« ForrigeFortsett »
of the city and hide themselves in a cave. Vespasian sends Nicanor to Joseph with offers of peace and safety if he would surrender. But the forty men who were with him chose rather to die by their own hands. After long arguing, Joseph proposeth that they should cast lots till they were all killed. Which being done, there were none left alive but Joseph and one more, who at length consented to surrender. Joseph then calls to Nicanor, and they yield up themselves to him. Vespasian, when Joseph was brought before him, treated him kindly, and carried him about with him from place to place, together with Agrippa.
So far there is a great agreement between our Josephus and Joseph Ben Gorion. But now they differ. For Josippon entirely omits the compliments which our Josephus paid to Vespasian,
Upond the death of Nero, and after the short reigns of Galba and Vitellius, Vespasian is declared emperor by the soldiers in Judea ; and, after some hesitation, he is persuaded to accept of the diadem from them.
Some while after that, Vespasian takes part of the army, and goes to Rome: but leaves the other part with Titus to carry on the siege of Jerusalem. However, he orders Titus to stay at Alexandria till he shall send to him from Rome,
· When' Vespasian left Judea to go to Rome he took with him. Agrippa, and his son • Monbaz, lest they should rebel against him. With himself and them he also took me Joseph • the priest, bound with iron chains.' And when Vespasian was come to Rome he ordered thats Joseph should be sent to prison and kept bound there.
Vespasian upon his arrival at Rome was received joyfully by the senators and all the people in general. And " in a short time he is inaugurated with great solemnity. Agrippa and his son are allowed to be with the senators; and Joseph himself, though a prisoner, is allowed by the keeper of the prison to have a place where he may see all.
The' coronation is then described by him in a pompous manner ; seven electors of the empire attending, agreeably to the coronations of the emperors in late ages, a good while after the time of Charles the great, ask Gagnier observes in a note which I shall place below. Basnage thinks that' this Hebrew Joseph intends the coronation of Ocho the first, or his son, Otho the second. And he considers this article as a proof that Josippon lived in the tenth, or rather in the eleventh century.
• Soon after his coronation, as this author says, Vespasian" was offended with Agrippa upon account of some calumnies cast upon him, which he had received from wicked men of • the Jewish nation : whereupon he slew Agrippa, and his son Monbaz, with the sword. Which • was done three years and a half before the desolation of the house.
So writes this author: Supposing Agrippa to have been put to death at this time, I do not conceive how it could be done three years and a half before the destruction of the temple.
* Cap. 72. p. 315-319.
ratio Cesaris ; attamem vinctum catenis ferreis et collocavit 6 Cap. 73. p. 319, &c.
juxta se in loco, unde vidi omnia quæ facta sunt. Ib. p. 341. c Cum ergo audivisset Vespasianus Titum filium suum, i Cum itaque perventum est ad illum locum, accedunt ad recta visa sunt verba illius in oculis ejus, et clementiâ usus est eum septem Reges coronis suis insignes, quas acceperunt de erga Josephum sacerdotem, et prohibuit, quo minus morere- manu Cæsaris, electi vero jussu Senatûs Romani, &c. ibid. tur gladio, et constituit eum principem, at magnum inter prin-, * Fingit hic fabulator Josephum, id est, seipsum a Vespacipes suos, et secum ducebat de urbe in urbem cum Agrippa siano Romam perductum fuisse, ut ibi spectator adesset ejus rege. c. 73, p. 321.
coronationis, quam describit cum omni illâ cæremonià inauCap. 75, p. 333, 334.
Cap. 77, p. 340. gurationis Cæsarum, qualis longe post tempora Caroli Magni, * Abiit itaque Vespasianus Romam. Cumque pergeret, ut
sub Romanis Pontificibus instituta fuit, præsentibus nempe et iterum acciperet illic coronam regni, duxit secum Agrippam ministrantibus septem Imperii Electoribus, cum toto illo apregem, et Monbaz filium ejus. Dixerat enim, ne forte re- paratı, quem fuse et lepide narrat. Gagn. p. 341. bellent contra me. Duxit præterea cum eis, et secum, meip- | Tous ces caractères nous font croire, que le Josèphe Hésum Josephum sacerdotem, vinctum catenis ferreis. Cap. 77. breu n'a vécu qu'à la fin de dixième, ou plutôt dans l'on
zième siécle, et que le couronnement, dont il a laissé la dés. 3 Tunc jussit, et vinxerunt me in domo carceris. Agrippam cription, est celui d'Othon I, ou de son fils Othon II. Basnag. vero et filium ejus ipsorum arbitrio reliquit. Ib. p. 341. ut supr. sect. xxiv. p. 1563.
