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Crowning pulleys when the amount of taper is given. Pulley speeds and belting. Cutting speeds and feeds. Ordinary threads, depths, pitches and leads. Multiple threads. Fractional threads. Gearing lathe for thread cutting, simple and compound. Gearing for spiral cutting, simple and compound. Simple and differential indexing. Angles by indexing, stag indexing. Spur gears. Bevel, worm and spiral gears. Corrected tooth parts of spur, bevel, spiral, worm and worm gears. Lead and angle of spirals. Cutting depth of bevel gears. Clearance on tools for cutting worm and square threads. Finding the cutter for spiral gears. Finding the angle for bobbing worm gears. Finding and solving triangles on blue prints.
There has been a steady improvement in the school instruction, the courses having been built up generally to meet the needs of the young men and not laid out in full detail according to preconceived ideas.
The course in applied science is given by a special teacher charged with this work: the practical instruction being given in a school basement shop equipped with benches, vises, forge, anvils, files, surface plate, lathe and various hand tools.
The study of machine tools and drawing has been conducted with constantly increasing success.
The English course emphasizes the practical necessities of machine work, and includes the writing of reports of shop operations, description of hand and machine tools, ordering materials, description of products, correct spelling and meaning of shop terms, keeping of notes, preparing specifications. The reading of trade, technical and wideawake general periodicals is encouraged, and the use of reference books is required. It is the aim of this instruction to make the pupils readers of good technical and general literature in after life.
In the course in mechanical drawing, the pupil is taught the use and making of sketches, working and detailed drawings, and blue print making. The detailed work includes the use of instruments, simple projections, projection at common angles, simple intersection of penetrations, elementary theory of developments, lay out of views, placing dimension and free hand letters. Pieces of machinery or machines are drawn from a data sketch. Practice is given in the designing of gigs and fixtures. Blue print reading is emphasized.
Free hand sketches are required, and working drawings are made from them.
In applied science, the general principles underlying machine science are studied both by description and laboratory practice, the practical inductive method is adopted.
In the course for machine study, two hours a week are spent in studying the machine tools and types of machines in the factory of the United Shoe Machinery Company and learning their detailed construction and operation. This is one of the most valuable adjuncts to the formal instruction, and is a privilege that would be eagerly sought by many journeymen machinists if it were open to them. By this means the most important operations in the various departments of the great shop are observed; and in the latter part of the pupil's course of study he can make selection of the kind of work that he feels would more particularly appeal to him as a field for his own labors. All this aids in turning out a youth with an all round knowledge of the machinists trade.
As a contrast to the shop learner who early specializes and spends his time on a limited class of work, the proportionate amount of time given to different processes in the shop by the boy in this school is shown as follows: Bench work, ....
15.0 per cent. Centering machine,
0.5 Chucking machine,
1.5 Drilling machine
.37.5 Gear cutting,
18.0 Milling machine,
.18.0 Planer or Shaper,
4.0 Screw machine,
100.0 per cent. The practical shop work is performed on a commercial basis and each piece manufactured undergoes the same careful inspection to which the regular out put of the shop is subjected. The school shop records show that 98.2 per cent of the school shop product passes inspection and only 1.8 per cent. is rejected. This is a remarkably high percentage when the high standards for the regular shop work are considered.
The United Shoe Machinery Company in purchasing the out put of the school shop at a fair stipulated price provides for the boy receiving some income from his school work practically from the outset. This income varies with the boy's attention to the shop instruction and his industry. But the amount that a boy earns is not a direct indication of his progress in learning his trade, for when he has become so proficient an operator that he can earn good wages, it is regarded that his shop instruction for that particular thing is sufficient and his work is changed to some new operation at which he can earn but little until he acquires considerable skill in it; then when he begins to earn good wages at this, his work is again shifted.
An industrious boy living at home can, however, earn his keep during the time that he is learning a good trade with a foundation broad enough to enable him to eventually rise to the higher position of foreman.
