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K. John. We like not this; thou doft forget thyself,
any reason for it. But the story is, that Austria, who killed king Richard Cour-de-lion, wore as the spoil of that princé, a lion's hide which had belonged to him. This circumstance renders the anger of the Bastard very natural, and ought not to have been omitted. In the firit sketch of this play (which Shakespeare is said to have had a hand in, jointly with William Rowley) we accordingly find this infified upon, and I have ventured to place a few of those verses here." __ Here Dr. Johnson adds :
“ To the insertion of these lines I have nothing to object. There are many other pasiages in the old play of great value. The omiffion of this incident, in the second draught, was natural. Shakespeare, having familiarized the story to his own imagination, forgot that it was obscure to his audience; or, what is equally probable, the story was then fo popular, that a hint was fufficient at that time to bring it to mind, and those plays were written with very little care for the approbation of pofterity.”
STEEVENS. Aust. Methinks, &c.] I cannot by any means approve of the insertion of these lines froin the other play. If they were necessary to explain the ground of the Bastard's guarrel to Auftria, as Mr. Pope supposes, they should rather be inserted in the firft scene of the second act, at the time of the first altercation between the Bastard and Austria. But indeed the ground of their quarrel seems to be as clearly expreffed in that first scene as in these lines ; so that they are unnecessary in either place; and therefore, I think, Nould be thrown out of the text, as well as the three other lines, which have been inserted with as little reason in act III. fc, ii. Thus bath king Richard's &c. TYRWHITT.
K. John. What carthly name to interrogatories! Can task the free breath of a sacred king? Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name So flight, unworthy, and ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope. Tell him this tale; and from the mouth of England, Add thus much more,—That no Italian priest Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we under heaven are supreme head, So, under him, that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold, Without the affiftance of a mortal hand : So tell the pope ; all reverence ser apart, To him, and his usurp'd authority.
K. Phil. Brother of England, you blaspheme in this.
What earthly name to interrogatories] This must have been at the time when it was written, in our flruggles with popery, a very captivating scene.
So many passages remain in which Shakespeare evidently takes his advantage of the facts then recent, and of the passions then in motion, that I cannot but suspect that time has obscured much of his art, and that many allusions yet remain undiscovered, which perhaps may be gradually retrieved by fucceeding commentators.
JOHNSON. The speech stands thus in the old spurious play: “ And what hast thou or the pope thy master to do to demand of me how I employ mine own? Know, fir prieit, as I honour the church and holy churchmen, fo I scorne to be subject to the greatest prelate in the world. Tell thy master so from me; and say John of England said it, that never an Italian priest of them all, ihall either have tythe, toll or polling penny out of England; but as I am king, fo will I reign next under God, fupreme head both over spiritual and remporal: and he that contradicts me in this, I'll make him hop headlefs,” SteeYENS.
Though you, and all the rest, fo grossly led,
Conft. O, lawful let it be,
Pand. There's law and warranr, lady, for my curse.
Conft. And for mine too; when law can do no right, Let it be lawful, that law bar no wrong: Law cannot give my child his kingdom here; For he, that holds his kingdom, holds the law : Therefore, since law itself
is perfect wrong, How can the law forbid my tongue to curse?
Pand. Philip of France, on peril of a curse, Let go the hand of that arch-heretic; And raise the power of France upon his head, Unless he do fubmit himself to Rome. Eli. Look'lt thou pale, France ? do not let go thy
. Look to that, devil! left that France repent, And, by disjoining hands, hell lose a soul.
? That takes away by any secret course &c.] This may allude to the bull published against queen Elizabeth. Or we may suppose, fince we have no proof that this play appeared in its present state before the reign of king James, that it was exhibited soon after the popish plot. I have seen a Spanish book in which Garnet, Faux, and their accomplices are registered as faints. JOHNSON.
. King Philip, listen to the cardinal. Faulc. And hang à calf's-skin on his recreant limbs. Auft. Well, ruffian, I must pocket up these
Faulc. Your breeches best may carry them.
Lewis. Bethink you, father; for the difference
Blanch. That's the curse of Rome.
In likeness of a new untrimmed bride.
Is, purchase of a heavy curse from Rome,] It is a political maxim, that kingdoms are never married. Lewis, upon the wedding, is for making war upon his new relations. Johnson.
-the devil tempts thee bere In likeness of a new untrimmed bride.] Though all the copies concur in this reading, yet as untrimmed cannot bear any signification to square with the sense required, I cannot help thinking it a corrupted reading. I have ventured to throw out the negative, and read:
In likenefs of a new and trimmed bride. i.e. of a new bride, and one decked and adorned as well by art as nature. THEOBALD.
a new untrimmed bride.] Mr. Theobald says, " that as untriinmed cannot bear any fignification to Square with the sense rem quired,” it must be corrupt; therefore he will cashier it, and read, and trimmed; in which he is followed by the Oxford editor; but they are both too halty. It squares very well with the sense, and fignifies unsteady. The term is taken from navigation. We say too, in a similar way of speaking, not well manned.
WARBURTON. I think Mr. Theobald's correction more plausible than Dr. Warburton's explanation. A commentator should be grave, and therefore I can read these notes with proper severity of
attention ; but the idea of trimming a lady to keep her steady, would be too risible for any common power of face. Johnson.
Trim is dress, An untrimmed bride is a bride undrest. Could the tempter of mankind assume a semblance in which he was more
Blanch. The lady Constance speaks not from her
faith, But from her need.
Conft, Oh, if thou grant my need, Which only lives but by the death of faith, That need must needs infer this principle, That faith will live again by death of need : 0, then, tread down my need, and faith mounts up; Keep my need up, and faith is trodden down.
K. John. The king is mov’d, and answers not to this. Const. O, be remov'd from him, and answer well.
Auft. Do so, king Philip; hang no more in doubt. 6. Faulo. Hang nothing but a calf's-skin, most sweet
lout. K. Phil. I am perplex’d; and know not what to say.
likely to be successful? The devil (fays Constance) raises to your imagination your bride disencumber'd of the forbidding forms of dreis, and the inemory of my wrongs is lost in the anticipation of future enjoyment. Ben Jonfon, in his New Inn, fays:
io Bur. Here's a lady gay.
". Tip. A well-trimm'd lady !" Again, in the Tavo Gentlemen of Verona:
" And I was trimm'd in madam Julia's gown." Again, in K. Henry VI. P. III. act II:
“ Trimın'd like a younker prancing to his love." Again, in Reginald Scott's Discovery of Witchcraft, 1584 :
a good huswife and also well trimmed up in apparel.' Mr. Collins inclines to a colder interpretation, and is willing to fuppoíe that by an untrimmed bride is meant a bride unadorned with the usual pomp and formality of a nuptial babit. The propriety of this epithet he infers from the halte in which the match was made, and further justifies it from K. John's preceding words :
“ Go we, as well as hafie qvill fuffer us,
66 To this unlook'd for, unprepared pomp.” Mr. Tollet is of the fame opinion, and offers two instances in which untrimmed indicates a deshabille or a frugal vesture. In Minslew's Dictionary, it fignifies one not finely drest or attired. Again, in Vives's Instruction of a Chriftian Woman, 1592, p. 98,
" Let her (the miitress of the house] bee content with a maide not faire and wanton, that can fing a ballat with a clere voice, but fad, pale, and untrimmed," STEEVENS.