Bi Postridie illius diei congregati sunt omnes Senatores Ro- m Post aliquot autem dies, ex quo Vespasianus Cæsar factus mani, ut Vespasianum Cæsarem crearent, secundum jus fuit, indignatus est adversus Agrippam, quia calumniati sunt Cæsareæ dignitatis pro consuetudine Romana. Porro Agrippa eum impii Israël, dicentes eum cogitâsse perfide agere in illum, et filius ejus erant cum illis. At ego supplex rogavi prioci. et idcirco misisse literas in Jerusalem eâ de re. Interfecit ita. pem domùs carceris–Et inveni gratiam in oculis ejus, et que illum et filiam ejus Monbaz gladio. Quod quidem conintroduxit nie in consessum regni, ubi fieri debebat inaugu- tigit tribus annis cum dimidio ante desolationem domus. &c.
c. 77, p. 344.
Besides, Agrippa survived the Jewish war and the destruction of Jerusalem many years : as is attested not only by Josephus, but also by ancient medals a still extant.
Rabbi Isaac, in his Munimen Fidei, written in the sixteenth century, has quoted this passage of our author. And I have put down his words in the margin : though, perhaps, they may be taken notice of again hereafter.
In the same year and month that Agrippa and his son were put to death, Vespasian sent for Joseph, and spake comfortably to him, and released him from his bonds. Joseph complained of the death of Agrippa ; but Vespasian assured him he had good reason for so doing. And now Vespasian sent Joseph to Titus at Alexandria, with a letter of recommendation. Joseph goes to Alexandria. Titus“ and all his counsellors rejoiced at the arrival of Joseph : For he
was full of the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and valour, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord.' Is. xi. 1, 2. After some consultation it was determined to go up to Jerusalem and besiege it. • For Joseph knew that it was of the Lord, 6 and that it was not possible that the word of the Lord should be turned back.' Titus there. fore went from Alexandria to Judea.
Inf the first year of the reign of Vespasian, in the tenth month, and the seventh day of the month, came Títus with Joseph, and all his forces, and his army, to the deligătful city of Cæsarea; where he was employed in collecting his forces from all parts, till he had completed his army for besieging Jerusalem. There he stayed all the winter till the month of Abib, or March. During this whole year, the first year of the reign of Vespasian, were grievous wars and fightings in the midst of Jerusalem. From the time that Vespasian left Judea to go to Rome, there to receive the confirmation of the empire, in summer and winter were perpetual quarrels and contentions between the three parties, into which the people of Jerusalem were divided, and headed by three leaders, Simon, John, and Eleazar. For at that time God
poured out a spirit of insensibility in the midst of Jerusalem : Is. xxix. 10. And they destroyed, as this writer says, a thousand and four hundred garners, filled with things that might have been niseful in a siege; for there were in them provisions sufficient to maintain two hundred thousand people for twenty years. But by the madness of these robbers all was consumed by fire: which brought on the famine in Jerusalem.
And now this writer makes a long and grievous lamentation over Jerusalem : which in the Hebrew original, as Gagnier observes, is a sort of metrical composition, not in use among the Jews till long after the supposed time of the author.
Titus " draws out his numerous forces, and reviews them in a plain near Cæsarea, and then moves toward Jerusalem.
