« ForrigeFortsett »
$ 835.1202 Accountable sealed radio
active sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive source shall be inventoried at intervals not to exceed six months. This inventory shall: (1) Es
the physical location of each accountable sealed radioactive source;
(2) Verify the presence and adequacy of associated postings and labels; and
(3) Establish the adequacy of storage locations, containers, and devices.
(b) Except for sealed radioactive sources consisting solely of gaseous radioactive material or tritium, each accountable sealed radioactive source shall be subject to a source leak test upon receipt, when damage is suspected, and at intervals not to exceed six months. Source leak tests shall be capable of detecting radioactive material leakage equal to or exceeding 0.005 microcurie.
(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section,
accountable sealed radioactive source is not subject to periodic source leak testing if that source has been removed from service. Such sources shall be stored in a controlled location, subject to periodic inventory as required by paragraph (a) of this section, and subject to source leak testing prior to being returned to service.
(d) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, an accountable sealed radioactive source is not subject to periodic inventory and source leak testing if that source is located in an area that is unsafe for human entry or otherwise inaccessible.
(e) An accountable sealed radioactive source found to be leaking radioactive material shall be controlled in a manner that minimizes the spread of radioactive contamination.
to return to work in radiological areas during the current year providing that all of the following conditions are met:
(1) Approval is first obtained from the contractor management and the Head of the responsible DOE field organization;
(2) The individual receives counseling from radiological protection and medical personnel regarding the sequences of receiving additional occupational exposure during the year; and
(3) The affected employee agrees to return to radiological work.
(b) All doses exceeding the limits specified in $ 835.202 shall be recorded in the affected individual's occupational dose record.
(c) When the conditions under which a dose was received in excess of the limits specified in $835.202, except those received in accordance with $ 835.204, have been eliminated, operating management shall notify the Head of the responsible DOE field organization.
(d) Operations after a dose was received in excess of the limits specified in $835.202, except those received in accordance with $ 835.204, may be resumed only with the approval of DOE. [58 FR 65485. Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 59687, Nov. 4, 1998]
8 835.1302 Emergency exposure situa
tions. (a) The risk of injury to those individuals involved in rescue and recovery operations shall be minimized.
(b) Operating management shall weigh actual and potential risks against the benefits to be gained.
(c) No individual shall be required to perform a rescue action that might involve substantial personal risk.
(d) Each individual authorized to perform emergency actions likely to result in occupational doses exceeding the values of the limits provided at $835.202(a) shall be trained in accordance with $ 835.901(b) and briefed beforehand on the known or anticipated hazards to which the individual will be subjected.
Subpart N-Emergency Exposure
$ 835.1301 General provisions.
(a) A general employee whose occupational dose has exceeded the numerical value of any of the limits specified in $ 835.202 as a result of an authorized emergency exposure may be permitted
(58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 59687, Nov. 4, 1998]
radionuclide and its corresponding DAC for
all radionuclides in the mixture. If this sum $835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. 'exceeds unity (1), then the DAC has been ex
ceeded. For unknown radionuclides, the most (a) Installations possessing sufficient
restrictive DAC (lowest value) for those isoquantities of fissile material to poten
topes not known to be absent shall be used. tially constitute a critical mass, such
The derived air concentrations (DAC) for that the excessive exposure of individ- limiting radiation exposures through inhalauals to radiation from a nuclear acci- tion of radionuclides by workers are listed in dent is possible, shall provide nuclear this appendix. The values are based on either accident dosimetry for those individ- a stochastic (committed effective dose equivuals.
alent) dose limit of 5 rems (0.05 Sv) or a non(b) Nuclear accident dosimetry shall
stochastic (organ) dose limit of 50 rems (0.5 include the following:
Sv) per year, whichever is more limiting. (1) A method to conduct initial NOTE: the 15 rems (0.15 Sv] dose limit for screening of individuals involved in a the lens of the eye does not appear as a critnuclear accident to determine whether ical organ dose limit.) significant exposures to radiation oc
The columns in this appendix contain the curred;
following information: (1) Radionuclide; (2) (2) Methods and equipment for anal- inhaled air DAC for lung retention class D, ysis of biological materials;
W, and Y in units of uCi/ml; (3) inhaled air (3) A system of fixed nuclear accident DAC for lung retention class D, W, and Y in dosimeter units; and
units of Bq/m3; and (4) an indication of (4) Personal nuclear accident whether or not the DAC for each class is condosimeters.
