« ForrigeFortsett »
PART II. CHA P. CXXVI.
1. AURELIUS PRUDENTIUS CLEMENS, an elegant Latin poet, descended of an honourable family, was born at Saragossa in Spain, in the year 848, when Fl. Salia, or Salias, was consul. He wrote the preface to his Cathemerinon, in the fifty seventh year of his age; as he says himself in that preface, where his other writings also are briefly enumerated : consequently he is well placed, as flourishing about the year 405.
2. I put below Gennadius's chapter of Prudentius, in his book of Illustrious Men, published in 494; and I refer to some learned moderns, such as are desirous of a more particular account of this writer.
3. Some have thought that Prudentius was consul; but without any good reason. Others have supposed, that he was præfect of the Prætorium, or præfect of Rome: but there is no full proof of either. Gennadius, however, says, that he had a military employment at court. What Prudentius says of himself, in the forementioned preface, o I transcribe below : from whence it appears, I think, that for a while he studied the law, and was a pleader; and that he had been a Per quinquennia jam decem,
rium, librum unum, et Hymnorum alterum : speciali tamen Ni fallor, fuimus. Septimus insuper
intentione adversus Symmachum, idololatriam defendentem. Annum cardo rotat, dum fruimur sole volubili.
Ex quorum lectione agnoscitur Palatinus miles fuisse. Gen
nad. de V. I. cap. 13. Inrepsit subito canities seni,
d Cav. H. L. T. i. Fabr. ad Gennad. cap. 13. ap. Bib. Oblitum veteris me Saliæ Consulis arguens,
Ec. Voss. de Hist. Lat. 1. ii. c. 10. Tillem. Mem. T. X. Du Sub quo prima dies mihi.
Pin. Bibl. T. iii. p. 5. J. Le Clerc. Bib. Univ. T. xii. p. 135
Cathem. lib. in Præf. 193. Pagi. Ann. 405. n. 19. b Pugnet contra bæreses : Catholicam discutiat fidem : Quid nos utile tanti spatio temporis egimus ? Conculcet sacra Gentium:
Ætas prima crepantibus Labem Roma tuis inferat idolis :
Flevit sub ferulis.... Carmen martyribus devoveat : Laudet apostolos.
Exin jurgia turbidos c Prudentius, vir seculari literaturâ eruditus, composuit Armarunt animos, et male pertinax Διπλοχαιον [Διπτυχον] de toto Veteri et Novo Testamento, Vincendi studium subjacuit casibus asperis. personis exceptis. Commentatus est autem in morem Græ- Bis legum moderamine corum Hexaëmeron de Mundi Fabricâ usque ad conditionem Frenos nobilium reximus urbium ; primi hominis, et prævaricationem ejus. Composuit et libel- Jus civile bonis reddidimus, terruimus reos. los, quos Græcâ appellatione attitulavit, Apotheosis, Psycho- Tandeni militiæ gradu machia, Hamartigenia, id est, de Divinitate, de Compugnan- Evectum pietas principis extulit, tiâ Animæ, De Origine Peccatorum. Fecit in Laudem Adsumtum propius stare jubens ordine proximo. Martyrum, sub aliorum nominibus, Invitationem ad Marty
Cathem. Præf • O beatus ortus ille, Virgo cum puerpera
a civil magistrate in some cities: after which he took to the profession of arms, and was honoured with some high military preferment under the emperor, either Theodosius, or Honorius : and, before he was very old, he retired from the world.
4. Prudentius celebrates, in his poems, our Lord's nativity, and the circumstances of it ; and also, his miracles, death, and resurrection.
5. There is a book, called his Enchiridion, consisting of small poems, celebrating many remarkable events of the Old and the New Testament. Those of the New are taken out of the gospels, the Acts, and the Revelation.
6. Some have hesitated about the genuineness of that work, because it is not taken notice of by Prudentius in the preface before cited : nevertheless, it is particularly mentioned by Gennadius, by the title of Diptychon. Whether it be genuine, or not, the same things occur in the other unquestioned writings of Prudentius.
