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common. Dr. Kemény, of Budapest, who has given a historical survey of this tendency in a pamphlet bearing the title “L'enseignement international," quotes the sentence in which Dr. Harris summed up the import of this form of enlightenment. He said, "While individualism develops through education, at the same time through education, it makes the individual universal, so that the more free the race is, the more it participates in the life of all races on the face of the earth.”
Dr. Kemény refers also to the essays on the "International Mind” by Dr. N. M. Butler and to the work by Dr. Stein, Die Nationalïdee in Lichte der Soziologie. A pathetic interest attaches to the sentiment expressed by Herder, German poet and philosopher, that "the national will is a stage in the transition toward internationalism."
In spite of these eloquent tributes to high ideals, the world never seemed so far as it is today from realizing the spirit of internationalism.
INFLUENCES WORKING AGAINST AND FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. The suddenness and needlessness of the European conflict is in striking contrast to the efforts for promoting world-wide fraternal relations that were in full activity when the terrible call to arms in the early days of August startled the nations. The Rhodes scholarships furnish concrete example of an effort at promoting the international spirit in a limited but powerful sphere. "In a characteristic letter to the London Times, Dr. Parkin expresses the hope that the Rhodes scholarships for Germany will not be interfered with by the war. This suggestion, however, meets with opposition in university circles of Great Britain. As one critic observes, “It is one thing for the Rhodes Trustees to be willing, when the war is over, to go on under the testamentary plan, with
more German scholars. But for a long time to come it will be quite another to persuade the colleges to accept these Germans. The disciplinary risks would be altogether too great. Even supposing colleges were willing to accept the Germans, are they likely to be willing to come? For a very considerable time the German scholarships must be a dead letter.”
A wider and it would seem more effectual effort at developing the international spirit was the work of the Students' Christian Union, of which the moving force has been Dr. J. R. Mott. The enthusiasm which Dr. Mott everywhere inspires was evident in a recent meeting held in Balliol Hall, Oxford. Of this occasion a reporter writes "TO gather 400 undergraduates for a religious meeting is at any time a somewhat unusual thing, but it is especially so when that number means a third of those in residence. Dr. Mott held his audience completely, though his speech went well beyond the 10 p. m. limit which is tacitly established in Oxford; in fact, had he followed Chinese usage and spoken for three hours, as he told his audience had
been his custom in the East, he would certainly have kept a large part of his hearers.'
Notwithstanding the high hopes entertained by Dr. Mott as to the continuance of the work in France and Germany, there are sad evidences that it has been crippled if not practically destroyed.
The counter picture to this disruption of ties, which it was fondly hoped would be lasting, is presented in the growing spirit of union between the nations which preserve most completely the traditions of Roman civilization. A movement for promoting intellectual relations between France, Italy, and Spain has assumed definite form under the organizing impulse of the French leaders. For the promotion of these relations an office is maintained in Paris, and its influence is rapidly spreading to the states of South America. At the same time Spain and Portugal, both of which are gradually moving toward the realization of democratic ideals in popular education, has a similar organization called Ibero-American Union, in which all the Latin nations will participate and contribute to the cost of maintenance after the example of the Pan-American Union at Washington. The office of the former Union is established in Madrid and enjoys the support of the Spanish Government and the various chambers of commerce throughout the peninsula.
It is too early to forecast the possible effects of the war in cementing intellectual bonds between the allies, but it may be confidently asserted that the sympathies excited by the fate of Belgium will have a lasting effect upon the exclusive spirit hitherto cultivated in the two ancient universities of England. At the present time Oxford is asylum for about four hundred Belgians, most of whom are refugee professors. Necessarily the number of students is small, as the Belgian authorities wish to be in a position to call out all unmarried men between 18 and 30. Therefore not more than ten or twelve Belgian students are enjoying Oxford hospitality. The professors on the contrary, most of whom have passed the age of compulsory military service, have become, it is said "quite an Oxford Institution, bringing an element of charm and friendliness” into that center. The Union Society at Oxford has extended to all representatives of the Belgian universities the privilege of free use of the society's rooms, and has added to its list of papers the Indépendance Belge, which is now published in London.
THE POPE AS MEDIATOR. The new Pope, Benedict XV, attracts special attention as a possible factor in the eventual mediation between the warring nations, and consequently his preparation for the role is carefully considered. It is recalled that before he was archbishop of Bologna, he had exceptional opportunity for studying at first hand, the main problems of Europe, and as soon as he was nominated to the Papal chair, he selected for one of his councillors, Cardinal Domenico Ferrata, distinguished for his intimate knowledge of the traditional diplomacy of Rome. Prior to his elevation to the See of Bologna the present Pope had been employed at different times in delicate missions to Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and France, in which he showed great tact in efforts at harmonizing these several countries with the Papacy. He was a member of the committee on the revision of the sacred texts which held its important reunions at the University of Louvain, and, also, of the committee appointed for the investigation of Christian international law, which held a conference at Liége early in August of the present year. In all these relations he has been actuated by the conviction that the church has a high temporal, as well as a spiritual mission.
A. T. S.
The Frost Shade
The Frost Shade comes to the weed-patch by the wall
The Frost Shade serves the fairies in her home by the wool-flecked
tree, The best of the orange bitter-sweet that hung from the naked tree. She puts the fruit and the softest rind With cream, whipped light by the Northern Wind, In serving-cups of aster-shells—the daintiest prettiest kind.
The Frost Shade gives these favors—wild-carrot parasols white,
-Minnie E. Hays.
ROBIN HOOD. By Maude Radford Warren, formerly Instructor in English in the University of Chicago. Author of “King Arthur and his Knights." Cloth, 12mo., 290 pages, Price, 50 cents. Rand McNally & Co.
Intrinsically, Robin Hood is a book for children. Few reading books which attempt to adapt so-called standard literature to the comprehension of young minds have been so completely successful in avoiding manners of thought and style comprehensible to mature minds only. Few books in make-up and appearance so ably second the author's effort. The characters are distinct, and with the child's active imagination will become entities to impersonate and examples to imitate. The background is true in every detail and of unusual educative value. Local color is heightened by the old-time ballads and music, than which nothing is more truly characteristic of the life and spirit of a people.
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The many readers of Dr. Marden's inspirational and efficiency books will welcome this one from his pen, on such a practical and helpful subject as "Keeping Fit.” The book is precisely what its name implies—a plain presentment of the necessity of keeping one's mind and body in good trim, in order to do one's work properly. It is the modern business doctrine of efficiency applied to the individual.
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THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. Vol. XI. The Period of the French Revolution. Edited by Sir. A. W. Ward, Litt.D., F. B. A. and A. R. Waller, M.A. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Price $2,50.
There are fourteen volumes in this splendid set of books, giving scope for an elaborate treatment of English literature The plan of giving a volume to a given subject or period enables the student who is specializing to select the material that suits his need. For instance, the period of the Renaissance is covered by Vol. III. Two volumes, V and VI are devoted to the Drama, two, vols. XIII and XIV to the Victorian Age, etc. The present volume besides giving a full account of the development of literary composition and expression during the period indicated by its title, has very interesting chapters on book production and distribution and on children's books and school books of the period.
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The value of play as an educative influence is a modern discovery, and it is being, happily, introduced into the school and community life all over the country. Of course, it has always been with us. All young animals play. But its recognition and conscious evaluation are modern. This book is a thorough study of the subject by one who is well known to the readers of EDUCATION. The influence of play upon the physical, mental and moral life is strongly brought out. The best