trolled by the stochastic (effective dose
equivalent) or nonstochastic (tissue) dose. [58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 The classes D, W, and Y have been estabFR 59687, Nov. 4, 1998]
lished to describe the clearance of inhaled
radionuclides from the lung. This classificaAPPENDIX A TO PART 835—DERIVED AIR
tion refers to the approximate length of reCONCENTRATIONS (DAC) FOR CON- tention in the pulmonary region. Thus, the TROLLING RADIATION EXPOSURE TO range of half-times for retention in the pulWORKERS AT DOE FACILITIES
monary region is less than 10 days for class
D (days), from 10 to 100 days for class W The data presented in appendix A are to be (weeks), and greater than 100 days for class Y ased for controlling individual internal doses (years). The DACs are listed by radionuclide, in accordance with $835.209, identifying the in order of increasing atomic mass, and are need for air monitoring in accordance with based on the assumption that the particle $ 835.403, and identifying the need for posting size distribution of the inhaled material is of airborne radioactivity areas in accordance unknown and an assumed particle size diswith $835.603(d).
tribution of 1 um is used. For situations The DAC values are given for individual where the particle size distribution is known radionuclides. For known mixtures of radio- to differ significantly from 1 um, appropriate nuclides, determine the sum of the ratio of corrections can be made to both the estithe observed concentration of a particular mated dose to workers and the DACs. Inhaled air-lung retention class 3
Inhaled air-lung retention class 3 Stochastic or Radionuclide uCimi
( DI WI Y)
1.E-07 4.E-07 3. E-06 7.E-06
1. E-06 2.E-05 2.E-05 2.E-07 2.E-06 4.E-06 3.E-05 5.E-05
1.E+05 1.E+06 3.E+05
5.E-09 1.E - 05 4.E-05 4.E-07 1.E-05 5. E-06 3. E-05 2.E-05 2. E-05 4.E-05 5.E-07 5. E-06 4.E-07 6.E -06 1. E-06 8.E-07 1.E - 07 3.E -09
2.E+02 4.E+05 1.E+06 2.E+04 5.E+05 2.E+05 1.E+06 7.E+05 8.E+05 1.E+06 2.E+04 2.E+05 1.E+04 2.E+05 5.E+04 3.E+04 5.E+03 1.E+02
/SuSt /Sust /St St /SVS Sust /SVSt /SUSI /SUST
/St/St St St
/SU SV SV
SU St St
/SU SVSUSt SVSUSt SVSUST SVSt St
4.E+02 5.E+05 1. E+06 1.E+04 3.E+05 1. E+05 2.E+06 4.E+05 9.E+05 2.E+06 1.E+04 2.E+05 1.E+04 3.E+05 4.E+04 6.E+04 8.E+03 3.E+02 4.E+04 5.E+03 4.E+04 1.E+06 2.E+04 6.E+07 3.E+03 1.E+06 3.E+06 2.E+04 2.E+04 5.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+05 3.E+04 4.E+04 1.E+04 5.E+05 3.E+05 1. E+04 5.E+04 2.E+06 6.E+05 4.E+05 8.E+04
1.E-06 8.E-08 3.E-07 3. E-05 3. E-07 1. E-03 1.E-08 2.E-05 7.E-05
4.E+04 3.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+06 1.E+04 4.E+07 5.E+02 9.E+05 2.E+06
4.E-05 1.E -05 1. E-05 3. E-06
1.E+06 5.E+05 5.E+05 1.E+05
Zn-71m Zn-72 Ga-65 Ga-66 Ga-67 Ga-68 Ga-70 Ga-72 Ga-73 Ge-66 Ge-67 Ge-68 Ge-69 Ge-71 Ge-75 Ge-77 Ge-78 As-69 As-70 As-71 As-72 As-73 As-74 As-76 As-77 As-78 Se-70 Se-73m Se-73 Se-75 Se-79 Se-81m Se-81 Se-83 Br-74m Br-74 Br-75 Br-76 Br-77 Br-80m Br-80 Br-82 Br-83 Br-84 Rb-79 Rb-81m RD-81 Rb-82m Rb-83 Rb-84 Rb-86 Rb-87 Rb-88 Rb-89 Sr-80 Sr-81 Sr-83 Sr-85m Sr-85 Sr-87m Sr-89 Sr-90 Sr-91 Sr-92 Y-86m Y-86 Y-87 Y-88 Y-90m Y-90 Y-91m