7. In particular, the Revelation is plainly referred to in some of the hymns in the Cathemerinon. And he seems to have supposed, that - St. John had his visions in sleep.
8. I add one thing more: Prudentius considers martyrs as intercessors; and hopes, through them, to obtain of Christ the forgiveness of his sins.
CHA P. CXXVII.
1. In the chapter of St. Jerom,' I have quoted Palladius, bishop of Helenopolis in Bithynia, author of the Lausiac History; and Palladius, author of a Dialogue of the Life of St. Chrysostom, written in 408. Whether they are different, or one and the same, is a question debated by many & learned men; particularly by · Du Pin, who reckons them one and the same; by Tillemont and Fabricius, who think them to be different. I do not think it needful now to produce distinctly the reasons on either side. I here intend only to make some extracts out of the forementioned Dialogue, composed at Rome in 408, soon after the death of St Chrysostom, by Palladius, friend of that bishop.
Edidit nostram salutem, feta Sancto Spiritu.
Cantharis infusa lympha fit Falernum nobile.
Hymn. xii. • Bis duodena senum sedes, pateris citharisque,
Totque coronarum fulgens insignibus, agnum,
Enchir. Num. 49. seu ult.
Cathem. Hymn. ix. 5. 10...12. Vid. Apoc. i. 8.
Arcana per soporem
Tali sopore justus
Ibid. ver. 112, &c. e Hos inter, O Christi decus,
Audi poëtam rusticum,
Indignus agnosco et scio,
Ilɛpi sebarwy. Hymn. vi.
In laudem Laurentii, ver. 573..580. See Vol. ii. p. 535, 536. & Vid. Cav. H.L. T. i. Emer. Bigot. in Pr. ad Dialog.
Pallade. Du Pin. Bib. des Aut. Ecc. T. ii. p. 92, 93. · Tillem. Pallade, art. 12. Mem. T. xi.
Solet a multis longo jam tempore Palladio huic tribui Dialogus de Vitâ S. Chrysostomi, qui cum Theodoro Diacono Romano habitus Romæ fingitur circa ann, 408, non diu post Chrysostomi mortem. ... Auctorem Dialogi a Palladio Lau. siacæ scriptore recte distinguunt Baronius A. 388. n. 110. Emericus Bigotius in Præfat. ad Dialogum, et Tillemontius... Fabr. Bib. Gr. l. v. c. 32. sect. 4. T. ix. p. 8.
Nebulis vides remotis, &c.
Cathem. Hymn. vi. v. 73. &c.
2. In this Dialogue, the gospels, the Acts of the apostles, the epistles, and particularly the epistle to the Hebrews are freely quoted.
3. He quotes the epistle to the Ephesians with that title.
4. He has the words of 2 Pet. ii. 3, and quotes the epistle of St. Jude expressly, transcribing ver. 12, 13.
5. A large part of St. John's third epistle is here quoted, in this manner : “ As d in the • catholic epistles, the blessed John writes to Gaius, against a certain bishop ; commending the hospitality of Gaius, and exhorting him not to imitate such bishops as were wicked.'
6. These things deserve our notice. St. Chrysostom, as we saw in his chapter, received only three of the catholic epistles: that of James; the first of Peter; the first of John. But this writer, though a friend and admirer of St. Chrysostom, quotes the second epistle of Peter; the epistle of Jude; and the third of John: and therefore, probably, received all the seven catholic epistles. This shews, that there were then different sentiments about some books of scripture. Men seem to have been indulged a liberty of judging for themselves : and they determined, as the evidence appeared to them. And it is chiefly for the sake of these quotations, that I have made a distinct article of Palladius.
7. Whether he received the book of the Revelation, does not appear.
8. He has these expressions : • The chief-shepherd himself; and chief-master, and chief. • sophist, Jesus Christ; the reformer of the human error.'
CHA P. CXXVIII.
