II. When the Aduatuci see the vineae, and

a tower built at a distance by the Romans, they taunt and jeer from the

wall. (30) III. When the tower approaches their wall

they sue for peace, but beg to be allowed to retain their arms so that they may be able to defend themselves

against their neighbors. (31) IV. Caesar says that they must give up their

arms and that he will do to them as he did in the case of the Nervii: (Cf. Ch. 28). Peace is enjoyed for that day.

(32) V. That evening, as a precaution, Caesar

withdraws all his men from the town (which is a military mistake) and shuts the gates. The third watch that night the Aduatuci make a sudden sally upon Romans who rush out to meet them and, after slaying about 4,000 of them, drive the rest back into the town. The next day (for their treachery) Caesar breaks in and sells the spoil of that town (and sells the inhabitants into

slavery). (33) II. Publius Crassus' campaign among the states bordering on the (Atlantic) Ocean. (34)

(When the stronghold of the Aduatuci falls) Publius Crassus (Cf. Ch. 52, Bk. I) (who had been sent with the VIIth legion just after the battle with the Nervii on the Sambre a month before) informs Caesar that the Veneti, Unelli, Osismii, Curiosolitae, Sesuvii, Aulerei, and Rhedones have been brought under the

dominion of the Roman people. (34) III. Close of the conquest of northwestern Gaul. (35)

a. Barbarians (the Ubii in particular) across the Rhine

send ambassadors to Caesar as a result of his achievements, but because he is in haste to return to Italy


and Illyricum he orders them to return to him early the next summer (which is a mistake politically). He leads the soldiers into winter quarters among the Carnutes, Andes, and Turones (close to the regions where he has been waging war) and sets out for Italy. A thanksgiving of fifteen days (which is longer than any previous thanksgiving) is decreed (by the senate) upon the receipt of Caesar's letter. (35)

The Poet's Plea.
Ode to Maecenas, Book I, Ode 1, Horace.

Translated by Lalah Ruth Randle. "Oh, Maecenas, sprung from ancient Back to his battered ships, his former kings,

foes. Thou who hast in dire distress my Next comes the man who ne'er rejects stronghold been,

A cup of Massic, and who loves to be Thou, who hast in times more blest Beside a spring of sacred waters my glory seen,

And beneath a shady, spreading tree. Lend once again your ear.

The camp and blare of trumpets come,
And many answer to the call,

And in fierce war, by mothers loathed, There are among the sons of men

They find their greatest joy of all. Those, whom it pleases most

The hunter, mindless of his wife, To gather on their chariots strong

Forgets the darkening skies, The proud Olympian dust.

And seeks, throughout the long, cold And when the goal has been well

night, cleared

The deer with young, or boldly tries With hot impetuous wheels,

To snare the Marsian boar. Exalted are they by the palm

But, for myself, it ivy wreaths, Which Victory only deals.

The boon of poets, ever sweet, Among a crowd of citizens,

Shall crown my most desiring brow, He quiets them, and thence receives

And join me to the gods above, The three-fold honors which they give.

If cooling groves and Nymphic grace Still other men are pleased the most,

Divide me from the crowd debased, If, stored up in their granaries,

If kind Euterpe lends her flute, Whate'er is gleaned from Libyan

And Polyhymnia is not mute, threshing-floors

But still extends her Lesboun lyre,Is found—the man's proud boast.

If all this be, I ne'er shall tire And ne'er could one who loves to till

To sing my song, and I shall be His father's fields, be made to think

Most satisfied. That he should leave his native land,

Hence, Maecenas, sprung from ancient And, like a fearing sailor, stand

kings, On Cyprian bark, or cut the Myrtoum

If thou should'st deem me worthy to sea.

be placed The trader, trembling when the wind,

Among the lyric poets,-by thee led, Fresh from the south, with noise and

I'll touch the lofty stars with proud, din,

rejoicing head. Strives with the Icarian flood, Longs for the peace and rest,

-Lalah Ruth Randle. The calm and joy of home,

1354 Holmes Avenue, Springfield, III. Of earthly refuges the best;Yet soon, worn out, again he goes

American Notes—Editorial

The important subject of the treatment of backward pupils in our public and private schools is considered in one of the papers presented in this number of EDUCATION. We hope that all our readers will read and ponder the helpful suggestions which Mr. Gammans makes. His conclusions are based upon his experience as a special teacher for this class of pupils. It is very easy to dodge our responsibilities for the recovery and progress of pupils who have failed. It is a fact that the country is strewn with wrecks caused by the failure of teachers and other school officials to give the right kind of attention to those, who from some slight cause, got off their course, but who might easily have been set right again and so directed and helped temporarily as to have ultimately achieved a real scholarly career. The test of good schools, good supervision, good teaching, is to be found in the results obtained with the poor pupils rather than with the naturally “smart” ones. Yet this is so often and so easily forgotten! The temptation is well nigh irresistible to satisfy one's self with the brilliant achievements of the best scholars instead of doing the more dull and commonplace work of bringing up to an average those who are slow and hard to teach. Yet what school is there from which some have not gone forth from the latter class, who, under later and more favorable influences, have risen to eminence in political, social or scholastic lines?

