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Inhaled air-lung retention class 3

uCumi

Inhaled air-lung retention class 3

Bq/

m3

Stochastic or

organ

D

W

Y

D

[ocr errors]

Y

( D/ WI Y

1.E-05

1. E-08 2.E-08

5.E-08 1.E -08

3.E-06 2.E-06

2.E-06

-2.E-06

2.E-05 1.E-05

1.E-05 1.E-05

4.E-06 3.E -06

2.E-06 2.E-06

[blocks in formation]

6.E-05 3.E -04 5.E-05 5.E-05 2.E-05 1.E-05 3. E-05 5.E-06 9. E-06 2. E-06 9.E-07 8.E-05 3.E-05 3.E-05 3. E-06 9.E-06 1.E-05 2.E-08 4.E-06 6.E-07 2.E-05 1.E-10 3. E-07 1.E-08 3.E-07 3.E-05 1.E-05 2.E-05 3. E-06 1.E-06 6.E-07 7.E-07 2.E-09 1.E-07 1.E-07 1.E-07 3.E-07 3.E-05 2.E-05 1. E--05 3.E - 10 1. E-06 3. E-08 8.E-094 3.E-084 2.E-07 3.E-07

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Radionuclide

5.E+05

4.E+02
7.E+02

2.E+03
5.E+02

9.E+04
8.E+04

6.E+04
6.E+04

7.E+05
5.E+05

5.E+05
5.E+05

1.E+05
1.E+05

8.E+04
8.E+04

2.E+05
2.E+05

/Su SV ! SUSU

SU SU / SUSU

SU Su 1 SUSU

/Su SV 1 SUSU

/SU SU SUSU

/SU St1 SUSU

/SU Sul SUSU

SU
SU
St
Sul
Su
SU

1.E+05
1.E+05

3.E+06
2.E+06

3.E+06
1.E+06

1.E+04
2.E+04

2.E+04
1.E+04

Hg-193 (Vapor)
Hg-194 (Org)
Hg-194 (Inorg)
Hg-194 (Vapor)
H9-195m (Org)
H9-195m (Inorg)
Hg-195m (Vapor)
Hg-195 (Org)
Hg-195 (Inorg)
Hg-195 (Vapor)
Hg-197m (Org)
Hg-197m (Inorg)
Hg-197m (Vapor)
Hg-197 (Org)
Hg-197 (Inorg)
H9-197 (Vapor)
Hg-199m (Org)
Hg-199m (Inorg)
Hg-199m (Vapor)
Hg-203 (Org)
Hg-203 (Inorg)
H9-203 (Vapor)
TI-194m
TI-194
TI-195
TI-197
TI-198m
TI-198
Tl-199
TI-200
TI-201
TI-202
TI-204
Pb-195m
Pb-198
Pb-199
Pb-200
Pb-201
Pb-202m
Pb-202
Pb-203
Pb-205
Pb-209
Pb-210
Pb-211
Pb-212
Pb-214
Bi-200
Bi-201
Bi-202
Bi-203
Bi-205
Bi-206
Bi-207
Bi-210m
Bi-210
Bi-212
Bi-213
Bi-214
Po-203
Po-205
PO-207
PO-210
At-207
At-211
Rn-220
Rn-222
Fr-222
Fr-223
Ra-223
Ra-224

2.E+06
9.E+06
2.E+06
2.E+06
9.E+05
5.E+05
1.E+06
2.E+05
3.E+05
8.E+04
3.E+04
3.E+06
1. E+06
1.E+06
1.E+05
3.E+05
4.E+05
8.E+02
2.E+05
2.E+04
9.E+05
4.E+00
1.E+04
5.E+02
1.E+04
1.E+06
4.E+05
6.E+05
1.E+05
4.E+04
2.E+04
3.E+04
7.E+01
4.E+03
4.E+03
5.E+03
1.E+04
1.E+06
6.E+05
4.E+05
1.E+01
4.E+04
1. E+03
3.E+024
1.E+03 4
7.E+03
1.E+04