& Vid. Gagnier in loc.
manorum,-ingruerunt pralia durissima in medio Jeru• Verba, Væ pastori meo nibili derelinquenti gregem. salem inter habitatores ejus per crudelitatem iræ et furoris ; [Zach. xi. 17.) Agrippam respiciunt, qui Romam se contulit, et percutiebant unusquisque proximum suum, nulla interpoatque inde evocavit Vespasianum, hujusque privignum Titum, sità quiete aut mora.' Quinetiam nulla cessatio belli fuit inter adversus Hierosolymas. Tandem autem irasci illi cæpit Ves- illos totâ hieme, ut post est universæ terræ ; sed et æstate et hiepasianus, eumque unâ cum Monbaso filio securi percussit, tri- me duraverunt prælia Simonem inter et Jehochananem. Porro. bus et dimidio annis ante templi desolationem. Cæterum tertius fuit Eleazarus. Atque hoc ab ipso die, quo proficiscens ob illam, quæ inter regem Agrippam et improbos duces fac- Vespasianus de terra Juda abiit Romam, ut illic de novo sustiosorum exorta fuerat contentionem, denique desolatum fuit ciperet regnum Cæsareæ dignitatis, secundum jus consuetuditemplum, uti ex Josepho constat. Munimen Fidei. p. 417. nis Romanæ. Ibid. . Cap. 78, p. 344.
h Eo anno effudit Jehova spiritum vertiginis in medium a Postea . Profectus Josephus Roinâ venit Alexandriam. Jerusalem-p. 348. Cumque audisset Titus de adventu Josephi, lætatus est pluri. i Porro numerus horreorum illorum in Jerusalem erat mille mum ipse, et omnes seniores et sapientes, qui cum illo erant. et quadringentorum : et omnia plena commeatibus victûs pro Josephus enim plenus erat spiritu sapientiæ et intelligentiæ, tempore obsidionis. Tempore autem, quo Vespasianus venit spiritu consilii et fortitudinis, spiritu scientiæ, et timoris Je- in urbes Galileæ, seniores et viri Sde digni, qui æstimaverunt hovæ. cap. 78, p. 346.
quantitatem proventûs horreorum illorum, invenerunt in illis e Postea consilium inierunt inter se, ut ascenderent in Jeru- esse commeatus et victus pro ducentis mille animabus per salem, et obsiderent eam. Sciebat enim Josephus a Jehová viginti annos. Et tunc, in bello latronum, hæc omnia crehoc esse, neque possibile esse, ut verbum Jehovæ converta- mata sunt. Coepitque fames in Jerusalem. p. 350. tur retrorsum. Ib. p. 347.
k Lamentatus est itaque Josephus Jamentationem hanc | Anno primo regni Vespasiani, mense decimo, die septimo super Jerusalem, et dixit c. 80, p. 350—355. mensis, venit Titus cum Josepho, et cum omnibus copiis suis Lamentatio Josephi. In Hebræo est carmen rythmicum; et exercitu suo, in urbem Cæsareæ, gratissimam et desider- quod genus poëseos multis post seculis a recentioribus Judæis, atissimam omnibus, qui illam viderunt. cap. 79, p. 347. Arabum exemplo, usurpatum est. Gagn. not. p. 350.
& Mansitque illic, donec complerentur dies brumæ, et dies m Postea Titus venit in planitiem Cæsareæ cum exercitu, et biemis, et donec venirent dies Abib. Toto autem hoc anno recensuit exercitum suum, &c, cap. 81, p. 355. primo regni Vespasiani, quo erectus est super regnum Ro
It is not my intention to relate particularly from this writer, as I have done from Josephus, the attacks of Titus, and the defences of the people in the city. I shall pass over a great deal.
• Whilst * they were hard pressed by the Romans, the three parties within agreed, and joined • together, in opposing the common enemy. But, as soon as the Romans gave them any respite, • then three rulers of the robbers within exercised a cruel war with one another; insomuch that • the blood of the citizens ran like a torrent out of the gates of Jerusalem in the sight of the • Romans, who could not forbear to pity them.' Those expressions are extravagant. But what is here said may be compared with Josephus de B. J. 1. 5, cap. vi. sect. 1. Upon this occasion our author made another lamentation.
