Pand. What can'st thou say, but will perplex thee

more, If thou stand excommunicate, and curft? K. Phil. Good reverend father, make my person

yours, And tell me, how you would bestow yourself. This royal hand and mine are newly knit; And the conjunction of our inward fouls Marry’d in league, coupled and link'd together With all religious strength of facred vows; The latest breath, that gave the sound of words, Was deep-sworn faith, peace, amity, true love, Between our kingdoms, and our royal felves; And even before this truce, but new before,No longer than we well could wath our hands, To,clap this royal bargain up of peace, Heaven knows, they were besmeard and over-stain'd With slaughter's pencil; where revenge did paint 'The fearful difference of incensed kings: And shall these hands, fo lately purg'd of blood, So newly join'd in love, so strong in boths, Unyoke this seizure, and this kind regreet" ? Play fast and loose with faith? so jest with heaven, Make such unconstant children of ourselves, As now again to snatch our palm from palm; Unswear faith sworn; and on the marriage bed Of smiling peace to march a bloody host, And make a riot on the gentle brow Of true sincerity ? O holy fir, My reverend father, let it not be so: Out of your grace, devise, ordain, impose Some gentle order; and then we shall be blest To do your pleasure, and continue friends.

5 so strong in both,] I believe the meaning is, love so strong in both parties. JOHNSON.

—this kind regreet?] A regreet is an exchange of falutation. So, in Heywood's Iron Age, 1632 : " So bear our kind regreets to Hecuba."



Pand. All form is formless, order orderless, Save what is opposite to England's love. Therefore, to arms! be champion of our church! Or let the church, our mother, breathe her curse, A mother's curse, on her revolting son. France, thou may'st hold a serpent by the tongue, A cased lion' by the mortal paw, A fafting tyger safer by the tooth, Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold.

K. Phil. I may disjoin my hand, but not my faith.

Pand. So mak'st thou faith an enemy to faith; And, like a civil war, set'st oath to oath, Thy tongue against thy tongue. O, let thy vow First made to heaven, first be to heaven perform’d; That is, to be the champion of our church! What since thou swor'ft, is sworn against thyself, And may not be performed by thyself : For that, which thou haft sworn to do amiss, * Is't not amiss, when it is truly done? And being not done, where doing tends to ill, The truth is then most done not doing it : The better act of purposes mistook

? A cafed lior -] All the modern editors read, a chafed lion. 1 fee little reason for change. A cased lion, is a lion irritated by confinement. So, in K. Henry VI. P. III. act I. sc. iii :

“ So looks the pent-up lion o'er the wretch

56 That trembles under his devouring paws &c." The author might, however, have written, a chafed lion.

STEEVENS. Cafed, I believe, is the true reading. So, in Rowley's When you see Me you know Me, 1632 :

The lyon in his cage is not fo ferne

" As royal Henry in his wrathful fpleene.” MALONE. 3 Is not amifs, when it is truly done :] This is the conclusion de travers. We should read :

Is yet amiss, The Oxford editor, according to his usual custom, will improve it further, and reads, molt amils. WARBURTON. I rather read :

Is't not amiss, when it is truly done? as the alteration less, and the sense which Dr. Warburton first discovered, is preserved. JOHNSON.

Is, to mistake again; though indirect,
Yet indirection thereby grows direct,
And falfhood falfhood cures; as fire cools fire,
Within the scorched veins of one new burn'd.
It is religion, that doth make vows kept;
9 But thou haft sworn against religion :


. But thou haft fivorn against religion : &c.] In this lung speech, the legate is made to fhew his skill in cafuistry:; and the itrange heap of quibble and nonsense of which it consists, was intended to ridicule that of the schools. For when he assumes the politician, at the conclusion of the third act, the author makes him talk at another rate. I mean in that beautiful paffage where he speaks of the mischiefs following the king's loss of his subjects hearts. This conduct is remarkable, and was intended, I suppose, to fhew us how much better politicians the Roman courtiers are, than divines.

