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erally quite small, and can prepare the meals as well! Then come home sanitation, personal hygiene—and here's the time for indirect moral training—for last of all, for girls of twelve and over, is the "little mothers' ” class, in which, by actual experience with real infants, the girls learn many essentials concerning their care, their feeding, their bathing, clothing, and so on. And here,
, in a "homey” atmosphere, with a little infant before them, is an amazingly effective time for little impromptu talks on the part of the trained nurse, the social worker, or the woman physician on hand, far more, intinitely more, effective than all the usual class room talks on sex hygiene in the world !
This, roughly, is a brief outline of the experiment that lately finished its third year of trial in Philadelphia, using two small schools in a poor quarter, one very large one in a foreign district, one “red-light” district school—though Philadelphia has practically eliminated red-light districts-and two large grammar schools, about the finest in the city, one more school being used for the girls' work alone. The system, taking up so many seemingly diverse and widely separated matters, has become a unit, so that physical culture aids in making citizens for the future, and the care of young infants acts for the welfare of homes that are to come. Out of an experiment in character training has developed a new method of anthropometry, an effective means for vocational guidance, and the finding that children learn far more by thinking out things for themselves than by being talked to. And this last is no mean discovery!
The Organization of Education
BY FREDERIC W. SANDERS.
(Continued from November Education)
$5. THE HIGH SCHOOL, SECONDARY DEPARTMENT, OR SCHOOL
When the high school, or school for adolescents, has been reached, the work should be arranged according to the annual, semi-annual or quarterly classes or terms, that are now usual throughout the whole school period. In order that the youth may get the greatest advantage from so much schooling as he may be able to get, wherever he may stop, and may have the widest possible field of study and activity before him at all times, there must be both system and elasticity; and after the first year of the high school it should be possible for him either to devote himself primarily to the acquisition of the necessary means for the broadest and most thorough culture—in which case his curriculum might correspond in large measure to the college preparatory courses in a few of the best academies, high schools and fitting schools of today—or to devote himself primarily to some one of the practical arts of life in which case his curriculum might be similar to some one of the courses of study given in technological, commercial, manual training, or even in one of the best trade schools. The extent to which elective courses should be offered by any given high school would of course depend upon the wealth and size of the community to which it might minister and by which it might be supported and upon local conditions generally, such as the predominant industries and the habits of life and the nativity of the principal elements in the population.
The completion of the work of the secondary transition department or its approximate equivalent in scope of work should be a prerequisite for admission to the high school proper.
The FIRST YEAR's work in the school for adolescents should consist of
a & b. English and history for five periods a week. At least
one period a week should be devoted to composition. In addition to this there should be some study of literary masterpieces. The work in history should consist of a careful study of some one period or institution, according to scientific method, so that the students might not only learn much of some one topic in history, but might also gain a general acquaintance with the sources of historical knowledge and the methods of historical research, and thus be liberated, on the one hand, from the credulity that accepts anything that is recorded in print or handed down by tradition and, on the other, from the injudicious, unenlightened “cheap” skepticism that condemns all history and tradition as wholly unreliable and characterizes it as a lying farrago of imagination and superstition. For this purpose and with a special view to the benefit of those who would never have any further formal study of history, a selection from the field of English or Grecian history might be found most advisable, but the selection should depend chiefly, I am inclined to think, upon that in which the teacher is best equipped, whether it be the reconstruction period of American history or the age of Assurbanipal. In a large school where considerable work in history can be offered, the student might choose his subject in history, but his choice should be enlightened by the advice of the school officers. Whenever a single period or institution is taken up for study, the teacher should not fail to devote one or more lectures to setting forth the relation of the special topic to the general course of human development.