After having carried on the siege for some while, Titus draws off from the city, and for several days ceaseth to make any attacks. And by Joseph, who addresseth them in a very long speech, in their own language, he makes them offers of peace, that he might preserve their temple and city. But they hardened their necks, and would not hear. In this speech he tells thein, not disagreeably to what the Greek Josephus says (de B. J. 1. 5, cap. ix. p. 350.) that, for their sins, the waters of Siloam had before failed on a sudden; but now they flowed plentifully in the camp of the Gentiles fighting against them. In this speech he goes on and says: “though • Id am in the camp of the Romans, I am still considered as one of you.
For with you is my dear wife, the wife of my youth, whom I still embrace, though I have had no children by her. • With you also are my father and mother. He is now an hundred and three years old, and my • mother eighty-five. ' I am sixty-four years of age, and have not yet attained to the term of • human life.'
Many, he says, wept at hearing him; and inany people of meaner rank would willingly have gone out of the city to surrender themselves to Titus; but the three leaders of the factions, Simon, and Eleazar, and John, prevented them by their severe threatenings, and the strict guard they kept over them.
In the mean time the famine increased, and was very grievous. The people ate mice, spiders, weasels, serpents, toads : and if the carcase of a horse or other beast was found in any of the streets of Jerusalem, multitudes contended for it.
Titus continues his attacks, but the Jews gain great advantages over him. They killed a great number of his men, and destroyed his platforms, which gave him great concern.
Soon after that,' Titus, as this author says, received numerous recruits from all nations and countries subject to the Roman empire. At their arrival, Titus represents to their generals and chief men the state of things, and how the Jews had prevailed, and still had great strength
• Quando instabat prælium Romanorum, omnes ad invi- mihi, nihilominus illam diligo plurimum, cum sit ex familiis cem coalescebant, tamquam mus vir ad pugnam ; et pugna- nobilissimis et optimis populi Dei, et populi virorum. Quin et bant contra Romanos, fugabantque illos a se. Et postquam pater meus et mater mea, infelices, pauperes, sancti, senes, fugaverant a se Romanos, revertebantur ad se, et incipiebant provecti in diebus apud vos sunt. Nam et pater meus est pugnare unusquisque in fratrem suum. Tuncque fiebat pre- centum et trium annorum hodie. Mater vero mea octoginta lium magnun et durum inter tres principes latronum crude- et quinque annorum est hodie. Ego vero paucos et malos, et lium, donec egrederetur sanguis extra portas Jerusalem,
per varias tribu
iones et ærumnas sexaginta et quatuor annos : tamquam torrens scaturiens de scaturigine aquarum. Videbant- exegi, ac nondum attigi terminum, qui postulet mortem juxta que Romani sanguinem egredientem de portis Jerusalem. Et viam naturæ. &c. cap. 85, p. 383, fin. conterebatur cor eorum in medio ipsorum, et flebant, et dole- . Cum ergo audivisset populus verba Josephi sacerdotis, bant eâ de re. Josephus autem sacerdos stabat cum eis. fleverunt plurimum-Et quidem summopere optabat plebs Tunc lamentatus est Josephus lamentationem hanc iterum infima exire ad Titum, et pacem inire cum illo juxta consisuper Jerusalem. Et prolocutus est Josephus alte proferens lium Josephi. Sed astabant Simon, Eleazarus, et Jochanan, vocem lamentationis, et dixit, &c. c. 82, p. 362, &c.
principes latronum, et præposuerunt viros fortissimos ad : b Tunc tenipo:is jussit populum suum discedere a muro portas-&c. c. 86, p. 385. extra urbem, et cessare a bello per aliquot dies, ut clamaret Interea fames ingravescebat in Jerusalem-Crescebat pacem in auribus Judæorum. cap. 84, p. 369-377, et cap. autem malum eo usque, ut populus comederet omne genus ; 85, p. 378.–385.
reptilium terræ a mure usque ad aranean, et ad serpentem, et © Nunc autem videre malum vestrum esse maximum, et mustellam, et bufonem.- -Si forte inveniretur in Jerusalem : quod Jehova non sit in medio vestri, quia propter bella, quæ cadaver equi, aut cadaver cujuslibet bestiæ, multi ex Israël : geritis unusquisque cum fratre suo, mox brevi siccatie sunt inter se pugnabant, et mortui corruebant, dum pugnarent apud vos aquæ Siloë. At vero in castris Gentium, quando super cadaver bestiæ, aut super cadaver ferx-cap. 86, congregatæ sunt contra vos, ecce aquæ Siloë redundant, et
p. 385, 386. fluunt instar torrentis, et fluvii magni pleni super omnes mar- . & Cap. 87, p. 388-391. gines suos. cap. 85, p. 383, m.