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SU
SU
Su 1
SU /
SU
SV
Su 1
Sul
SU 1
St
Sv
SU
St1
SU
BS
SV 1
SV
Su 1
SVSU
SUSU
SUSU
SUSU
SUSU
SUSU
SUSU
K/SU
K SU
SUSU
SUSU
SVSU
SV SV
SUSV
SUSU
E SU
SUSU
SUSU

2.E+06
6.E+05
1.E+06
9.E+04
2.E+04
1.E+04
5.E+03
1.E+01
4.E+02
4.E+03
5.E+03
1.E+04
1.E+06
1. E+06
4.E+05
1.E+01
3.E+04
8.E+02

3. E-10
7.E - 10

1.E+01 3.E+01

[blocks in formation]

Stochastic or organ

1

[ocr errors]

Bq/m?

D

W

Y

D

W

Y

( D/ WI Y)

/SV
/SU
BS

/Sv
BS/SUS
BS/SUSt
BS/SVSt
BS/BS/St
BS/BS/St

/SUSt
/SVSt
/BS/St
/BS/BS
/BS/BS
/SUSt
/BS/BS
/SVSt
SUSt
/BS/St
/SVSt
/BS/BS
/BS/BS
/SVSt

/SUSt BS/SVSt SUSUSt BS/SVSt BS/SVSt BS/SUSt BS/SVSt BS/SVSt SUSUSt BS/SUST SUSVSt SUSvSt

/BS/
SV
/SV
/BS/
/BS/

Radionuclide

11

1.E-08
1.E-10
1.E-09
2.E-13
4.E-09

4.E+02
4.E+00
5.E+01
7.E-03
2.E+02

Ra25
Ra-226
Ba-
Ra-228
Ac-224
Ac-225
Ac-226
AC-227
Ac-228
Th-226
Th-227
Th-228
Ti-229
TH-230
Th-231
Th-232
Th-234
Pa-227
Pa-228
Pa-230
Pa-231
Pa-232
Pa-233
Pa-234
U-230
U-231
U-232
U-233
U-234
U-235
U-236
U-237
U-238
U-239
U-240
Np-232
Np-233
Np-234
Np-235
Np-236 (1.E+05

yr),
Np-236 (22 h)
Np-237
Np 238
No-239
Np-240
Pu-234
Pu-235
Pu-236

3.E-10
3.E-10
6.E-06
5.E-10
2.E-08
3.E-10
2.E-09
7.E-13
2.E-08
7.E-08
1.E-10
4.E-12
4.E-13
3.E-12
3.E-06
5.E-13
9.E-08
5.E-08
5.E-09
2.E-09
7.E-13
9.E-09
3.E-07
3.E -06
1.E-10
2.E-06
2.E - 10
3.E-10
3.E-10
3.E - 10
3.E - 10
7.E-07
3.E-10
7.E-05
1. E-06
1.E-06
1.E-03
1.E -06
5.E-07
1.E-11

2.E-08
3.E - 10
2.E-09
2.E-12
2.E -08
6.E-08
1. E-10
7.E-12
1.E - 12
7.E-12
3.E-06
1.E-12
6.E-08
4.E-08
5.E-09
1.E-09
2.E-12
2.E-08
2.E-07
3. E-06
1.E - 10
2.E-06
3.E-12
2.E-11
2.E-11
2.E-11
2.E-11
6.E-07
2.E-11
6.E-05
1.E-06

1.E+01
1.E+01
2.E+05
2.E+01
8.E+02
1.E+01
8.E+01
3.E-02
6.E+02
2.E+03
5.E+00
2.E-01
1.E-02
9.E-02
1.E+05
2.E-02
3.E+03
2.E+03
2.E+02
7.E+01
2.E-02
3.E+02
1.E+04
1.E+05
5.E+00
9.E+04
6.E+00
1.E+01
1.E+01
1.E+01
1.E+01
3.E+04
1.E+01
3.E+06
4.E+04
4.E+04
5.E+07
4.E+04
2.E+04
4.E-01