WARBURTON. I am not able to discover here any thing inconsequent or ridiculously subtle. The propositions, that the voice of the church is the voice of heaven, and that the pope utters the voice of the church, neither of which Pandulph's auditors would deny, being once granted, the argument here used is irresistible; nor is it easy, notwithstanding the gingle, to enforce it with greater brevity or propriety :

But thou hast fworn against religion :
By what thou

swear'), against the thing thou swear'ft:
And mak'st an oath the surety for thy truth,
Against an oath the truth thou art unsure

To swear, fwear only not to be forsworn. By what. Sir T. Hanmer reads, by that. I think it should be rather by which. That is, thou frearst against the thing, by which thou fwear's; that is, against religion. The most formidable difficulty is in these linés :

And mak't an oath the furety for thy truth,
Against an oath the truth thou art unsure

To fwear, &c.
This fir T. Hanmer reforms thus :

And mak'At an oath the surety for thy truth,
Against an oath; this truth thou art unsure

To swear, &c.
Dr. Warburton writes it thus :

Against an oath the truth thou art unsure which leaves the passage to me as obscure as before.

I know not whether there is any corruption beyond the omission of a point. The sense, after I had considered it, appeared to me VOL. V.



By which thou swear'ít against the thing thou swearst;
And mak'st an oath the surety for thy truth
Against an oath : The truth thou art unsure
To swear, swear only not to be forsworn;
Else, what a mockery should it be to swear?
But thou doft swear only to be forsworn;
And most forsworn, to keep what thou dost swear.
Therefore, thy latter vows, against thy first,
Is in thyself rebellion to thyself :
And better conquest never canst thou make,
Than arm thy constant and thy nobler parts
Against these giddy, loose suggestions :
Upon which better part our prayers come in,
If thou vouchsafe them: but, if not, then know,
The peril of our curses light on thee;
So heavy, as thou shalt not shake them off,
But, in despair, die under their black weight.

Auft. Rebellion, flat rebellion !

Faulc. Will't not be ?
Will not a calf's-fkin stop that mouth of thine?

Lewis. Father, to arms!

Blanch. Upon thy wedding day ? Against the blood that thou hast married ? What, shall our feast be kept with slaughter'd men? Shall braying trumpets, and loud churlish drums, Clamours of hell,-be measures to our pomp? O husband, hear me !-aye, alack, how new Is husband in my mouth!-even for that name, Which 'till this time my tongue did ne'er pronounce,

only this : In fiearing by religion against religion, to which theu baji already fivorn, thou makejt an oath the security for thy faith against an oath already taken. I will give, says he, a rule for conscience in these cales. Thou mayst be in doubt about the matter of an oath ; when thou fiveareft thou mayst not be always sure to fwear rightly, but let this be thy settled principle, fwear only not to be forsworn ; let not the latter oaths be at variance with the former. Truth, through this whole speech, means restitude of conduct.



Upon my knee I beg, go not to arms
Against mine uncle.

Conft. Oh, upon my knee,
Made hard with kneeling, I do pray to thee,
Thou virtuous Dauphin, alter not the doom
Fore-thought by heaven.

Blanch. Now shall I see thy love; What motive may
Be stronger with thee than the name of wife?
Const. That which upholdeth him that thee up-

holds, His honour: Oh, thine honour, Lewis, thine honour!

Lewis. I musc, your majesty doth seem so cold, When such profound respects do pull you on.

Pand. I will denounce a curse upon his head.
K. Phil. Thou shalt not need :-England, I'll fall

from thee.
Const. O fair return of banish'd majesty !
Eli. O foul revolt of French inconstancy!
K. John. France, thou shalt rue this hour within

this hour. Faule. Old time the clock-setter, that bald sexton

time, Is it as he will ? well then, France shall rue. Blanch. The sun's o'ercast with blood : Fair day,

adieu ! Which is the fide that I must


I am with both: each army hath a hand;
And, in their rage, I having hold of both,
They whirl asunder, and dismember me.
Husband, I cannot pray that thou may'st win ;
Uncle, I needs must pray that thou may'st lose;
Father, I may not wish the fortune thine;
Grandam, I will not wish thy wishes thrive :
Whoever wins, on that fide shall I lose;
Affured lofs, before the match be play'd.

Lewis. Lady, with me; with me thy fortune lies. Blanch. There where my fortune lives, there my life dies.

F 2

K. John,

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