" Cap. 88, p. 391, 392. . Porro, quamvis ego sim in castris Romanorum, tamen Eo tempore congregatæ sunt innumeræ turbæ ex omnibus reputor idem, ac si essem vobiscum ; quia ecce nunc uxor gentibus, et venerunt contra Jerusalem in auxilium Romano- mea dilectissima, carissima, vobiscum est, uxor nempe joven- runi ex omnibus dominiis Cæsareæ dignitatis ad Romam pertutis meæ, Neque respuo illam; et, licet filii ex eâ non sint. tinentibus -Narrayit autem Titus senioribus gentium, quas eagles, and stronger than lions,” 2 Sam. i. 23. But the famine consumed them. The streets sibi venerant in auxilium, ea omnia, quæ sibi contigerant dum c Venerunt itaque Jehochanan et Eleazarus in Jerusalem oppugnavit Jerusalem-Narravit etiam, quomodo perdide- cum fratribus suis, cantantes hymnum, et gratiarum actiones rant nilites suos, et principes suos,
remaining. These recruits, however, are very willing to engage with the Jews: and out of the vast numbers of fresh men, supposed to be capable of doing more than the Romans, who were fatigued and worn out, and discouraged with the fatigues of a long siege, were selected, eighty thousand men, Macedonians, Britans, Syrians, Africans, Burgundians, Persians, Chaldeans. All these, without any Romans joined with them, marched in order toward Jerusalem, and encamped near it. And then they began to attack the wall, and to fight with the Jews that were upon it.
Now the three leaders within the city, John, and Simon, and Eleazar, consult together " between themselves, and with thcir friends, what was best to be done. It was agreed that two • should go out of the city, and the other abide within. John then and Eleazar went out, *having with them fifteen hundred of the most valiant of their men. They prevailed and slew - their enemies with the edge of the sword from morning to evening. The day on which this * battle was fought,' he says, “was the ninth day of the month Thebet, which was the tenth is month from the arrival of Titus before Jerusalem. And they slew of the hosts of the Gentiles * seven-and-fifty thousand and five hundred. They took captive three thousand of their chiefs,
putting the rest to flight. Of the Jews there fell on that day seven men. And they brought " off their dead and their wounded to Jerusalem: where they buried their dead, that the uncir. • cumcised might not insult them.'
• Whereupon John and Eleazar returned to Jerusalem with their brethren, singing a hymn * of triumph, and offering praises to Jehovah. The rest of those nations returned to the camp ..of Titus in shame and confusion.—The day after, the robbers took the three thousand chiefs, * whom they had brought captives, and put out an eye of every one of them, and also cut off one : of their hands, and so sent them back to the camp of Titus.'
All fiction, surely; without any ground or authority from Josephus, or any other ancient writer that we know of! We here plainly see that the author was an artful man. He knew how to flatter and piease his own nation. And he has obtained his end. He is in admiration with them.
At that time Titus consulted with his generals and soldiers, and his whole army, that it might be determined what was best to be done, especially considering the strength and fortitude of the Jewish people. After a long consultation, the opinion of Titus, which he was resolved to adhere to, was, that the siege of the city should be continued without making any attacks upon it. • For,' says he, their provisions fail already, and will be all speedily consumed. More. • over, they will quarrel among themselves, and thus hasten their ruin; and we shall overcome.
• And indeed, says this writer, the famine prevailed greatly. And if it had not, the city • could not have been broken up nor taken for ever: for the valiant of Israel were “swifter than were filled with dead bodies ; nor were there any to bury them. And when Titus saw the « dead cast out from the city, like dung upon the earth, he was much affected at the sight; • and, lifting up his hands to heaven, he fell down upon his knees and said: “ This is not my work.” He had desired peace: but the people would not accept of it.'