7.E+02 1.E+01 7.E+01 6.E-02 7.E+02 2.E+03 5.E+00 3.E-01 4.E-02 2.E-01 1.E+05 4.E-02 2.E+03 2.E+03 2.E+02 5.E+01 6.E-02 9.E+02 9.E+03 1.E+05 4.E+00 7.E+04 1.E-01 6.E-01 6.E-01 6.E-01 6.E-01 2.E+04 6.E-01 2.E+06 4.E+04

2.E-10
3.E -06
9.E - 11
5.E - 10
5.E - 10
6.E-10
6.E - 10
1.E-06
6.E - 10
8.E-05
2.E -06

6.E+00
1.E+05
3.E+00
2.E+01
2.E+01
2.E+01
2.E+01
4.E+04
2.E+01
3.E+06
6.E+04

2.E-08
2.E-12
4.E-08
1.E-06
3.E-05
9.E-08
1.E-03
7.E-12
1.E-06
3.E-12
2.E-12
2.E-12
1.E-10
2.E-12
1.E-05
2.E-12
2.E-06
1. E-04
1.E --06
5.E-06
1. E-06
2.E-12
2.E-12
3.E-08
2.E - 12
2.E--06
7.E-08
3.E-05
7.E-05
4.E-05

8.E-08
1.E-03
1.E-11
1. E-06
7.E-12
6.E-12
6.E-12
3.E-10
6.E-12
1.E-05
6.E-12
2.E-06

Pu-237
Pu-238
Pu-239
Pu-240
Pu-241
Pu-242
Pu-243
Pu-244
Pu-245
Am-237
Am-238
Am-239
Am-240
Am-241
Am-242m
Am-242
Am-243
Am-244m
Am-244
Am-245
Am-246m
Am-246

6.E+02
9.E-02
1.E+03
4.E+04
1.E+06
3.E+03
5.E+07
3.E-01
5.E+04
9.E-02
8.E-02
8.E-02
4.E+00
9.E-02
5.E+05
9.E-02
7.E+04
4.E+06
4.E+04
2.E+05
4.E+04
8.E-02
8.E-02
1.E+03
8.E-02
6.E+04
3.E+03
1.E+06
3.E+06
2.E+06

3.E+03 4.E+07 6.E-01 5.E+04 3.E-01 2.E-01 2.E-01 1.E+01 2.E-01 6.E+05 2.E-01 6.E+04

/BS/ /BS/ /BS/ ISU /SU /SVSt /SUSt /BS/St /SVSt /BS/BS /BS/BS /BS/BS /BS/BS /BS/BS /SVSt /BS/BS /SVSt /SU /BS/ /SV /SU /BS/ /BS/ /BS/ /BS/ /BS/ /BS/ /SV /SU /SV