1. Nonnus, of Panapolis in Egypt, flourished, according to Cave,' about 410; according to
Mill, in the beginning of the fifth century. Du Pin says, ' his time is not exactly known. • All we can say, is, that he lived after Gregory Nazianzen, and before the reign of Justinian.'
2. He wrote in Greek verse a paraphrase of St. John's gospel, still extant. Some various readings have been observed in him. The principal is, that he has not the history of the woman taken in adultery and brought before our Saviour, which we now have at the beginning of the eighth chapter of St. John's Gospel
. Moreover, in chap. xix. 14, he seems to have read about · the third hour,' where we have “ about the sixth hour :” concerning which, may be seen, Mill, , Bengelius, J. J. Wetstein, Wolfius, and others, upon the place, and elsewhere.
* Καθως νοθείων Εβραιες λεγει ο μεγαλοφρων Παυλος.... Dialog. cap. 1. p. 2. E. ap. S. Chrysost. Opp. T. xiii. Vid. et p. 45. D. et p. 75. et passim.
Cap. 18. p. 71. F. • Oις το κριμα εκ αργει, και η απολεια αυλων 8 νυραζει... περι ων 12δας, αδελφος Ιακωβε, φησιν: Ούλοι εισιν οι εν ταις ayamais vuwy ominades. Dial. c. 18. p. 68. C. D.
« Καθως εν ταις καθολικαις γραφει Γαϊω ο μακαριος Ιωαννης. x. A. Ib. cap. 2O. D. 79.
Αυτος ο αρχιπoιμης και αρχιδιδασκαλος και αρχισοφισης Ιησες ο Χρισος, και της ανθρωπινης πλανης διορθωθης. κ. λ. cap. 12. p. 47. A.
f Vid. Cay. H. L. T. i. Fabr. Bib. Gr. I. v. c. 16. T. vii. p. 682, &c.
8 Prolegom. ad N. T. n. 908, &c.
και Εκδη δ', ήν ενεπασι προσαββαλον, επλείο ηως.
Ην δε τίλαινομενη τριλαθη θανατηφορος αρη. Νonn.
ISIDORE OF PELUSIUM.
I. His time. II. His works. III. Select passages. IV. Books of the Old and New Testament
received by him. V. His respect for the scriptures, and exhortations to read and study them. VI. Various readings, and observations upon scripture.
I. Isidore, of Pelusium in Egypt, is spoken of by · Mill, next after Nonnus, as being his contemporary: and he is placed, byo Cave, at the year 412. Basnage speaks of him at the year 427 : it is likely, that he died before the middle of the fifth century. Pagi says, Wed hear nothing of him after the year 433.
II. Facundus says, he wrote two thousand epistles for the edification of the church: Suidas says? • three thousand, explaining the divine scriptures. There are still extant above two thousand; but they are most of them very short, and not a few of them coincident, treating the same question, and in a like manner. Dr. Heumann 3 has a Dissertation on Isidore, of Pelusium, which well deserves to be read. He rectifies divers mistakes of learned moderns; and argues, that" most of his letters are fictitious, and not a real correspondence: and he seems to have proved what he advances.
III. I shall, in the first place, take some select passages of Isidore ; and then observe his testimony to the scriptures.
1. · A' cloak and staff,' says he, do not make a philosopher; but freedom of speech, and a suitable life. In like manner, habit and profession do not make a Christian ; but a life and conversation agreeable to right reason.'
2. Nothing' is so dear to God as love: for the sake of which he became man, and was obedient unto death. And the first two disciples, called by our all-wise Saviour, were brothers ; to shew, that all his disciples should live together in a brotherly manner.'
3. It' was not, my dear friend, because our Lord foresaw the design of Judas, that he was guilty of treachery; but because that wretch had conceived the design to betray him, therefore, he, who knew the secret motions of the heart, spake before-hand of future things, as if they were present.'
