
8. Atque hic legatos remissos ex Ætólà urbe, .
4. Qualis ubi nimbus sidere abrupto ad terras
5. Urbs quoque et tutela tuarum legum lassat te,
6. Ivory surrounds the courts; the roofis rendered firm by brazen beams ; And ores rise up into lofty columns. Atrium cingo ebur ; trabs solido æs culmen; —et in celsus surgo columna electrum. 7. It was night, and, through all the lands, the wearied ;iul, And the race of birds and of cattle, deep sleep held ast.
, Sum nox, et terra animal fessus per omnis, Ales pecusque genus, altus sopor habeo.
In the composition of Latin verse, it will often be frwiro necessary not only to change the prosaic arrangement of the words, but to substitute, for some of the expressions, otber phrases of the same signification, but of different length and quantity.
The language of poetry differs in so many respects from the lan.
£'. e of prose, that any attempt to form rules, by which the one may e Ghanged into the other, would be vain and âbsurd. This change
cam be éffected only by an intimate acquaintance with the beauties of composition, united with a poetical and active imaginatiom. It is not, consequently, the object here to point out any method of changing prose into poetry, but simply to furnish observations and exercise§. which may be of some assistance in forming language, that is already poetical, into regular verse. Enallage is the substitution of one word for another. The singular number may frequently be changed into the plural, and the plural into the singular ; as, mella, nostri, flore, for mel, mei, floribus : *' • . Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. Nil nostri miserere ? mori me denique coges ? Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos Induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat. Tliis change of number is not confined to substantives, but is equally frequent in promouns and verbs, when they are of the first pérsoni. The substitution of noster for meus is also a common irreg. ularity. - • . Adverbs are often changed ' into adjectives, which are most commonly made to agree with a noun, but which aresometimes put in the neuter gender singular or plural; as, ardentes, recens, transversa, for ardenter, recenter, transversè. A substantive of the genitive case may frequently be changed into an adjective agreeing with the preceding noun, and a noun in the genitive may sometimes be used instead of an adjective ; as, humanis, for hominum :
Nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. A participle may sometimes be substituted for a verb, for