VIII. Harboring against the Helvetians that

disastrous defeat of Lucius Cassius Longinus (107 B. C. near Lake Geneva) and the late attempt to force a way through the province, Caesar offers terms which the Helvetians re

fuse. Exit Divico. (14) IX. The next day the Romans engage in an

unsuccessful cavalry battle; then for fifteen days Caesar follows the enemy with only five or six miles intervening

between his van and their rear. (15) X. Caesar has corn on ships on the Arar

but can not use it because he is unwilling to retire from the Helvetians who have diverted their march from that river. He reprimands the Aeduans, through Liscus and Divitiacus, for not

bringing the promised corn. (16) XI. Liscus, compelled by necessity, dis

closes to Caesar the fact that some powerful private citizens are deterring the people from supplying the corn.

(16) XII. From Liscus, privately, Caesar discov

ers that Dumnorix, the brother of Divitiacus, for personal reasons is desirous of a revolution and is doing all he can against the Romans. He learns, moreover, that Dumnoris caused the flight of Romans in the late cavalry

battle. (18) XIII. For the sake of Divitiacus Caesar de

fers action against Dumnorix until the two first named discuss the case. Caesar asks that Divitiacus permit him either to pass judgment upon Dumnorix or to order the Aeduan state to do so. (19)

XIV. Comforting the grief-stricken Divitia

cus Caesar pardons Dumnorix, but warns him and sets spies over him.

(20) XV. That night, with the assistance of Ti

tus Labienus and Publius Considius, Caesar plans a battle with the Helvetians who have encamped at the base of a mountain [in the vicinity of the

modern Toulon] (21) XVI. At day-break Labienus holds the sum

mit of the mountain. Considius [who has seen other wars] mistakes Labienus's forces for those of the enemy and reports accordingly to Caesar. Labienus awaits orders for battle. Caesar withdraws to the next hill; unmolested the enemy move away [toward the northwest, intending to make the At

lantic Coast] (22) XVII. The next day, in order to get corn

[and to establish a new base for himself] Caesar advances to Bibracte. The enemy thinking it a retreat begin to

pursue and annoy. (23) XVIII. Caesar collects the baggage into one

place and draws up his forces [about 12 miles from modern Autun) on a hill; the Helvetians collect their baggage into one place and advance in a

phalanx to the Roman line. (24) XIX. Caesar removes the horses and en

courages his men. The armor of the Helvetians becomes a hindrance to them and they retreat to a mountain a mile away where they begin to renew

the battle. (25) XX. From noon till late in the night the

struggle rages. After the battle, dur


ing which the daughter and one of the sons of Orgetorix are taken, a hundred and thirty thousand

escape [toward the northwest] under cover of darkness. After three days Caesar

follows them. (26) 3. Close of the war. (27-29)

I. The Helvetian ambassadors come to

Caesar to talk surrender. While things are being arranged, after a night's interval about 6,000 men of the canton called Verbigene hasten to the Rhine

and the territory of the Germans. (27) II. Caesar orders that these be returned

[likely to be sold as slaves), and admits the rest to a surrender. The Helve-tians, Tulingi and Latobrigi must return to their territories and the Allobroges must supply them with corn. He allows the Boii to settle in the territories of the Aeduans at the request of the

latter. (28) III. In the Helvetian camp are discovered

lists from which Caesar estimates their

numbers before and after the war. (29) b. The subjugation of the Germans. (30-53).

Ambassadors from nearly all Gaul congratulate Caesar [on the outcome of the Helvetian war] and, with his permission, set a day for an assembly of all Gaul. They are ordained by an oath with each other to keep secret their deliberations except as agreed upon. (30) 1. Cause of the war. (31-37)

I. After that assembly the same chiefs

of states return to Caesar sadly. Divitiacus the Aeduan speaks and says that the Averni and Sequanians once [about 70 B. C.] called in the Germans for hire to help them against the Aeduans; that the Germans now hold a third of

the territories of the Sequanians and that in a few years the Gauls will have to emigrate unless the Romans aid

them. (31) II. The fact that the Sequanians present

are so silent and sad is explained by Divitiacus when he says that they dare

not complain even in secret. (32) III. Caesar cheers the Gauls and dismisses

them. To permit the Germans to hold the Aeduans (styled "brethren” and "kinsmen" by the senate) in thraldom seems to Caesar disgraceful; and to allow them to become accustomed to cross the Rhine seems dangerous, since they might not be satisfied even with all Gaul, and might very likely march into Italy as the Cimbri and Teutones

did [a half century previously]. (33) IV. Caesar asks Ariovistus for a conference

and receives a haughty reply. (34) V. Caesar then requires of Ariovistus that

he lead no more Germans over the Rhine and that he return to the Aeduans their hostages and permit the Se

quanians to do the same. (35) VI. Ariovistus replies that he will govern

those whom he has conquered as he chooses, and that Caesar may enter the

lists whenever he feels so inclined. (36) VII. At the same time Caesar receives this

message ambassadors, Aeduans and Treveri, make complaints to him and

he decides to hasten to Ariovistus. (37) 2. Progress of the war. (38-53)

I. After three days' journey Caesar hears

that Ariovistus is making for Vesontio. He himself marches day and night, reaches the town, and seizes it. (38)

II. While tarrying there a few days a panic

seizes the Roman army, caused by the report that the German soldiers are huge and of incredible valor. Caesar's men want to escape service, and wills are sealed throughout the whole

camp. (39) III. Observing this condition in his army,

Caesar calls a council and summons to it the centurions of all the companies. He reprimands them, and gives them to understand how confident he himself is in them, and says that he will immediately break camp to ascertain whether they will be loyal. He says that if no one else will follow he will

go with only the tenth legion. (40) IV. The minds of all are changed and the

next night at the fourth watch they set out on a route reconnoitered by Divitiacus and, on the seventh day of continuous marching, come to within 24

miles of Ariovistus. (41) V. At Ariovistus's request, they arrange to

have a conference within five days, and to meet each other accompanied by cav

alry. (42) VI. On a mound in a large plain they meet, midway between their camps.

Each is attended by ten men mounted on horses, while the remaining cavalry take their stand, each 200 paces from the mound. Caesar reasons with Ariovistus, touching the following:—that Ariovistus had been styled "king" and "friend” by the senate; that presents had been sent him; that these honors had come to him through the kindness of Caesar and the senate;

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