4. - You“ seem to wonder, that Christ did not persuade the traitor to the love of virtue, when he heard him so often speaking of it in his discourses; or rather of nothing else. On the other hand, I think it strange, that you should wonder at it, when you know the powers of free-will : for man's salvation is not accomplished by force and violence, but by gentleness and persuasion. Therefore, the salvation of every man is in his own power; that they who are rewarded, and they who are punished, may justly receive what they have chosen.'
• Proleg. n. 916, &c.
Cæterum etsi fictitiæ sunt hæ epistolæ, ficta tamen non sunt 1 H. L. T. i. Conf. Fabr. Bib. Gr. I. v. c. 34. T. ix.p. 253. quæ in iis leguntur, sed ex animi sententiâ scripta ab Isidoro. &c. Du Pin. T. iii. p. 2. Tillem. Mem. T. 15.
Ib. n. 13. p. 228. " Ann. 427. n. 5.
1 Ωσπερ τον φιλοσοφον εχ' η σολη και η βακτηρια δεικνυσιν, Post hunc annum nulla amplius occurrit mentio sancti αλλ' η παρρησία και η πολιτεια ελω και τον Χριστιανον και σχημα Isidori Pelusiotæ, &c. Ann. 433. n. 23.
και λογος, αλλα τροπος και βιος τα ορθω λογω εφαμιλλος. L. e Isidorus, Presbyter Ægyptius Pelusiota, quem duo millia iv. Ep. 34. epistolarum ad ædificationem ecclesiæ multi scripsisse nove- k L. i. Ep. 10.
1 L.i. Ep. 57. runt. Facund. l. jii. c. 4.
m L. ii. Ep. 129. V. Ισιδωρος.
η Εγω δε θαυμαζω, πως τον όρον της αύλεξασιοληλος επιςαμε8 De Isidoro Pelusiotâ et ejus epistolis. Diss. xvi. ap
Pri- νος, σερι τα78 εθαυμασας. Ου γαρ δια και τυραννιδι, αλλα mitias Gottingenses, Hanover, 1738.4to.
πειθοι και προσηνεια ή των ανθρωπων σωτηρια κατασκευαζεται. "... plerasque esse fictitias, ac rhetorico more conscriptas, Διο και το κυρος εχει έκαςος της οικείας σωτηρίας ίνα και οι non ut ii, quorum prefixa sunt nomina, eas acciperent, lege- Γεφαναμενοι, και οι τιμωρεμενοι, δικαιως υπομενοιεν όπερ ηρηνται rentque, sed ut specimina essent eloquentiæ iis imitandæ, quos
Ibid. haberet Isidorus artis dicendi discipulos. Ib. n. 9. p. 222.
5. He says, ' that " piety is natural to us ; that the human nature has in it seeds of goodness. · Men are neither above temptation, nor is evil natural to them ; but for want of due care they • fall from virtue, as did the first man.' To the like purpose in other places; to some of which I refer.
6. He sometimes argues very well for our Saviour's resurrection, and the truth of the Christian religion, against both Jews and Gentiles.
7. He magnifies the progress of the Christian religion, notwithstanding many difficulties, by unlikely instruments.
IV. Isidore has largely quoted all, or most of the canonical books of the Old Testament. Apocryphal books are quoted by him very seldom.
1. He says, there are three books of Solomon; and that they should be read in this order : first, the Proverbs ; then Ecclesiastes; and, last of all, the Canticles. He who has well digested the first two, may read the third safely and profitably,
2. He calls the author of the book of Ecclesiasticus, a certain wise man. It is likely, that is the highest character which he ascribed to him; and not that of prophet.
3. He often quotes the four gospels; the Acts of the apostles; and all St. Paul's epistles, except that to Philemon.
4. The' Acts of the apostles is ascribed by him to Luke, as the writer. 5. He several times quotes the epistle to the Hebrews, and as Paul's.
6. He likewise quotes all, or most of the catholic epistles. However, to be here a little more particular, may not be improper.
