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V. They tell Caesar that they will reply in

three days but he says that he can not promise not to advance his camp in the

meantime. (9) VI. The Meuse rises from Mount LeVosge,

receives a branch of the Rhine called the Wall (thus forming the island of the Batavi) and in about eighty miles more empties into the sea. The Rhine rises in the Alps and empties into the sea through several mouths. The inhabitants of the islands thus formed are supposed to live on fish, and the eggs of seafowls. (It is supposed by some that this

chapter is a gloss). (10) VII. When Caesar is twelve miles from the

enemy the ambassadors return and try, as he thinks, to gain time (Cf. Bk. I, Ch. 7). He arranges to confer with the enemy in assembly the next day.

(11) VIII. The cavalry of the enemy, one-sixth as

strong as that of the Romans, rout the latter completely, and Piso the Aquitanian is slain. (According to Caesar the blame in this case rests on the enemy.)

(12) IX. Caesar resolves to take whatever advan

tage he can of the enemy. The next morning ambassadors return again to Caesar apparently to acquit themselves of the skirmish of the day before, Caesar orders them to be detained and draws his army out for action. (Many blame Caesar for this. (Cf. Bk. III, Ch.

16; also Bk. I, Ch. 47.) (13) X. After an eighth mile march Caesar en

ters the camp of the Germans, routs them, and pursues their women and

a.

children with his cavalry. (This leaves an everlasting stain upon Caesar's

fame. (14) XI. The Germans, seeing their families

slain, flee in despair and perish in the Rhine. Those who had been detained in Caesar's camp remain with him at

their own request. (15) II. The crossing of the Rhine. (16-19)

Reasons for crossing. (16)
1. Caesar desires to make the Germans fear for their

own territories so that they will stay out of Gaul.
Part of the cavalry of the Usipites and Tenchtheri
not being present at the late battle have escaped
back into Germany. The Ubii (Cf. Chs. 3, 8;
also Bk 1, Ch. 54), have asked assistance against

the Suevi. (16) b. Method of transporting the Roman army across. (17) 1. (Although the Ubii promised ships for the occa

sion (Cf. Ch. 17).) Caesar decides to build a bridge across the stream (probably at Bonn). He

describes the structure. (17) Eighteen days beyond the Rhine. (1819) 1. Within ten days the bridge (at least a quarter of a

mile long) is completed (about the 21st of June) and the army led over. Several nations give hostages, but the Sugambri conceal themselves and their possessions in deserts and woods. (Cf. Bk.

III, Ch. 28.) (18) 2. Caesar burns their dwellings, cuts down their

corn, and goes into the territories of the Ubii who informs him that the Suevi have collected their families and their possessions into the woods. Having already accomplished the things for which he crossed the Rhine (Cf. Ch. 16), he

returns into Gaul and destroys the bridge. (19) III. Caesar's campaign in Britain. (20-36)

His reasons for going to Britain. (20)

C.

a.

1. In nearly all the wars with the Gauls assistance

has come from the Britains (Cf. Bk. III, Ch. 9). Caesar wishes to gain a knowledge of the land and the people, of which the Gauls and merchants know very little (It is also said that Caesar had the very strange motive of wishing to get pearls.)

(20) b. His preparations before departing. (21-22) 1. He sends Caius Volusenus (Cf. Bk. III, Ch. 5)

to visit the island, examine it as thoroughly as possible, and report immediately. Meantime he prepares to move against the Morini (Cf. Bk. III, Ch. 28, 29). Ambassadors come from the Britains and are kindly received by Caesar. Volusenus re

turns on the fifth day and reports. (21) 2. The Morini, without war, give hostages and Cae

sar prepares ships and makes ready to go to Britain with two legions. The rest of the army is left under Q. Titurius Sabinus (Cf. Bk. II, Ch. 5) and L. Aurunculeius Cotta to be led among the Menapii and those of the Morini from whom ambassadors had not come to him. P. Sulpicius

Rufus is left in possession of the harbor. (22) Caesar's operations in Britain (lasting about three weeks). (23-36) 1. Caesar sets sail about the third watch, reaches the

coast of Britain (near Dover) about ten o'clock (August 26) with the first squadron, and about three in the afternoon takes up a position with all his forces about seven miles (to the northeast,

near Deal) from where he first arrived. (23) 2. The Barbarians undertake to prevent the Romans,

who are at a disadvantage in such a position,

from landing. (24) 3. The enemy are driven back somewhat by the use of

slings, arrows and engines. Following the exhortation of him who carries the eagle of the tenth legion, the Romans leap from their ships and approach the enemy. (25)

C.

4. In spite of the fact that Caesar's men land disor

derly, and that the horses do not reach the shore,

he routs the enemy. (26) 5. The barbarians send ambassadors to treat for

peace. Commius the Altrebation (Cf. Ch. 21) is also returned and pardon implored for his treatment (Cf. Bk. III, Ch. 16). The chiefs assemble from all quarters and surrender themselves and

their states to Caesar..(27) 6. The eighteen ships which conveyed the cavalry

are overtaken by a storm (August 30), scattered, and some of them make for the continent in a

stormy night. (28) 7. The high tide (said to rise 19 feet in those parts)

comes that night with the storm, and the Roman fleet is all shattered. The Romans are at a loss.

(29) 8. Following this disaster the chiefs (of the Britains)

who negotiated for peace hold a conference, enter into a conspiracy, and secretly collect forces

against Caesar. (30) 9. Suspicioning that such might take place, Caesar

has been preparing so that, even after twelve ships have been lost, a voyage can be made well enough

in the rest. (31) 10. Seeing a greater dust than usual, the Romans dis

cover that the Britains have attacked the legion that went out to get corn, slain some of them and surrounded the rest with cavalry and chariots.

Caesar takes two cohorts into that quarter. (32) 11. Caesar describes the methods the Britons employ

in fighting with chariots. (Geoffrey of Monmouth cites this method of the Britons as an argument

that they were descended from the Trojans). (33) 12. Caesar's arrival puts a stop to the encounter and

the Romans return to camp. Several successive stormy days follow. The enemy collect a large force of infantry and of cavalry and come up to the camp. (34)

a.

13. The Romans attack the enemy, drive them away,

slay a great number of them, destroy and burn everything far and wide, and return to camp.

(35) 14. The same day ambassadors come to Caesar. He

doubles the number of hostages and orders them brought to the continent. A little after midnight the Romans sail for the mainland (a few days be

before the autumnal equinox). (36) IV. Trouble with the Morini (Cf. Ch. 22) and Menapii (Cf. Bk.

III, Ch. 28, 29). (37)

While landing part of the Roman forces are surrounded by the Morini who are in hopes of spoil (which they suppose Caesar is bringing back). Caesar's cavalry

drive the enemy away and kill some of them. (37)
b. The next day Labienus (Cf. Bk. I, Ch. 10, and other

places) takes the two legions just returned from Brit-
ain, against the Morini who almost all fall into his
power. (38)
Meantime Sabinus and Cotta (Cf. Ch. 22) having laid
waste the fields of the Menapii, cut down their corn
and burned their houses, return to Caesar because the

enemy have concealed themselves in the woods. (38) V. Close of operations. (38)

a. Caesar takes all the legions to winter quarters among

the Belgae. Only two (this gives Caesar an excuse for an expedition the next year) British states send

hostages. (38) b. Upon receiving Caesar's letter the senate decrees a

thanksgiving of twenty days. (38)

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