Blue were her eyes as the fairy flax,
Her cheeks like the dawn of day;
And her bosom white as the hawthorne buds

That ope in the month of May. 3. What are the three essentials of literary style? Show by an original sentence how each may be violated.


(Outlines and Abstracts.) 1. Make an outline of any work read this

work read this year in your English work. Make an abstract of the plot of some story which you have read.


(The English Language.) 1. What elements enter into the composition of the English language? How was each element introduced into England ? Show the difference between derivation and definition by giving both the derivation and definition of the word language.

2. Name the principal Indo-European or Aryan languages. To which does the English language belong?

The Organization of Education


(Continued from December Education.)

As to the adaptation of the plan of organization to the various classes of young yeople.

Although most of what is to follow has been implied, if not explicitly stated, in what precedes, it would seem to be worth while, for the sake of clearness, to complete this exposition of the proposed system of grading, by setting forth with some particularity how it would apply in the case of different classes of young people.

SECTION 1. As to GIRLS. As to girls I have but a few words to say at this time. The course I have outlined seems to me to be equally applicable to boys and girls, although it was planned with boys chiefly in mind. I think we may take for granted that the work of the Play School and the Primary Transition Department should be the same for boys and girls, and that the classes in these first two departments of the school should consist of boys and girls together. A certain amount of training in the fundamental industrial arts would be a part of the curriculum in the first three departments for boys and girls alike, but it might also be well in the latter part of the curriculum of the Elementary Department to make the manual training work for boys and for girls somewhat different, initiating the girls more fully into the arts of homekeeping. Except so far as this difference in the work should make separation necessary, I think it would be well to keep the boys and girls in common classes throughout the Elementary School period. I confess that I have not yet given sufficient consideration to female education as such to speak with much positiveness about the education of girls after this period. It seems to me, however, that the curriculum hereinbefore set forth for the Secondary Transition Department and suggested for the Adolescent Department is equally applicable for youths and maidens, except, of course, that different electives would normally be advisable and that a course in home economics should be prescribed for girls in the first year or two of the Adolescent Department, if not also in the Secondary Transition Department. In view of the fact that continuous individual progress from year to year throughout the whole period of years during which the subject is studied,* rather than certain definitely prescribed attainments as the conditions of promotion from one annual or semiannual class to another, is the method I would have followed in the study of foreign language and mathematics in the Adolescent Department of the school, I do not feel that the differences in the rate of growth and in physical and intellectual vigor in adolescent males and females make separate classes in these subjects necessary. The instruction in these subjects, in history and "the humanities" generally, and in physical, as distinct from biological sciences, might well be given in common classes; but the instruction in human physiology and preferably all that in biology, should be given in separate classes, as well as the (prescribed) work in physical training and perhaps some of the advanced reading courses in the several languages. It seems to me eminently desirable, for the sake of that larger education for life which is of so much more importance than "book-learning,” that youths and maidens should have a part of their education in common classes; but such common classes should be so conducted that the girls should be subject to no serious disadvantage and to no embarrassment by reason of such irregularity in attendance as is physiologically desirable for them. Further than this, whether in mixed classes or in classes wholly composed of girls, the latter should be subject to no penalty for not taking review examinations or subjecting themselves to formal tests at fixed datest (provided, of course, that their daily work

Compare Search's "Ideal School" and Hornbrook's "Laboratory Method of Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Schools" for somewhat detailed expositions of the method to be employed.