-omnesque machinas Jehovæ. Reliquiæ autem fugientium ex turmis nationum suas dirutrices, et omnia instrumenta belli, quæ secum habebat, illarum reversae sunt ad castra Titi cum ignominia— Poscorruperant. cap. 88, p. 393. 394.
tridie Latrones acceperunt tria millia principum, quos com· Electi sunt itaque ex turmis nationum illarum octoginta prehenderant vivos, effoderunt unicuique eorum oculum, mamillia virorum, scilicet decem millia Macedonum, viginti numque amputaverunt, atque ita remiserunt eos ad castra Titi, millia virorum Britanniæ, quinque millia Syrorum, decem ut ipsi essent dedecori et opprobrio. Ib. p. 395. millia virorum Africæ, decem millia fortissimorum ex viris d'Eo tempore Titus consilium inivit cum principibus et Borgoniæ, quinque millia de filiis Cedar, decem millia militibus suis, et cum filiis populi sui Romanis, et cum militum ex fortissimis Persarum et Chaldæorum. Et pro- populo omnium nationum, quæ cum eis conveperant, dicens: gressi sunt eo ordine, quo venerunt; neque unus Romanus Quid faciemus contra Israëlem, et contra fortitudinem ejus ? ex illis, Abierunt autem in planitiem, quæ erat e regione -At consilia eorum omnium contemtui fuerunt coram Tito Sepulcri Jehochanan, sacerdotis magni. Et cceperunt miscere -Dixit ergo eis Titus. Hoc est consilium meum, quod prælia cum Judæis, qui erant super murum, et admovere a me ipso juxta rectam rationem profertur, neque ab eo recescalas, cum instrumentis ligneis quibus tegebantur, ut ascen. dam. Cedo, teneamus urbem hanc obsessam, neve oppug. derent ad eos supra murum. Ib. p. 394, 395.
nemus illam amplius. Victus enim et commeatus eorum Egressi sunt ergo Jehochanan et Eleazarus cum mille et omnino defecerunt, neque cibus est apud illos. Haud duquingentis fortissimis latronum, et percusserunt turmas gen- bium, quin fames illos consumtura est : neque etiam dubium tium plagâ gladii, a mane diei pugnæ usque ad vesperam. est, quin, quando viderint nos non amplius miscere prælia Quod quidem contigit nonâ die mensis Thebet, qui fuit deci. cum illis, ipsi prælia misceant inter se, unusquisque adversus mus ab adventu Titi in Jerusalem; et prostraverunt ex turmis fratrem suum- -Ib. 395, 396. gentium illarum quinquaginta septem millia cum quingentis. e Porro, nisi grassata fuisset fames in Jerusalem, nunquam Ět ceperunt ex eis vivos ter mille principes, cæteris in fugam perrupta fuisset urbs, neque capta in æternum. Fortes enim conjectis. Ex Judæis autem ceciderunt illâ die septem viri ; İsraël erant velociores aquilis, et fortiores leonibus. Įb. et vulneratos suos secum extulerunt latrones, ut illos sepeli. p. 396. rent, ne insultarent eis incircumcisi. Ib. p. 395.
In * the following, the eighty-ninth chapter, is an account of several acts of cruelty committed by Simon in putting to death Amittai, or Matthias, and others.
In the mean while, as he says in the nineteenth chapter, Gorion the priest, father of Joseph,. who wrote this book for Israel, to be a memorial and testimony to them, was a prisoner in one of the towers upon the wall, bound in iron fetters. Joseph came near to the place hoping to see his aged father: but the Jews cast stones at him, and wounded him. And now likewise, he at lengtlı gets a sight of his mother. She was not bound with chains, though she was kept prisoner in the house of Simon. But she got upon the wall to see her son and make her lamentations to him. His father was about one hundred and three years of age, and his mother eighty-five.