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Cm-238
4.E-07

2.E+04

SU Cm-240 2.E-10

8.E+00

BS/ Cm-241 9.E-09

4.E+02

BS Cm-242 1. E-10

4.E+00

BS/ Cm-243 3.E-12

1.E-01

BS/ Cm-244 4.E-12

2.E-01

BS Cm-245 2.E-12

8.E-02

/BS/ Cm-246 2.E-12

8.E-02

BS Cm-247 2.E-12

9.E-02

BS Cm-248 6.E-13

2.E-02

BS Cm-249 6.E-06

2.E+05

BS Bk-245 5.E-07

2.E+04

St Bk-246 1. E-06

5.E+04

SV BK-247 2.E-12

8.E-02

BS/ Bk-249 9.E-10

3.E+01

BS Bk-250 2.E-07

7.E+03

/BS/ Cf-244 2.E-07 2.E-07

9.E+03 9.E+03

Su St C1-246 4.E-09 4.E-09

2.E+02 1.E+02

/SuSt C1-248

4.E - 11
5.E-11
1.E+00 2.E+00

/BS/St Cf-249 2.E-12 6.E-12

8.E-02 2.E-01

/BS/BS C1-250 5.E-12 1.E-11

2.E-01 4.E-01

/BS/St C1-251 2.E - 12 5.E-12

8.E-02 2.E-01

BS/BS C1-252 1. E-11 2.E-11

4.E-01 6.E-01

/BS/St Ct-253 8.E-10 7.E-10

3.E+01 3.E+01

/St St Cf-254 9.E - 12 7.E-12

3.E-01 3.E-01

/SVSt Es-250 3.E-07

1.E+04

/BS/ Es-251 4.E-07

2.E+04

BS Es-253 6.E-10

2.E+01

SU Es-254m 4.E-09

2.E+02

/Sv Es-254 4.E-11

2.E+00

BS Fm-252 6.E-09

2.E+02

/SU Fm-253 4.E-09

2.E+02

SU Fm-254 4.E-08

2.E+03

St Fm-255 9.E-09

3.E+02

SU Fm-257 1.E-10

4.E+00

E/ Md-257 4.E-08

2.E+03

/SU Md-258 1.E-10

4.E+00

/BS/ Footnotes for Appendix A

A determination of whether the DACs are controlled by stochastic (St) or nonstochastic (organ) dose, or if they both give the same result (E), for each lung retention class, is given in this column. The key to the organ notation for nonstochastic dose is BS= Bone surface, K= Kidney, L= Liver, SW= Stomach wall

, and T= Thyroid. A blank indicates that no calculations were performed for the lung retention class shown.

2 The ICRP identifies tritiated water and carbon as having immediate uptake and distribution; therefore no solubility classes are designated. For the purposes of this table, the DAC values are shown as being constant, independent of solubility class For tritiated water, the inhalation DAC values allow for an additional 50% absorption through the skin, as described in ICRP Publication No. 30: Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers. For elemental tritium, the DAC values are based solely on consider ation of the dose-equivalent rate to the tissues of the lung from inhaled tritium gas contained within the lung, without absorption in the tissues.

3 A dash indicates no values given for this data category. 4 These values are appropriate for protection from radon combined with its short-lived daughters and are based on information given in ICRP Publication 32: Limits for Inhalation of Radon Daughters by Workers and Federal Guidance Report No. 11: Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentrations, and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Inges. tion (EPA 520/1 - 88-020). The values given are for 100% equilibrium concentration conditions of the radon daughters with the parent. To allow for an actual measured equilibrium concentration or a demonstrated equilibrium concentration, the values given in this table should be multiplied by the ratio (100%/actual %) or (100%/demonstrated %), respectively. Alternatively, the DAC values for Rn-220 and Rn-222 may be replaced by 1 WL* and 1/3 WL", respectively, for appropriate limiting of daughter concentrations. Because of the dosimetric considerations for radon, no f, or lung clearance values are listed.

A "Working Level" (WL) is any combination of short-lived radon daughters, in one liter of air without regard to the degree of equilibrium, that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3 E+05 MeV of alpha energy. [58 FR 65485, Dec. 14, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 59687, Nov. 4, 1998]

APPENDIX B TO PART 835 [RESERVED] APPENDIX C TO PART 835—DERIVED AIR

CONCENTRATIONS (DAC) FOR WORK-
ERS FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE
DURING IMMERSION IN A CONTAMI-

NATED ATMOSPHERIC CLOUD a. The data presented in appendix C are to be used for controlling occupational exposures in accordance with $ 835.209, identifying the need for air monitoring in accordance with $ 835.403, and identifying the need for posting of airborne radioactivity areas in accordance with $ 835.603(d).

b. The air immersion DAC values shown in this appendix are based on a stochastic dose limit of 5 rems (0.05 Sv) per year or a nonstochastic (organ) dose limit of 50 rems (0.5 Sv) per year. Four columns of information are presented: (1) Radionuclide; (2) halflife in units of seconds (s), minutes (min), hours (h), days (d), or years (yr); (3) air immersion DAC in units of uCi/ml; and (4) air immersion DAC in units of Bq/m3. The data are listed by radionuclide in order of increasing atomic mass. The air immersion DACs were calculated for a continuous, nonshielded exposure via immersion in a semiinfinite atmospheric cloud. The DACs listed in this appendix may be modified to allow for submersion in a cloud of finite dimensions.