7.E-05 1.E-06 6.E-06 2.E-05 7.E-05 2.E-06 6.E-06 1.E-05 4.E-05 2.E-06 6.E-06 2.E-04 3.E-05 4.E-06 9.E-06
1.E-05 6.E-05 6.E-06 3.E-07 3.E-07 3.E-05 9.E-05 5.E-05 1.E-05 3.E-05 2.E-05 2.E-06 1.E-05 7.E-06 8.E-05 2.E-06 3.E-05 2.E-05 5.E-05 1.E-04 2.E-05 7.E-06 4.E-07 3.E-07 3.E-07 6.E-07 3.E-05 6.E-05 5.E-06 3.E-05 3.E-06 3.E-04 1.E-06 5.E-05 3.E-07 8.E-09 2.E-06 4.E-06
6.E+05 2.E+06 2.E+05 1.E+04 1.E+04 1. E+06 3.E+06 2.E+06 6.E+05 1.E+06 7.E+05 7.E+04 4.E+05 3.E+05 3.E+06 6.E+04 1.E+06 9.E+05 2.E+06 5.E+06 8.E+05 3.E+05 2.E+04 1.E+04 1.E+04 2.E+04 1.E+06 2.E+06 2.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+05 9.E+06 4.E+04 2.E+06 1.E+04 3.E+02 9.E+04 1.E+05
1 1 1 1
9.E+05 5.E+04 5.E+04 4.E+03 2.E+05 1.E+04 4.E+06
Inhaled air-lung retention class 3
Inhaled air-lung retention class 3
( DI WY)
5.E-08 3. E-06 1.E-06 3.E-05 6.E-05 1.E - 06 1.E-07 1. E-06 2.E -08 1.E-07 5.E-07 9.E-05 2.E-05 7.E-06 1. E-06 7.E-08 6.E-09 9.E-07 5. E-07 1. E-06 3. E-05 2.E-05 2. E-06 6.E -06 7.E-08 6.E-07 6.E-05
3.E+03 1.E+05 4.E+04 1.E+06 2.E+06 4.E+04 7.E+03 4.E+04 4.E+02 6.E+03 2.E+04 4.E+06 6.E+05 3.E+05 4.E+04 2.E+04 3.E+03 4.E+04 2.E+04 4.E+04 1.E+06 8.E+05
2.E+03 1.E+05 4.E+04 1.E+06 2.E+06 4.E+04 5.E+03 4.E+04 9.E+02 4.E+03 2.E+04 3.E+06 6.E+05 2.E+05 4.E+04 3.E+03 2.E+02 4.E+04 2.E+04 4.E+04 1.E+06 8.E+05 7.E+04 2.E+05 3.E+03 2.E+04 2.E+06
1.E-04 4.E-05 2.E-05 1.E-05 1. E-04 9.E-07 5.E-07 2.E-06 1.E-07 1. E-04 3.E-07 2.E-04 4.E-05 3.E-05 5. E-06 4.E-07 6.E-06 2.E-08 3.E-05 9.E-07 2.E-06 3. E-06 3.E-07 2.E-07 7.E-08 5.E-04 3. E-06 1.E-05 1. E-04 5.E-07 1. E-05 2.E-06 3.E-06 2.E-06 9.E-05 6.E-05 5.E-05 6.E-05 7.E-07 4.E-07 8. E-05 1.E-07 8.E-08 4.E-07
1.E+05 3.E+05 8.E+04 4.E+04 2.E+06 2.E+06 1.E+06 7.E+05 3.E+05 4.E+06 5.E+04 1.E+05 8.E+05 3.E+04 2.E+06 8.E+04 5.E+06 1.E+06 7.E+05 3.E+05 3.E+04 2.E+05 1.E+03 9.E+05 5.E+04 8.E+04 2.E+05 8.E+03 8.E+03 1.E+03 2.E+07 2.E+05 4.E+05 4.E+06 2.E+04 5.E+05 1.E+05 3. E+05 1.E+05 3.E+06 2.E+06 2.E+06 1.E+06 2.E+04 1.E+04 3.E+06 3.E+03 2.E+03 2.E+04
2.E-05 5.E-06 3.E-07 5. E-06 5.E-09 3.E-05 8.E-07 2.E-06 3. E-06 7.E-08 5. E-08 2.E-08 5.E-04 2.E -06 1.E-05 1. E-04 6.E-07 1. E-05 1. E-06 2.E-07 2.E-06 8. E-05 5.E-05 5.E-05 6.E-05 7.E-07 4.E-07 8.E-05 1.E-08 4.E-08 4.E-07
5.E+06 2.E+06 9.E+05 4.E+05 4.E+06 3.E+04 2.E+04 9.E+04 5.E+03 4.E+06 1.E+04 6.E+06 1.E+06 1.E+06 2.E+05 2.E+04 2.E+05 8.E+02 1.E+06 3.E+04 6.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+04 6.E+03 3.E+03 2.E+07 1.E+05 6.E+05 4.E+06 2.E+04 5.E+05 7.E+04 1.E+05 8.E+04 3.E+06 2.E+06 2.E+06 2.E+06 3.E+04 1.E+04 3.E+06 4.E+03 3.E+03 1.E+04
9.E+05 2.E+05 1.E+04 2.E+05 2.E+02 1.E+06 3.E+04 6.E+04 1. E+05 2.E+03 2.E+03 9.E+02 2.E+07 9.E+04 5.E+05 4.E+06 2.E+04 5.E+05 5.E+04 6.E+03 7.E+04 3.E+06 2.E+06 2.E+06 2.E+06 3.E+04 1.E+04 3.E+06 4.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04