« ForrigeFortsett »
bough, her song Renews, and fills the places around with her piteous complaints. Qualis moerens philomela sub umbra populus (cnall.) Queror amissus fœtus, qui durus arator, Cernens (symon.) nidus, implumis detraho; at ille J\'ox cæcus fleo, ramusque sedens, carmen Integro, et impleo latè locus suus (ellip.) moestus questus. 10. She fears all things, and she hopes for nothing: thus anxious, as she is returning with food, is the bird, Who has left her young in a lowly shrub, And thus, while absent from them, is she apprehensive of many evils ; She fears lest the wind should have torn her nest from the tree, Lest her young should be exposed as a plunder to man, or a prey to serpents. i Omnis (synon.) paveo speroque nihil : sic ales æstuo, , Qui committo fatus humilis ornus, - Allaturus cibus (enall.), et plurimus cogito absens; Ne ventus discutio- nidus arbor, Ne furtum pateo homo, neu coluber præda. 11. A moth is flying around my burning candle; And now, and now again it almost burns its little wings. Often with my hand I keep it back, when approaching, and, “ O moth," I cry, “ what great desire to die urges you on ?" Still it returns; and, although I strive to save it, It perseverès, and rushes into the flames and into death. ' Musca volito circula meus exurens lucerna; .llaque parvus suus amburo jam prope, jamque. Sæpè repelio manus is (ellip.) veniens; et, “ Musca," s Inquaim, “ quis tántus libido morior impello tu ?" Ille tamen redeo; et, quanquam conor (synom.) servo, . Insto, et irruo (culi.) in flamma exitiumque.
Periphrasis is the use of two or more words instead of one ; as, pecoris magister for pastor, and ovium faetus for
agmm : - Idem amor exitium pecori est, pecorisque magistro. Pastores ovium teneros depellere fœtus. The periphrasis occurs in poetical compositiou more frequently than any other figure, except the metaphor. Besides the assistance which it renders to the poet in completing the measure , of his verses, it often enables him to avoid low or inelegant expressions, and to give to his style a greater degree of variety and beauty.
The words in the following erercises, vohich are enclosed within parentheses, are examples qf the periphrasis, and are to be substituted for the corresponding word in the line. When tuo or more Italic voords occur in a line, they must be omitted, and the meaning, which they are designed to convey, erpressed by one word only. When there is only ome word in a line printed in Italics, it is intended to be ömitted, and its meaning erpressed by a periphrasis.
1. Thus does the lioness rage when confined in a narrow den, And breaks her fierce teeth by biting her prison. Sic Ε fremo (fera nobilis) in claustrum (enall.) parvus abitus, Et rabidus dens frango carcere præmorso. 2. Whither shall I be carried ? where shall I seek comfort in my affliction ? No anchor now holds my bark. - - Quò feror? unde (lapsis rebus) peto solatium (enall.) miseria? Jam nullus anchora (non ulla) teneo meus (enall.) ratis. 3. Then also the birds in safety flew, And the hare wandered fearlessly in the midst of the fields, Nor had their easy credulity hung on the hook the inhabitants of the rivers. Tunc et avis (movêre pennas per aëra) tutò (enall.) volo, Et lepus impavidè (enall.) erro in medius ager, Nec sua credulitas fluminum incolas suspendo hamus. 4. O robin, a guest most welcome to every house, Whom the severity of the cold compels to seek the aid of mam, That thou mayest escape the frosts of the wintry air, O fy hither, And dwell in safety under my roof. - Rubecula (hospes avis), conviva domus quivis gratissimus, Qui inclementia frigoris cogo quæro homo (enall.) opem, Huc O confugio, ut fugio frigus Ę coelum, - et vivo tutus (symom.) sub meus lar. 5. That thou mayest relieve thy hunger, food in my window I will place every day; For by experience I have learned that thou wilt repay with a grateful Song whatsoever food any kind hand may bestow.