c. The DAC value for air immersion listed for a given radionuclide is determined either by a yearly limit on effective dose equivalent, which provides a limit on stochastic radiation effects, or by a limit on yearly dose equivalent to any organ, which provides a limit on nonstochastic radiation effects. For most of the radionuclides listed, the DAC value is determined by the yearly limit on effective dose equivalent. Thus, the few cases where the DAC value is determined by the yearly limit on shallow dose equivalent to the skin are indicated in the table by an appropriate footnote. Again, the DACs listed in

this appendix account only for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud and do not account for inhalation or ingestion exposures.

d. Three classes of radionuclides are included in the air immersion DACs as described below.

(1) Class 1. The first class of radionuclides includes selected noble gases and short-lived activation products that occur in gaseous form. For these radionuclides, inhalation doses are negligible compared to the external dose from immersion in an atmospheric cloud.

(2) Class 2. The second class of radionuclides includes those for which a DAC value for inhalation has been calculated, but for which the DAC value for external exposure to a contaminated atmospheric cloud is more restrictive (i.e., results in a lower DAC value). These radionuclides generally have half-lives of a few hours or less, or are eliminated from the body following inhalation sufficiently rapidly to limit the inhalation dose.

(3) Class 3. The third class of radionuclides includes selected isotopes with relatively short half-lives. These radionuclides typically have half-lives that are less than 10 minutes, they do not occur as a decay product of a longer lived radionuclide, or they lack sufficient decay data to permit internal dose calculations. These radionuclides are also typified by a radioactive emission of highly intense, high-energy photons and rapid removal from the body following inhalation.

e. The DAC values are given for individual radionuclides. For known mixtures of radionuclides, determine the sum of the ratio of the observed concentration of a particular radionuclide and its corresponding DAC for all radionuclides in the mixture. If this sum exceeds unity (1), then the DAC has been exceeded. For unknown radionuclides, the most restrictive DAC (lowest value) for those isotopes not known to be absent shall be used.

Air Immersion DAC

Radionuclide

Half-Life

(uCi/ml)

(Bq/

m3)

C-11
N13
N16
0-15
F-18
Na-241
My-272
Al-28 2
CH-381
Ar-37
Ar-39
A1-41
K-431
Ca-492
Sc-441
Sc-46m2
T-451
T-512

20.48 min
9.97 min
7.13 S
122.24 s
109.74 min
15.00 h
9.458 min
2.240 min
37.21 min
35.02 d

4.E-06
4.E-06
7.E-07
4.E-06
4.E-06
9.E-07
5.E-06
2.E-06
3.E-06
3.E+00
2.E-043
3.E-06
5.E-06
1.E-06
2.E-06
5.E-05
5. E-06
1.E-05

1.E+05 1.E+05 3.E+04 1. E+05 1.E+05 3.E+04 2.E+05 7.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+11 7.E+063 1. E+05 2.E+05 4.E+04 7.E+04 2.E+06 2.E+05 4.E+05

269 yr

1.827 h 22.6 h 8.719 min 3.927 h 18.72 s 3.08 h 5.752 min

Air Immersion DAC

Radionuclide

Half-Life

(Bq/m3)