The idea of a special teacher in every large school, whose special work it shall be to study this class of pupils, is one that commends itself at once to the thoughtful observer of school affairs. It should be adopted much more commonly than is now the case. Such a teacher should have an aptitude for this particular kind of work. He should be specially trained. He should have a liberal wage. He should work in perfect harmony with the entire school force. He should cultivate a personal acquaintance with the pupils. He should know them upon the street and on the playground. As far as possible he should acquaint himself with the home environment of those who are assigned to him from time to time for observation and help. The utmost tact should be used and no stigma should be placed upon assignments to his classes. They should be temporary classes and the "atmosphere” of them should be made wholly cheerful and encouraging. Oftentimes it will require but a few days to find out what is the matter and to remove the obstacle or give the inspiring impulse which will start the pupil on the right track and enable him to rejoin his class and to go on successfully with the regular work of the school.

Of course all this is the presupposed duty of the regular, the ordinary teacher and the creation of a special teacher for the backward pupils should not lessen one whit the regular teacher's ambitions to

do all he or she possibly can in a personal way for each and every pupil. But it is a psychological fact that nearly every teacher antagonizes one or more pupils. With the best of intentions no teacher can hope to get at every pupil in the best possible way. Personality is a mysterious thing and we have all known of cases where a generally successful teacher failed utterly in some one or more cases where there seemed to be no radical defect in the pupil and no reason why he should not have done well.

- Often a trained special teacher will be able to detect some merely physical reason for a given case of poor scholarship. It may be just poor food, or an unhygienic sleeping-room, or a habit of sitting up late at night, or the cigarette habit, or any one of a thousand things for which the special teacher has been trained to look. His office will contemplate the physical, mental, social, temperamental conditions of his pupils. He will study them with a loving spirit of interest and a lofty conception of the value of the work he seeks to do for them and for the social order in general. Let us have more special teachers. We shall then have better schools and fewer men and women who count themselves, and are estimated by others as dismal failures throughout their lives.

Except for New England, where the township plan' works admirably, county control of education is recommended by the United States Bureau of Education as an important factor in the improvement of rural schools. So says a recent Bulletin of the Bureau.

According to A. c. Monahan, author of the bulletin, the county is the unit of supervision in at least 39 States of the Union, and some form of county control of schools is now found in eighteen states. Comparing county control with district and township control, the "county unit seems to have most to commend it," says the bulletin, although the district unit is still the most common form of control for the country at large. The district unit of organization is in practice in twenty-eight states. Mr. Monahan's investigation shows that county control has been adopted by most of the southern states, while the district is the unit of organization in most of the states west of the Mississippi River.

In the New England States, where cities and incorporated towns are included in the township, and where the township is the unit of local taxation and local government in nearly all civil affairs, “township control has proved very satisfactory.” Where conditions are not exceptional, as in New England, Mr. Monahan finds that county control recommends itself because it is already the unit of supervision in most of the states; it gives the schools better support by giving the entire county the benefit of taxes paid by corporations such as railroads; it gives the schools better teachers with better salaries, yet the schools are run more economically; it removes the school from unwise local influences and gives opportunity for the selection of teachers from a wider range and upon their merits; it injects business into the management of the schools “with no axes to grind, no favorites to reward, a small board for all schools of the county provides the best possible schools for all the children.”

Illiteracy in the United States is doomed. Statistics compiled by the United States Bureau of Education for use at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, show that of children from 10 to 14 years of age there were in 1910 only 22 out of every 1,000 who could neither read nor write. In 1900 there were of the same class 42 per 1,000. If reduction in illiteracy is still proceeding at even the same rate, the illiterate children in this country between the ages of 10 and 14, inclusive, now number not more than 15 out of every 1,000.

From the standpoint of proportional reduction of illiteracy Oklahoma leads all the states of the Union. In 1900 this state had 124 illiterate children of the ages named. In 1910 it had but 17; Delaware had 20 in 1900 and but 4 in 1910; New Hampshire from 4 to 1; New Jersey from 7 to 2; Missouri from 35 to 11; Montana from 3 to 1; Oregon from 3 to 1; Vermont from 6 to 2; New Mexico from 182 to 69, and Idaho from 5 to 2.

The following states report only 1 child in 1,000 between the ages cf 10 and 14 as illiterate; Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, and Washington.

It is evident that the public schools will, in a short time, practically eliminate illiteracy among children. But according to Bureau of Education officials there are between four and five millions of adults that are illiterate and that can not be reached by the public schools. To wipe out illiteracy in the United States one of two things must happen: Either the country must wait for the generation of present adults to die off, or by some extraordinary means reach these illiterate millions.

On the basis of these figures Dr. P. P. Claxton, Commissioner of Education, estimates that with an average annual expenditure of $20,000 for 10 years he could put forces to work that would, by means of night schools and other agencies, eliminate illiteracy among the adults of this country. The Abercrombie Illiteracy Bill, H. R. 15470, now pending before Congress requires the Bureau of Education to undertake this work in any state upon request of the proper state authorities and makes an appropriation of $15,000 for 1915, $22,500 for each succeeding year until 1920; and $17,500 for each year thereafter until 1925, at which date, it is believed, illiteracy would be eliminated.

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