Unde relevo tuus esuries, alimentum (enall.) fenestra
Etenim usus edisco quòd rependo alimentum (enall.) gratus Cantus, quicunque (tmesis) dono (symom.) bonus (symon.) nnanus. 6. In the early spring, when the warm breezes gently blow, And when on every tree its vernal honours bloom, Thou mayest freely return to the groves, and revisit the sylvan shades, In which music delightful and equal to thine resounds. Ver novus, cùm tepidus aura molliter spiro, Et suus honos (enall.) verno in quivis arbor, , Pro libitu ad memus (synon.) redeo sylvestriaque tecta reviso, , In (ellip.) qui musica lætus parque tuus resono. 7. But if again, but if by chance again, the cold Should bring back to my house my belowed bird, Be thou, O returning bird, be thou mindful to repay with a grateful song Whatsoever food any kind hand may bestow. Sin iterum, sim fortè iterum, frigus - - Reduco ad meus tectum (enall.) carus (sjnom.) avis, , Sum, redux, memor sum rependo gratus cantus Pabulum (enall.), quicunque (tmesis) benignus manus do. S. The Molossian hou;ids fondly caressed the hare, then frce from danger, And the tender young of the sheep drew mear the wolf; The deer played in peace with the tigress; The stags feared not the African lion. *. Molossi blandè (enall.) foveo tutus (symon.) lepus, Tenerque ovis fætus vicinum præbuit latus lupus; Concors dama cum tigris (epithet) ludunt; Cervus mon pertimesco (synom.) Massylus juba. 9. From you shall descend the brave Achilles, Known to his enemies not by his back, but by his undaunted front, Who, always a victor in the uncertain contest of the race, Shall outstrip the speed of the swift deer. Achilles (expers terroris) tu mascor fortis, Hostis haud tergum sed pectus impavidus (symon.) notus, Qui, persæpe victor vagus certamen cursus, Præverto (flammea vestigia) celeritas cerva celer. 10. The god offire fought against Troy, the god of music for Troy; The mother of Æneas was friendly to the Trojan people, the goddess of war was unfriendly. ' The sister and wife of Jupiter, favourable to Turnus, hated. Æneas; Yet he was secure nnder the protection of Venus. Often did the fierce ruler of the sea attack Ulysses; Often did Pallas rescue him from the brother of her father.
Ignis deus sto in Troja, musicæ præses pro Troja, JEnea, mater sum æquus Trojano populo, iniqua belli dea. Propior Turnus, Jovis soror et conjux Æneas oderat ; Tamen ille sum tutus numen Vemus. . • Sæpè ferox pelagi domitor Ulysses cautus peto; Sæpè Pallas (synom.) suus patris fratre eripio. . 11. And as a ravenous wolf both seizes om and carries away Through the corn-fields, through the woods, the sheep, which has not gone into the fold, So, if the hostile barbarian finds any one in the plains Not yet received within the city, he hurries him away ; He then either follows him as his captive, and receives chains cast upon his neck, Or falls by a poisoned arrow. - - - - Utque rapax pecus, qui non intro (se texit) ovili, Per seges (symon.), per sylva, lupus feroque trahoque, Sic, si qui, acceptus (symon.) nondum (portarum sepe) oppidum, Barbarus hostis in campus reperio (epenth.), ago; Aut captus sequitur ille (ellip.), conjectusque catena (symon.) col
lum accipio, -
The first ten of the following exercises are designed to be literally translated into Latin verse : the words will require a different arrangement, but every word may stand in the same line in Latin, in which it is found in English. The remaining exercises are intended to be more freely translated, and the words in one lime may Qften be introduced into the preceding or following verse. - r . .
1. The lamb in company with the wolf (sociata lupo) shall gambol (lasciviet) in (per) the valleys,
And the steer shall go (petet) with the lion in safety (tu
' tus) to the stall (præsepe). • '
2. Let the heaven supply (ellip.) dews sweet as nectar (nectareos), and let it viands (alimenta) (epithet)
Supply, and shed (irriget) silently fertilizing showers (imbres).
3. The sea was bright (radiabat) with the image of the reflected (repercussæ) moon,
And in the night (epithet) there was a light (nitor) like the light of day (diurnus). (Pentam.) .
4. And now the sea began to redden (rubescebat) with the morning (ellip.) rays, and from the lofiy sky (æthere)
The saffron Morn (lutea Aurora) arose (fulgebat) in her rosy chariot (bigis).
5. Drops (enall.) wear a stone hollow (cavo); a ring is worn out (consumitur) by use;
And the crooked ploughshare is worn away (teritur) by the earth rubbing against it (pressâ). (Pentam.)
6. Around the tame tiger (mansuetae tigri) flowery bands the sportive (petulantes)
Boys in play (per ludum) shall cast, and serpents the wearied
Limbs of the traveller shall refresh. by licking them with their cold tongues (recreabunt frigore linguæ).
7. Under this tree the dewy (madidi) Fauns (Fauni) often danced (luserunt),
And their (ellip.) pipe heard in the night (fistula sera) alarmed the quiet family (domum); (Pentam.)
And while they fled (dumque fügit) through the solitary (solus) fields from midnight Pan (nocturnum Pana),
• Ofien under this tree (fronde) a rural Dryad (Dryas)
lay concealed (latuit).
8. Beneath a hedge (sub sepe), and often (nec rarò) on the margin of a bank, there is a littke Reptile (reptile) (the glow-worm), which glitters by night, and lies concealed (latet) by day. (Pentam.) Ye great, lay aside, your pride (fastus), and no longer (nec) despise the lowly, Since even (et) this little (minimum) reptile has something (ellip.) which is splendid (niteat).
9. In early spring, when the snow (gelidus humor) on the hoary mountains Is dissolved, and the crumbling (putris) glebe unbinds itself by the Zephyr, Then (jam tum), under the deep-pressed (depresso) plough, let my ox (taurus) begin To groan, and the plough-share, worn bright (attritus) by the furrow, begin (ellip.) to glitter.