V-522 Cr-491 Mn-52m 1 Mn-561 Mn-572 Co-60m 1 Ni-571.4 Ni-651.5 Cu-611 Cu-622 Ga-661 Ga-681 Ga-721 Se-731 Br-771 Br-801 Br-821 Br-841 Br-852 Kr-79 Kr-81 Kr-83m Kr-85 Kr-85m Kr-87 K1-88 Kr-89 Kr-90 Rb-811 Rb-822 Rb-881 Rb-891 Rb-902 Rb-90m 2 Sr-85m Sr-87m 1 Sr-921 Sr-932 Y-861 Y-90m Y-91m 1 Nb-901 Nb-94m 2 Nb-971 Nb-97m Mo-912 Mo-1011 Tc-951 Tc-96m1 Tc-99m 1 Tc-1011 Ru-1051 Rh-105m 2 Rh-1062 Ag-1082 Ag-109m 2 Ag-1102 Cd-111m 2 Co-1171 Cd-117m 1 In-113m1 In-1142 In-116m1 In-1171 Sb-1171 Sb-126m Sb-1291 Te-1331 Te-133m1 Te--1341 -1222 |-1281

(uCimi)

3.75 min 42.09 min 21.4 min 2.5785 h 1.47 min 10.47 min 36.08 h 2.520 h 3.408 h 9.74 min 9.40 h 68.0 min 14.1 h 7.15 h 57.04 h 17.4 min 35.30 h 31.80 min

172 s

35.04 h
2.1E+05 yr
1.83 h
10.72 yr
4.48 h
76.3 min
2.84 h
3.16 min
32.32 s
4.58 h
1.25 min
17.8 min
15.44 min
157 s
258 s
67.66 min
2.805 h
2.71 h
7.3 min
14.74 h
3.19 h
49.71 min
14.60 h
6.26 min
72.1 min
60 S
15.9 min
14.61 min
20.0 h
51.5 min
6.02 h
14.2 min
4.44 h
45 s
29.92 s
2.37 min
39.6 s
24.57 s
48.7 min
2.49 h
3.36 h
1.658 h
71.9 s
54.15 min
43.8 min
2.80 h
19.0 min
4,40 h
12.45 min
55.4 min
41.8 min
3.62 min
24.99 min

3. E-06
5. E-06
2.E-06
2.E-06
6.E-05
1.E-03
2.E-06
8. E-06
5. E-06
5. E-06
2.E-06
5. E-06
1. E-06
4.E-06
1.E-05
5. E-05
1.E-06
2.E-06
5.E-05
2.E-05
5. E-04
5.E-02
1.E-043
3.E-05
5. E-06
2.E-06
2.E-06
3. E-06
8. E-06
2.E-06
7.E-06
2.E-06
2.E-06
1. E-06
2. E-05
6.E-05
3. E-06
2.E-06
1.E-06
5. E-066
9.E-06
1.E-07
9. E-04
7. E-06
6.E-06
4.E-06
3.E-06
5.E-06
1. E-04
3.E-05
1. E-05
5.E-06
1E-04
2.E-05
2. E-04
1. E-03
9.E-05
1.E-05
4.E-06
2.E-06
2.E-05
1.E-04
2.E-06
7. E-06
3. E-05
3. E-06
3. E-06
5. E-06
2. E-06
5. E-06
5. E-06
5.E-05

1. E+05
2. E+05
7.E+04
7.E+04
2. E+06
4. E+07
7.E+04
3. E+05
2. E+05
2 E+05
7.E+04
2.E+05
4.E-04
1.E-05
4.E+056
2.E+06
4. E+04
7.E+04
2. E+06
7. E+05
2. E+07
2.E+09
4.E+063
1.E+06
2. E-05
7.E+04
7.E+04
1. E+05
3.E+05
7. E+04
3. E+05
7.E+04
7. E+04
4.E+04
7. E+04
2.E+06
1. E+05
7. E+04
4.E+04
2. E+056
3. E+05
4.E+03
3.E+07
3. E+05
2.E+05
1.E+05
1.E+05
2.E+05
4.E+06
1.E+06
4.E+05
2.E+05
4. E+06
7. E+05
7.E+06
4.E+07
3. E+06
4.E-05
1.E+05
7. E-04
7. E+05
4.E+06
7.E+04
3. E+05
1.E+06
1.E+05
1. E+05
2.E+05
7.E+04
2.E+05
2.E+05
2. E+06

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