+I would not have it understood that I regard examinations as useless or pernicious, as some extremists maintain, yet, as they are usually conducted, I regret to say that I believe they are more harmful than helpful to girls. The nervous strain is frequently very injurious, and the thought of a coming examination too frequently encourages an illiberal, literal method of study, to which in our present stage of culture, girls seem somewhat more inclined than young

On the other hand, the mental training that the review examination gives, which is so valuable for the man of affairs, the lawyer, the publicist, is generally less necessary for girls than for boys, unless the girls are preparing for the teaching profession. Yet it is for this mental training that examinations are primarily valuable. They are to be regarded more as a means of education than as a test of knowledge. Properly planned and conducted they are of great value in encouraging one to review, reorganize and summarize and thus make one's own-the facts and the underlying principles that have constituted the subject matter of one's study for a considerable period of time. And in addition to

shows that they are fairly attentive to their class duties). So far as such exercises may be necessary, they should be arranged for at the convenience of the girls individually. If these matters could not be arranged satisfactorily in common classes, the classes for youths and for girls should be separate. But in most cases I am of the opinion that they could be satisfactorily arranged. SECTION 2. THE NORMALLY DEVELOPING CHILD OF AVERAGE

ABILITY. The normal child might well enter The Play School (or Primary Department) at (four or) five years of age, and spend not less than two years there under the same teacher with a class most of whom would have begun their school life at the same time he did. At the end of two (or at most three)* years, his teacher would start with another class of beginners, and at the same time he and those of his classmates who had not already been transferred would pass into The Primary Transition Department where he would normally spend from one to two years under his second teacher, continuing the occupations of the Play School, or a part of them, under the same general methods.

As far as mental training and moral development are concerned, it might generally be possible for the child to take up the work of the Elementary Department, the school of boyhood and girlhood proper (corresponding in a general way to what in our American public schools is often called the Intermediate Department or grammar school,—the Play School and the primary Transition Department together corresponding to the kindergarten and primary departments of the present school system), after one year in the Primary Transition Department, or even immediately upon passing from the Play School. The object of keeping a child in the Primary Transition Department as long as two years (or longer) would simply be to make sure that he had completely passed through what is sometimes called the crisis of second dentition, the period of lessened vitality that often, if not always, marks this, it should not be forgotten that even "cramming" for an examination, although the knowledge thus gathered together and held in the mind for a few hours, or days (i. e. until the examination is passed) is then almost wholly forgotten, is by no means a valueless exercise. This power of gathering together in a short time, and holding in mind for a brief period, a large body of facts, is of great value to the lawyer, the statesman, the public speaker of any kind; and not only to the lecturer, but hardly less so to the reviewer and the Journalist.

• Whether two or three or two and a half years would be the normal term for the Play School must be determined by experiment. I am inclined to believe two years and a half will be found to be the right term.

that stage in the development of a child when his brain has approximately attained its full bulk and he is rapidly losing his first and gaining his second teeth. When this period of development has been safely passed through, and not until then, whether it be after one, two, two and a half, or three years in the Primary transition Department, and when the child has entered upon that period, generally marked by sturdiness and steady growth, described above as characteristic of boyhood or girlhood proper, as distinguished from childhood on the one hand and adolescence on the other, then the boy or girl should be advanced into the Elementary or Intermediate Department.

The subject matter and the method of instruction and training in the Primary Transition Department and the Play School, would be so similar that they might be conducted as one continuous class were it not for the necessity of meeting the various needs of children maturing at different rates of development and entering school at different ages, and were it not that in the Primary Transition Department the health of the child should be the primary consideration even more than in the Play School. In consequence of these considerations the treatment of the children in the Primary Transition Department would be more largely individual than at any other stage of the child's life prior to adolescence; and this department is especially designed to give to the curriculum as a whole the elasticity it should have, and with this end in view it affords the opportunity for considerable interruptions of the routine of school life in case such interruptions should seem desirable for any child. In the case of an especially delicate child the time covered by this stage of development could be spent in out-of-door life wholly outside the school, and the child of rich parents might be out of school at this time acquiring a foreign language by the natural, conversational method. During the two (or three) years of the Play School the normal course of development and unfolding of the child's mind should be carefully ministered to according to the best knowledge attainable in the light of child study and comparative psychology and physiology, and here the teacher's procedure would exhibit its method in a fairly regular and uniform progression. In the Primary Transition Department, however, while the effort should be made to keep the child from losing what it might have gained in moral training in the Play School, and to

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