A laboratory study in some one science pursued for four or five periods a week. This laboratory work should be supplemented by the presentation of a general outline of the science of which it should be a part. What laboratory science should be thus studied would depend, first, upon the resources of the school, and, secondly, upon the practical or scholastic career which the student expected to pursue.
d & e. Physical Culture (three times a week) and Art (twice a week). The physical culture should be adapted to the special needs of the individual ascertained by a careful examination made by a competent physical director. The art might take the form of drawing, painting, modeling, carving, music, or any other art which the taste and aptitude and life purpose of the youth and the resources of the school might render possible; or the student might comply with this requirement by the private pursuit
of some artistic line of employment not provided by the school.
f. Elective work to an amount not less than four nor more than ten hours a week, in the case of a normal youth, should complete the work of the first year of the adolescent department. In the case of a student looking forward to a technological, professional or university career, and generally in the case of all not compelled by economic necessity to denote these elective hours to special preparation for an immediate calling by the study of bookkeeping, typewriting, carpentry or some other commercial or technical subject, the first elective study should be mathematics (four periods a week) and the next should normally be a foreign language.*
Inasmuch as the student would presumably have studied one modern language throughout the four years or so of the intermediate, or elementary department (the "school for boyhood and girlhood proper"), and would thus have acquired a considerable degree of proficiency in it, I think that the student desiring a broad culture should be advised to make Latin the language choice of this year (devoting four periods a week to it and perhaps one to the continuation of the modern language he had studied in the elementary school). I recommend Latin, not because of its literary value, which seems to me markedly inferior to Greek and to the modern languages of the leading culture nations of our own day, nor because it is necessary for the acquirement of a notion of classical culture (which can be acquired in other ways, and in respect to which I would observe that the earnest student of history, literature and art whose studies are carried on through the medium of his vernacular, may be greatly the superior of the man who has studied Latin and Greek six or more years), nor yet because of Latin's supposed peculiar fitness to impart mental discipline (in which respect I fail to see any marked superiority over German), but because this language is at present a necessary tool for original research into the history of almost every institution of civilization and of every art and science that is not of very recent birth, and because as the source of a great percentage of English words and as a language from which words and phrases
• It would be difficult to overestimate the cultural value of the study of the language and literature of one or more foreign peoples, in enabling one to look at lite from a somewhat different emotional and intellectual standpoint from that of our own (Anglo-Saxon) civilization - its value, that is, in giving one a method of triangulation that will enable him to estimate more truly the magnitude, and the meaning of life.
are much quoted in the literature of our own and of all other modern languages, and as the basis of many important modern languages, including French, Italian and Spanish, and finally as a highly inflected language the grammar of which has been very carefully worked out and the structure of which is continually used for the illustration of philological and linguistic studies—it has a great many practical claims upon the present-day scholar, and its total neglect would seriously limit his efficiency as a student and investigator, and the fulness of his enjoyment as a man of culture. Once taken up, I think the study of Latin should preferably be pursued for three or four years (at least four periods a week), taking up Virgil the last half of the third year. I do not think a longer period than three years necessary for one who does not intend to devote himself especially to classical literature or to philology, and I believe that a shorter period of study—two years, or even one year, would not be without value.
During the first year of the school for adolescents at least, provision should be made for study under the direct supervision of the teacher, either by means of “double periods” (the students spending part of the period in a class exercise and the other part in preparation for the next day's class exercise under the eye of the teacher, thus giving the latter an opportunity to help individually those who need to learn how to study or who have special difficulty with the assigned task) or by means of a special hour with the teacher, to be assigned for those students who do not seem to prepare properly for the class exercise.
After this first year of the school for adolescents all but from six to ten hours, for physical culture, art and English, might be elective; election of course, being subject to the fact that a certain order of studies is prescribed by common sense and ordinary convenience when it has once been determined that given studies are to be pursued, and subject to the further fact that any intelligent education would naturally take the form of group electives rather than miscellaneous individual elections. Toward the end of the secondary course, however, all students should have a term's work in psychology, in political and economic science, and in the history of philosophy, if not a philosophic review of the history of civilization. Although the study of English should be pursued throughout the high school course, the time formally