7. He " quotes, and explains passages of the epistle of James, expressly calling it his. He quotes the first, and the second epistle of Peter; as also the first epistle of John. He explains the eighth verse of the second epistle of John: there can be no reason to doubt whether he received the other. He' explains a passage of the epistle of Jude.
8. He has several expressions which seem to be taken from the book of the Revelation; I do not recollect that he has any where mentioned the title of the book, or the name of the writer.
9. If Isidore received the book of the Revelation (which may be reckoned probable,) his canon of scripture was the same as ours.
V. He had a great respect for the scriptures, and often recommends the reading of them.
1. Writing to a heathen, or supposed heathen, he says: “ Two' volumes, one called the Old, • the other the New Testament, which I have sent to you, are sufficient to teach you our religion.' In another letter " he shews the complete harmony of the Old and the New Testament, or the law and the prophets, and the gospel. He calls the scriptures,* the divine oracles ;' the divine and heavenly oracles: the sacred gospels is another expression of his. He speaks very
honourably of Paul, calling him “ a most wise instructor; and the excellent apostle. Some," he says, • blame the divine scriptures, because they have not all the ornaments of eloquence to be found • in some heathen writings ; but we know that is no disparagement to them. Those admired • authors, among the Greeks, sought their own glory; but the truly divine scriptures aim at the
• Οτι φυσικως εσιν εν ημιν ευσεβεια.
ημιν ευσεβεια. L. i. Εμ. 431. • Ει παλαι ειχεν και των ανθρωπων φυσις τα εις καλοκαγαθιαν ofesuaia. x. n. L. ii. Ep. 2. in Conf. Ep. 167.
“Η φυσις η ανθρωπεια, θαυμασιε, ουτε ανεπιδεκτος εςι κακων, ελε φυσικως κεκληται τα κακα, αλλα γνωμη και ραθυμια την αποπτωσιν υπομενει των χρησων όπερ και ο πρώτος πεπονθεν ανθρωπος. L. iii. Ep. 303.
Vid. I. i. Ep. 435, 436 1. ii. Ep. 72. et 79. 1. iii. Ep. 335. 1. iv. Ep. 12. et. 51.
e L. i. Ep. 18. 1. ii. Ep. 99. I. iv. Ep. 27. 30, 31.
L. iv. Ep. 40.
Βλεπε και τον μεγαλοφρονα και θεοφορος Λεκαν τον Ηρωδε τιφον ίςορουντα. κ. λ. 1. i. Ep. 74. Conf. ib. Εp. 500. Ακgε το σαναρις Λεκα εν ταις Πραξεσι γεγραφολος. L. 1. Ep. 448.
L. iv. Ep. 112. p. 473. D.
m L. i. Ep. 93. Conf. 1. ii. Ep. 158. et 1. iv. Ep. 10. et 65.
• Ο μισθος μετ' αυ78 εςιν, ον έκαςος ληψεται προς τον ιδιον κοπον. [Vid. Αpoc. xxii. 12.] L. 1. Ep. 13. Ει ο ερανος ως βιβλιον ελισσείαι, και τα αερα πιπίει. κ. λ. [Vid. Αpoc. vi. 13, 14.] L. i. Ep. 188. Vid. et I. ii. Ep. 175.
Την ημετεραν δε θρησκειαν δυο συκλαι διδαξεσιν, ας επεμψαμην, ων η μεν πρεσβύθερα, η δε νεα διαθηκη προσαγορευεται. L. i. Ep. 7. u L. i. Ep. 107.
* Θειοι χρησμοι. L. 1. Εp. 5. Y Oι θειοι και ερανιοι χρησμοι. L. iii. Ep. 138. ... εν τοις ιεροις ευαγγελιoις. L. iv. Ep. 216.
wapa Tav.8 78 0008 8:8aorano. "L. i. Ep.49. Φιλιππησίοις γραφει ο θειος αποσολος. L. 1. Ep. 139.
Και ο θεσπεσιος Παυλος. L. iv. Ep. 88. co L. iv. Ep.67.