In the years 1911-12 the actual earnings of the part time boys was $7.50 per week of which the boy received $3.75 net. The average earnings of the full time boys was from .26 to .28 per hour.
In 1912 the part time, first year boys earned 7 cents per hour; second year 9 cents; and third year 9 cents. Averaging 8.7 cents per hour or $4.35 a week net. (The actual earnings being $8.70 per week). A gain of approximately a dollar a week from the preceding year.
During the year July to July, 1913, the attendance was as follows: In school at the end of the year, . :
56 Promoted to full time during the year,
14 Withdrew to enter other trades,
1 Removed from the city,
1 Dropped for inefficiency or truancy,
The attendance was 97 per cent. for the year, the absences from the factory being about the same as for the school.
Up to the middle of July, 1913, twenty-two boys had been graduated from the school and all of them took positions in the United Shoe Machinery Company's factory; and they are all satisfied with their work. Four of these young men have shown their aroused ambition by attendance upon higher technical instruction at the Franklin Union, the Lowell Institute and Wentworth Institute in Boston. That all of these young men should prefer to continue in this foster parent shop of which they have learned all the "outs” as well as the "ins” rather than seek a career elsewhere, shows that a feeling of loyalty must have been engendered, as well as the judgment that the wages were as high as could be expected, otherwise the sweep would not be so complete. This really remarkable loyalty shows that so far as the United Shoe Machinery Company is concerned the fears are unfounded which are advanced by many large manufacturing establishments that if they took up this manner of training youth in their special methods of work, they would have no guaranty that the young workmen would not ally themselves with other firms.
At the beginning of the year 1914 the number of pupils in the school were: first year, 12; second year, 26;
year, 16; fourth year, 4; total, 58. Eight of these boys were working on full time in the factory.
The pupils of this school have constantly before them as an object lesson the great factory conducted under the most ideal conditions both as regards working conditions and sanitation.
Fitness for carrying on the work under the most approved conditions has been the architectural ideal of the factory, and in this respect it stands in the van of American and European shops. Probably no machine shop in the country is more stringent in its inspection of its product than the United Shoe Machinery Company which sends its operating machines to all parts not only of the country but of the world. In variety of design and construction the product covers a greater field than that of any other shop. These two features add largely to the value of the training of the young men in this school, and set a standard of instruction that can scarcely be attained elsewhere.
Thus we find a community industrial school backed by state control and partly by state money, in which a large per cent. of the pupils in attendance by calculation, and probably more in actual fact, came from families in which one or more members were employed in the United Shoe Machinery Company's shops. So that there was a direct industrial connection between the pupil in the school and the employee of the shop.
The employee being a skilled worker, or he would not be an employee there, keeps in touch (at home) with the progress of his relative in the school and is capable of judging the progress of the pupil and his proficiency; and as the pupil advances, there will doubtless be many processes included in the school instruction which the employee may not have worked on, and so the school pupil may give the older worker the benefit of his experiences in the school. Thus the attitude of the older employee is both critical and inquiring. He knows whether the best practice of his own department is being taught; and he is enabled to get an insight into the work of other departments through the explanation given by the pupil of his school instruction.
In the case of the older worker his knowledge in the "theory" of his trade including calculation and working drawings, has been obtained through the long training of experience, and he can learn much from his inquiries into the systematic study of “theory” required of the school pupil.
The high average tone of the industrial community of which the industrial school now forms an integral part is indeed a revelation to the onlooker, until he is made acquainted with the fact that the average earnings of the employees reach the sum of $15.00 a week, an income unparalleled in industrial annals and made possible only by the high order of skill devoted to the work and the selective absorption and retention of the most competent workers.
This high intelligence reflects itself not only in the products of the factory, but in the social life of the workers and their families. This latter is shown to best advantage on gala days when there is in progress a base ball. game, athletic contests, motor boat racing and cricket matches, when the vivacious and progressive element assembles in the highest spirits and the automobiles are as thick as blackbirds.