It is observable that about this time, after the slaughter of Amittai, or Matthias, and his sons, by order of Simon, Josephus also makes mention of his father and mother, as being in Jerusalem. And about this time also Josephus was wounded: not for attempting to see his father or mother, but as he was going round the city near the walls of it, proposing arguments to the people within to surrender to Titus for their benefit.
The d famine being very severe in the city, many Jews in good circumstances went out in order to go over to the Romans. But it being found that some of them had gold and jewels hid. in their bowels, they were ripped up by the Arabian and Syrian soldiers which were in the army of Titus. Some of the Roman soldiers did the like. In this practice the Arabians and Syrians killed a thousand Jews. When Titus heard of it he was exceedingly grieved and provoked. And he gave orders that all who had done this thing should be put to death, and that their goods should be given to living Jews, heirs of the dead. Upon this occasion six thousand Arabians and Syrians suffered death.
A most unlikely thing, and mere romance! No general would shew such favour to a resolute: people, whom he was besieging with an army. Josephus says that two thousand of the Jews were thus cruelly destroyed by the Syrian and other soldiers for the sake of the gold hid in their bodies. He also says, Titus was much displeased, and would have ordered his horse to surround the criminals and kill them with darts; but he considered that the number of the guilty exceeded that of the slain. He therefore was obliged to content himself with forbidding that cruelty for. the future, upon the pain of heavy punishment.
This author moreover says, that strict' inquiry was made by Titus after the Romans who • had been guilty of the like action; and they were found to be three hundred and twenty men, . whom Titus ordered to be burnt to death in ane pit or cistern. After which all Jews who came over to Titus were treated by the soldiers very civilly, and they lived very quiet and un-molested in his camp.' All fiction from this author's fruitful invention! And the story is made out, as it seems, to do honour to his nation, at the same time that their city was falling into ruin,, and they going into captivity!
* Cap. 89, p. 397-406.
illam pessimam,indignatus est, et accensus est furor ejus • Interea Gorion sacerdos, pater Josephi sacerdotis, qui admodum. Tunc jussit comprehendi omnes, qui patraverant scripsit hunc librum Israëli, ui esset illis in testimonium, et hujusmodi facinus pessimum, et jugulari, ac deinde dari in memoriale, tunc erat vinctus catenis ferreis, et in vinculis onines facultates eorum Judæis vivis hæredibus mortuorum.. æreis in unà e turribus Jerusalem. Ipse autem senex pro- Et morțni sunt propter hoc facinus, jussu Titi, túm ex Syris,, cesserat in diebus, natus scilicet centum et trium annorum tum ex Arabibus, sex millia virorum. cap. 91, p. 411, 412.
Eo tempore venit Josephus, filius ejus, versos murum e e De B. J. I. 5, c. xii. sect. 4, 5. p. 301, 362: regione turris, in quâ erat pater ejus Gorion sacer dos, tunc Fuitque numerus eorum, qui reperti sunt, tum eorum illic vinctus-cap. 90, p. 406, &c.
qui fecerunt, tum eorum qui noverant, trecentorum et viginti c De B. J. I. 5, c. xiii. numb. 1, 2, 3.
virorum. At jussit Titus servis suis, ct combusserunt omnes Porro Judæi, qui egressi fuerant de Jerusalem ad castra in medio cisternæ unius. Et deinceps Judæi cum fiduciâ in Romanorum -deglutierunt aurum et argentum, et gemmas, castris Titi degebant, neque ulira fuit adversarius, aut incur-. et lapides pretiosos --Cumque animadvertissent nonnulli ex sus malus. Sed quotiescumque Romanus inveniebat Judæun, Syris et Arabibus illos ita facere, indicavit remi unusquisque aliquem perplexum aut errantem extra castra procul, clamrı socio suo-Tum apprehenderunt illos, et scissis eorum vis- illum deducens comitabatur usque dum ad casira incolumem,. ceribus, invenerunt intra viscera auruin, et lapides pretiosos et tranquille, et cum securitate. bonâ reduxisset. cap. 91; Pi
Factusque numerus scissorum per manus Syroruir et 413, Arabum niille animarum, Cumque audivisset Titus rem